Endangered Species Friday: Dendrolagus dorianus
This Friday’s (Endangered Species Post) [E.S.P] I touch up on this rather unusual species of tree kangaroo that’s rarely mentioned within the world of conservationism. Furthermore I also wish to set the record straight about these wonderful and utterly adorable species of mammals which many people seem to believe are endemic ‘just to Australia’. This particular species is actually native to Papua New Guinea, generically identified as Dendrolagus dorianus. (Image credits: Daniel Heuclin).
Listed as (vulnerable), the species was primarily identified by Dr Edward Pierson Ramsay (3 December 1842 – 16 December 1916). Dr Ramsay was an Australian zoologist who specialized in ornithology. Among organisms Dr Ramsay named are the pig-nosed turtle, giant bandicoot, grey-headed robin and Papuan king parrot.
D. dorianus lives within a country of immense cultural and biological diversity. A country known for its beaches, coral reefs and scuba diving. Not forgetting the countries inland active volcanoes. Locals commonly identify the animal as the; Doria’s tree kangaroo or the unicolored tree kangaroo. Doria’s tree kangaroo is within the order of Diprotodontia, and the family identified as Macropodidae.
Since 1982 to 1994 the species has remained at [vulnerable level] of which back in 1996 a further assessment of the species noted a possible population decline. The decline prompted environmentalists to notch the species further up the list of [vulnerable species]. However a survey in 2008 concluded the species hadn’t as yet qualified for any further threatened status (E.g) endangered (which would unfortunately be the next listing should threats not decline in the wild).
Scientific research and population evaluations have shown a staggering 30% decline of overall wild populations which is quite a large population decrease, although “allegedly not concerning enough as yet to reclassify this particular specimen as endangered”. Yes its unfortunate that the current news relating to (decreasing populations), is indeed factual, and its likely (as explained), that should threats in the wild not decrease anytime soon, we could see a new extinction occurring in as little as ten years “if not sooner”. Populations are not known to be ‘fragmented’.
Image: Rare glimpse of the Doria Tree Kangaroo.
Identified in 1883 there are very few conservation actions actually known that could help increase declining population sizes which I myself find somewhat frustrating, not to mention perplexing, especially when one takes into consideration the current level of threats associated with this specie in Papua New Guinea.
Research proves the species inhabits some several protected national parks [NP’s], unfortunately extreme hunting activities I.e illegal poaching is still ongoing. While Anti Poaching Operations [APU’s] do exist, the fact of the matter is that Cites (The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species Wild Flora and Fauna), still hasn’t listed the species as (protected or endangered) on either Appendix I or Appendix II.
Image: Extinction may occur in a decade of not sooner.
To date the current population level is unknown, furthermore reproduction is also believed to be incredibly low and poor.
Known threats relate to the bush meat trade, which if not controlled will unfortunately push the species into extinction. Hunting with dogs, unregulated/illegal hunting is quite high and problematic within the region. Finally the species absolutely hates canines of which when threatened emits depressed vocalizations. Future threats have been identified as habitat loss and degradation.
The Doria’s tree kangaroo lives at elevations of some 600-3,650 meters of which is mostly nocturnal and a solitary animal. Dr Ramsay named the species after Professor Marquis Giacomo Doria (1 November 1840 – 19 September 1913) whom was an Italian naturalist, botanist, herpetologist, and politician of Italy.
Doria’s tree kangaroo is probably one of the largest species of tree kangaroos on the planet, although this is somewhat debatable. Weighing in at 6.5-14.5 kilograms, length is around 60-80 centimeters, with a tail length of some 40-70 centimeters. With a large tail, dense black and brown fur, large powerful claws and stocky build, the appearance of this specific animal almost appears to look like a medium sized bear.
Diet consists of leaves, flowers, fruits and buds, there is no evidence that suggests or points to any form of meat eating either. Gestation period of females is around thirty days, of which the ‘single young baby’ will remain in mothers pouch for around ten months.
There really is limited information about this specific species which could be due to the fact the species is actually very rare, nocturnal, and lives at moderate to high elevations within dense montane forests. I am asking the public to please share this article far and wide to help us push more awareness of this species into the public domain, which we hope will encourage (Cites) to protect the species sooner rather than later.
This article is dedicated to Ms Toni Devine, a wonderful young lady that absolutely adores these wonderful species of animals, who wouldn’t adore them, they are truly remarkable, intelligent, and in way more like cuddly teddy bears.
Chief Environmental & Botanical Officer
Dr Jose C. Depre
Environmental Crimes Investigator
Follow me on Twitter here: https://twitter.com/josedepre11
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[AID & HELP WITHDRAWN]
Wednesday 17th at 14:30hrs a member of our team was visited by the Anti Terrorist Police of the United Kingdom. The allegation that was made (and we know it was), as we hold that evidence, was in relation to our own desperate pleas to bring aid, veterinary assistant, and medication to suffering and starving animals at the Zoological Gardens in Yemen, Taiz. The allegation is listed below for your information based on a communication[s] made public on the 3rd or 4th February 2016. The complaint was picked from Twitter that we have been monitoring for some time. The officer and branch we have not identified in that communication. [See data below relating to that visit, names are withheld]. (Image: Third above party image not-related to I.A.R.F.A)
Image: Malicious complaints published on line, Anti Terror Police had to investigate.
BELOW WE’VE INCLUDED THE POST-IT-NOTE DATA RELATING TO POLITE QUESTIONING.
[Name withheld], [accused name withheld], [officer and dept name withheld]. “Hi I believe that [name withheld]”, is organizing a heavily armed gang of men, or is funding terrorists to commit terror atrocities within Yemen”. Please view the screen shots above that have derived from the complaint that forced officers to intervene despite their being no evidence whatsoever to then leave the note, and follow up with a visit Wednesday 17th 2016. Further to this under no circumstances has anyone of our team been convicted, or charged with ‘arson’, and even if they were how would that then come across to the Police as [concerning].
Image: Note from Anti Terror Police, relating to the allegations above on Twitter.
At approximately 14:30hrs, yesterday, Anti Terror Police visited a member of our team which was a polite visit, and was merely to ask questions. There was no arrests made, no action taken, nor was there any reason really for concern. However, due to the questions asked, and the mannerism of informal questioning from the Detective, related to the Anti Terror Branch, this has seriously impacted on our efforts to push help into Taiz Zoological Gardens. The reasons are set out below.
Yes we could have simply ignored this, and not have printed the above data. However when so called ‘animal lovers’ place legitimate legal operations in danger, they must be held accountable. While we fully support what the Detective Constable had to say, the DC did drop quite a few clangers. Those clangers I.e information which has intimidated a member of our team, has left us to believe [without a doubt], that the Anti Terror Police have conducted their own investigation before visiting, and may still be monitoring our systems. All of which is totally unnecessary!
Certain questions and remarks that were verbally communicated directly inform us that the Anti Terror Police have done more than “politely visited’. The visit in our opinion (was a mere gesture of letting us know they are watching us), or have been for some time. Below we have printed our response in relation to calling this project off. I.A.R.F.A of which has various skills in this area of rescue are deeply saddened.
- We believe that whatever help we offer or communications we publish, will be monitored.
- We believe that due to the interference from the two individuals that reside in the UK identified as Ms Cole and Ms McCusker that any actions we take, or data we publish could place our own team in danger, via the communication of malicious time wasting Police complaint[s]. A crime known as [Perverting the Course of Justice].
- Due to these [malicious communications], we have strong reason to believe that should we push help into Yemen, these two individuals could place peoples lives in danger via communicating their names, our project[s], or other, via further unproven, and more than inaccurate reports.
- We have strong reason to believe that should we ‘organize a team to move into Yemen’, which isn’t actually a criminal offence. The team may themselves come under Anti Terror Police scrutiny, investigation and/or questioning. Such reports could result in their names being published within media and press, which in turn could if they were allowed to move on into Yemen then seriously place their lives in danger of attack from terrorists. We simply cannot allow that, nor will we place environmental, veterinary or aid workers in danger of attack.
- Despite the fact we have been the ‘victim of false allegations’ you the [public] can still donate hereto https://www.generosity.com/animal-pet-fundraising/help-starving-animals-in-abandoned-yemen-zoo-now-2
The allegation made was indeed very cruel, and has unfortunately resulted in us pulling any help from Yemen, or even organizing via self funding a team to move into Yemen to help these very distressed, starving and sick zoo animals, (all of which is legal). The help was carefully organised of which we were deeply concerned that placing our ‘own funding’ to unknown individuals could result in that funding being sent to criminals to commit terror atrocities. Due to past issues with zoological gardens we decided to stick to our protocol of which was to visit, treat, and then find one out. All of which has been [ruined by malicious complaints and twisted so called animal lovers].
Image: Lion has since died, from starvation hence why we had to act to save others.
A meeting offline was organised today on behalf of the CEO. The CEO didn’t attend. The CEO and ourselves believe that under the current circumstances, and the fact further malicious complaints could be reported, down to innocent people being questioned. Then regrettably we have no other option but to quit this project and cease all communications to the United Nations, and further foreign individuals. Please do note though - there is a funding link above that you can send a donation to, which is UNRELATED TO I.A.R.F.A.
While we accept the current ‘concerns’, and why the Anti Terror Police did conduct an informal interview, after ‘some days of monitoring our own online activity’. There are many aid workers and rangers working in much dangerous countries than Yemen today as we speak. We know that our systems have been looked into, we even know that some of own emails and data online has been scanned by (Anti Terror Police).
Image: Yemen Zoo animals are fed when aid can reach them.
Anti Terror Police must satisfy themselves that no crime is being committed such as funding of terrorists to commit terror atrocities overseas, which we fully acknowledge, and do not blame them for conducting their investigation.
As of today we will no longer be conducting research into this zoo, nor will we be funding any operation or individuals whatsoever to move in. We are saddened that so called “animal lovers” have propagated such malicious complaints, and we are frustrated that so called animal lovers have since placed the lives of many innocent animals in harms way from real terrorists, and armed forces from Houthis and Islamic State. Not forgetting bombing raids conducted my the Royal Saudi Air Force.
Image: The zoo receives under $400 a day, many animals need help.
We are also ‘angered to the core’ that the British Anti Terror Police conducted an online investigation, monitored our systems, and “we believe placed spyware onto our systems to ensure that we wasn’t working with terrorists”. We do not under any circumstances accept that the Detective Constable simply wanted to “have a quick and polite chat”, we do accept that the constable was basically warning us that they are watching us, or would be. Although this is simply speculation, we will not, whatsoever tolerate an invasion of our privacy by UK and/or US Anti Terror Police.
Image: Fact-finding mission report: Number of animals in Taiz Zoo.
A polite email would have been suffice. further to this, the communication that was printed online clearly provides our details and whom we are (hardly terrorists), and what we were asking for. Lastly, if we were recruiting terrorists - we’d most certainly not be advertising about such monstrosities online via a pubic server, supported by over half a million people alone.
Today 18th February 03:18 local time, we now withdraw our help, and please advise the public to refrain from communicating emails to us regarding this zoo. We had only one further hurdle to overcome. Unfortunately that has been destroyed by evil, twisted and deranged cyber trolls. We simply cannot place peoples lives in danger in such ‘sensitive environments’ as explained. The zoo requires an estimated $700USD a day, however while we were prepared to fund, even send veterinary assistance within the zoo, we are not risking this, while other animals require our help. Further to this we simply cannot place wildlife crime investigations in danger of being ruined, or even delayed.
International Animal Rescue Foundation is not a terror organisation. We help many poorly equipped, underfunded, and damaged zoological gardens around the planet. We undertake various wildlife investigations providing INTERPOL, international and local police with our findings, yet we are being harassed more to say by the very people that were helping. Sadly we withdraw our help in relation to this zoo.
We apologize for the upset caused. We haven’t received an apology from the Police or what gave them [very good reasons to scan our systems, data, emails and more online].
Should you wish to fund this zoo yourself, then you can by clicking the image link below. While we ourselves support such funding operations, and have been provided with ‘more than enough data’, our main aim was to send veterinary assistants to the zoo, view what is required rather than provide funding to a cause.
You can place a donation hereto via clicking the link below in the image article.
Board of Directors.
CYBER TROLLING & HARASSMENT - WHEN WILL IT STOP?
Hi, my name is Dr Jose C. Depre. I run the International Animal Rescue Foundation, which is a self funded organisation founded by myself, and other [unnamed] environmentalists from around the globe. International Animal Rescue Foundation doesn’t ask for donations, however there are links upon our Facebook pages, and websites of which the public can send a donation. All donations go to good causes. Meanwhile, when or if we do urgently require donations, they are banked for anyone of the projects that we require urgent financial assistant for. Donations are then used for that particular [emergency animal or environmental project that we are trying our hardest to resolve], within some of the most hospitable regions on the planet.
Unfortunately even when we show evidence of expenditure, or projects that we have worked on to improve animal welfare past and present, we occasionally fall under some pretty nasty, and at times derogatory criticism from so called animal rights activists. The Vietnamese project of which we are still [self funding], and relying on public funding to establish this rescue has attracted some pretty nasty criticism, and lies from online cyber trolls. This particular project that is ‘now being fronted by the Anti Pet & Bush Meat Coalition has been attacked so much’, we have been forced to stop publishing help links online.
The reasons why we are asking for the public to fund this particular project is due to the fact that we run an [anti wildlife trade and environmental investigations organisation], and not an anti pet meat organisation (as a whole). Meaning that our main focus is that of environmental crimes and, the illegal. wildlife trade. From 2014-2016 we raised an ‘exact’ total of $2,141, which myself the CEO estimated from many banking records and electronic receipts a total of over $3,600 (EST). Regrettably due to the staggering abuse vomited at Intentional Animal Rescue Foundation when we parted from the organisation, (due to unprofessional misconduct from the founder Ms Brown) identified as (Say No To Dog Meat.Net). There hasn’t been a single donation wired to us from June 2015 to January 2016 of which is required to establish a veterinary center, rescue and rehabilitation clinic.
Since November of 2015 when I walked away from Say No To Dog Meat.Net I have been the ‘victim of harassment and cyber stalking’ by a woman identified as Miss Clodagh McCusker, from Belfast, Northern Ireland, that has taken cyber stalking, harassment, bullying and ground stalking to all new levels. Normally these special breed of people I ignore, I haven’t the time, nor day to explain myself or entertain cyber trolls, or respond to them. Miss Clodagh McCusker though has overstepped the mark. Miss McCusker has launched a ‘campaign of systematic abuse aimed at myself, my partner, my friends and even my own family’. Furthermore I am not the only victim of this woman’s anti-social cyber abuse. A Belfast citizen identified as Miss Helen Madden was also a victim of this woman’s vile, despicable online abuse. Please view the screenshot below from Helen Madden.
Image: Helen Madden names the online bullies that have made her life hell. See link.
I have no relation to Ms Helen Madden whatsoever, I do not know this woman however I was made aware that this kind, gentle and caring young lady helped out at a demonstration that I myself and my then ‘co-founder’ organised for the organisation Say No To Dog Meat.Net. Further to this Helen Madden was friends with another woman that helped at the Belfast demonstration back in April of 2015 identified as Ms Clodagh McCusker. When the Belfast Telegraph printed their story relating to the ‘alleged bullies’ above hitting on Miss Helen Madden, Miss Clodagh McCusker then replied with the comment below. I was of course shocked, and found this rather upsetting.
Image: Clodagh McCusker blames me for trolling/bullying a woman I don’t even know?
The screenshot above I actually found quite upsetting. I have never in my life met Miss Helen Madden, nor have I ever verbally spoken to this kind woman, apart from last week after the Belfast Article was published. So it kind of came as a shock to then see my own organisation, and myself (being named as the aggressor). Yet Miss Madden whom has some learning difficulties, then name and the individuals above (within the screenshot). The only comment that myself am guilty of is the article that was printed on our main Facebook page; International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa, with a further story hereto.
Despite the fact (I actually believed Helen, along with countless other people relating to ‘Helen Maddens allegations’ she then contradicts herself within the screenshot below. So the only person whom is lying here is not myself, but Helen as one can clearly see above (screenshot). I personally believe that Helen was lunged down on two of the cyber trolls above, and ordered to redact her statement. Helen doesn’t know myself, like I do not know Helen. However a certain individual I.e Clodagh McCusker, Anne McKinney, Etc do know myself (indirectly). From viewing the screenshot below, Helen has been asked/ordered to speak this utter nonsense, or Helen Madden has basically lied to a press officer. Either way, I want no part in these childish games, and will most certainly not, after trying to help this woman, then have my name slandered online.
Image: So either that are bullying you, or there not, and my involvement in helping you Helen is harassment? I think you need to step back, take a look at yourself and the damage that your causing. I for one know that Clodagh McCusker isn’t just a bully, but an obsessive lying fantasist.
Since November 2015 I have come under some pretty heavy, and at times disturbing trolling, all of which has been reported to my local British Constabulary, and the Police Service Northern Ireland Belfast. A further complaint was sent to Miss C. McCusker’s (ISP) Internet Service Provider, Gmail, and the Hate Crimes Unit. Lastly numerous cease and desists were electronically communicated to Miss McCusker asking her directly, yet politely to cease and desist, and refrain immediately from harassing me online. Please view the image screenshots below for your immediate information.
Image: Final warning to cease and desist sent via myself to C. McCusker
Image: January 20th 2016, yet another polite warning sent to Miss McCusker
Despite my repetitive attempts of which I politely asked this woman to cease and desist, refrain from communicating to me, even down to blocking her on Facebook, Twitter, and blocking her Internet Protocol Address [IP]. Miss McCuscker then drops a clanger, the clanger is that big, it left me with no other option but to then contact the Serious Crime Agency (SCA) commonly known as (SOCA), IC3, my own constabulary, and the Police Service Northern Ireland. The email below is in response to my polite emails above (two of many), do you the reader believe this to be from a responsible. mature, and adult person?
Miss McCusker threatens in one sentence: “I am looking forward to your move too Belfast, and a lot of people are awaiting your arrival, but don’t be expecting a welcoming party, and that’s a fact”
Miss McCusker then states: “I have never harassed Bethany, (that actually refers to my daughter). Miss McCusker then threatens: “I have form for contacting whoever Jon”.
Miss McCusker then threatens: Now how would you like it Jon if I contacted your mum from the UK, Christine, or Michaela.
Who in their right-mind goes after someone else’s innocent children (or family) just to troll another individual online? Firstly my name is Jose, and not Jon. Secondly my daughter has categorically stated that if Miss Clodagh McCusker contacts her she will be seeking an injunction against her. My own innocent daughter has also been forced to conceal her own identity in fear of her being exposed with lies. What type of (strange individual) goes after other peoples children (or family), whom they are not related too, to strike up a ‘very good relationship with’? Not only is that bordering child abuse and grooming relating to my own child, its also mind-controlling, unwanted, outrageous and totally inappropriate.
At no point have I nor anyone for that matter sought this woman’s parents, or threatened to contact them. However if this unwanted trolling continues, every-single communication will be sent to the parents should they be located, in the hope that the parents can help this rather disturb woman. (Please see the email below from Miss McCusker).
Image: Clodagh McCusker communicating threats to me and my family
Back in January 2016 I was THEN paid a visit by the local Police, to my temporary home that I am currently staying at before, hopefully, my final move to Northern Ireland. On the 24th January at exactly 20:00hrs I was visited by two members of the Norfolk and Suffolk Police. On allowing the Police officers within my home, I was told that the officers had been communicated a complaint from a Miss Clodadgh McCusker, Belfast, via the Northern Ireland Police Service. I was utterly flabbergasted, and shocked at the sheer fact the woman was now, not only communicating lies about me online, making threats to contact my family, but was now wasting police time via concocting malicious complaints..
A PC and PSCO then asked me to consent [voluntary] a search of my home, of which they were looking for ‘evidence relating to money laundering and serious fraud’. I verbally communicated to the Police that this was the second such time my premises had been [searched], on the orders of other Police Departments, relating to ‘fraud’, via malicious complaints. Further to this I instructed the Police to contact the HMRC, and the Serious Fraud Agency, which would have proved my innocence.
The Police were looking for ‘fraudulent banking papers, and anything that would have proven I was indeed guilty of a crime. The images below clearly show [no evidence was located], yet the Police didn’t even bother to arrest this disturb woman for communication of a malicious time wasting complaint. So not only am I being threatened, trolled, my family now the victim of this ‘mentally deranged psychopath’, I am now fearing my door being kicked in from the Police via the communication of (false and unproven lies). I mean, who does that, who wastes Police officers time, who in the ‘animal rights community’ makes up such absurd lies, then basically admits to them in her Gmail emails. Clearly this woman, who craves attention!
Image: Search Warrant: No evidence of wrongdoing located (malicious complaint)
Image: If I had anything to hide I.e Paper money trails, I’d not have consented to a search
But what does all of this have to do with animal rights?, good question. It seems that within the animal rights forum of which I am not nor will I ever be a member of, there is this [egomania issue]. Leaving aside Clodagh’s attraction to myself, which is the reason for all of this above, and not fraud, deception, or womanizing. Anyone that is seen as being successful, is either attacked, belittled, or slammed down by [cyber trolls].
In the case of Clodagh though, she is simply jealous that I am in a relation with a super stunning woman, whom she stated to me numerous times (to stay well clear of). Fortunately I do my own thinking for oneself, and if I see danger, then I will jolly well stay clear of it. Clodagh on the other hand has this fascination with myself, which I can kind of see now why. I complimented her on her looks (out of politeness), and generally spoke to her (giving her attention which clearly someone is not providing). Upon me leaving Say No To Dog Meat.Net, and then my blocking of this woman from my Facebook profile I was then set upon by her and her dog Anne McKinney, (another woman that I have never met or spoken too).
Image: I blocked Clodagh on Twitter, and Facebook, yet this is the reply given?
Despite blocking this woman on various platforms and trying to ignore her, she continues her utmost best to still tag me even on Twitter where I have her blocked. @JoseDepre11 is my Twitter name. One thing I point to here, is how is this woman able to view my profiles, when I have her blocked? Ms McCusker states that I am harassing her, yet clearly in the images below, one can see otherwise. Surely if someone is being harassed, then why continue to indirectly, and directly harass myself, my friends, my family, partner and communicate false malicious police complaints?
Image: Intimidation aimed at myself via allegedly contacting my daughter of unknown origin.
The image above was posted by Anne McKinney, made my Mr Price. As one can see they have been trolling my Facebook platform, despite the fact both of them are blocked. They then go on to state that my daughter [unnamed] states I have been in and out of prison. I can rightly now obtain a Police record that clearly shows I have never been in prison. Quite obviously they know diddlysquat about me, yet are acting so immature as to incite hate, thus making me appear to be some type of arsonist, that goes by the name of Jon (who hates his children)?. “I’m always in prison”? Who in their right mind, at the age of 36 and 51 years of age deliberately concocts such utter childish drivel? (Attention Seeking, as this is what some of the so called Animal Rights Activists do, or should I say, they have nothing better to do than talk utter waffle all day). Further to this - such malicious communications on line can lead to me or anyone innocently being labeled ‘beaten or killed’, how would these two so called women feel then with a murder/manslaughter charge on their head?
Since November 2015 to date I have complained to Facebook and Twitter. Furthermore the Police and other agencies that are now taking these allegations very seriously. Unfortunately the issue with Facebook and Twitter is an ongoing battle. The evidence below clearly shows just how many times I have reported Miss McCusker, and still she continues. In total 19 removals of my images, and more, below are just a handful of screenshots.
Image: Miss McCusker’s Facebook page, I had to report on at least 19 separate occasions for theft of my own data, images and posting sensitive materials.
Image: December she re-posts further libel.
Image: December 16th - further theft of my images removed
So Miss McCusker and her chums have moved on to Twitter, where they seem to think that posting on this platform grants them immunity. Which for now it may well do. Unfortunately regardless of how much nonsense she Tweets, the fact of the matter here is that she is committing a crime. So what next?
The law is next, and since December I have now logged over 308 separate (evidence screenshots) of (direct cyber harassment, unwanted communications, libel, threats, indirect harassment, communications sent to relatives, and direct inciting of violence/and/or/hate onto Twitter and Facebook, down to Gmail). There’s more too.
The Protection from Harassment Order 1997 (Northern Ireland) is similar to the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (England and Wales). To view the legislation is Northern Ireland visit http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk and search under Protection from Harassment Order
I am being harassed by some narcissistic lunatic, and if you think the data above is (tame or even concerning), you’ve not seen nothing. The vicious and outlandish communications this troll has sent me directly and indirectly via the [animal rights movement] is outrageous. Lastly what TYPE of so called ACTIVIST intimidates CHILDREN and HARASSES THEM? Clearly those with nothing better to do, living in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
I will continue to ignore this troll, which is the only thing one can do. However documenting on her behavior is critically important. If my life is placed in danger via inciting hate, inciting violence, stating I am an abusive father, or anything other - you’ll sure to hell know if I am to vanish, this is whom is to blame. I have asked repeatedly for this troll to leave alone.. Sadly she’ll not stop until someone is seriously hurt, and here’s me thinking that animal rights activists are not not into [violence] sigh.
Despite trying to do my job accordingly all of which is funded by myself. I now have Ms Clodagh McCusker and her new found chum Miss Karen Cole stating that I am recruiting an ‘armed and dangerous gang’. The very armed and dangerous gang that hopefully will be shielding teams of vets, environmentalists, and carers from being attacked by terrorists. Please view the screenshot below [clearly this woman also like Miss McCusker has issues].
Image: Karen Cole runs the Twitter account for NotForMeat
What is Karen Cole and Miss McCusker speaking of though? Lets take a look at how lurid, immature, and utterly pathetic these trolls are dropping too. Further to this allegation, its allegations such as this, that if aimed at the Police would unfortunately the [via malicious time wasting allegation] see Police act with an [armed response unit], at myself, in the belief that I am in some way recruiting terrorists for overseas illegal actions. (And here is me believing this woman is SANE). Please view the screenshot below that was posted by myself in relation to the ongoing situation in Taiz, Yemen, Zoo.
Image: Why would a so called animal lover Karen ‘stalker troll’ and Clodagh McCusker NOT want us to fund a volunteer unit to help these animals and save innocent people from being murdered. Do these two girls honestly think that Taiz, Yemen is some kind of playground? Looks that way. What Karen Cole and Clodagh McCusker are trying their utmost hardest to do, is to have me arrested, via concocting MORE complete crap, false Police complaints of which the Police if not provided the truth from the (source), would see this as me training armed gangs. Not much of an animal lover are you Ms Cole or McCusker. Please click the link below.
SOURCE INTERNATIONAL ANIMAL RESCUE FOUNDATION AFRICA
TWITTER TROLLING ACCOUNTS THAT REQUIRE IMMEDIATE TERMINATION.
Anne McKinney: https://twitter.com/Annemck0 (Belfast)
Clodagh McCusker: https://twitter.com/clodaghmccusker (Belfast)
Karen Cole: https://twitter.com/SaveStBernards (France)
Karen and daughters Twitter account: https://twitter.com/_AnimalBuddy (France & UK)
Thomas Price: https://twitter.com/canklehunter/with_replies (Australia)
Thomas Price: https://twitter.com/GelatiJam (Australia)
Robert Lyons: https://twitter.com/Robertlyons1902 (London)
Dr Jose C. Depre
Endangered Species Friday: Aquila nipalensis
This Fridays (ESP) - Endangered Species Post is dedicated to the A. nipalensis, commonly known as the Steppe Eagle, identified back in 1833. Image credit: Kartik Patel
The Steppe Eagle was formally identified by Dr Brian Houghton Hodgson (1 February 1800 or more likely 1801 – 23 May 1894) was a pioneer naturalist and ethnologist working in India and Nepal where he was a British Resident. He described numerous species of birds and mammals from the Himalayas, and several birds were named after him by others such as Edward Blyth.
Dr Brian H. Hodgson was a scholar of Tibetan Buddhism and wrote extensively on a range of topics relating to linguistics and religion. He was an opponent of the British proposal to introduce English as the official medium of instruction in Indian schools. Had Dr H. Hodgson not introduced English into the many Indian schools, its very likely very few Indian citizens would today know how to speak the English language.
A. nipalensis is listed as (endangered), although its likely the predatory eagle will soon be relisted as (critically endangered), should conservation efforts not improve the current status of this remarkable bird of prey, however this particular bird is somewhat of a mystery.
The major reason why this species is listed as (endangered) which was only recently, is primarily due to wind farming of which birds are reported to fly directly into large structural turbines, which unfortunately, results in their death, or serious injury. Birds that are rescued suffering serious trauma are rarely released back into the wild, or make a full recovery.
From 1988 to 2000 the species was listed as (lower risk). Then from 2003 to 2014 the species remained at (least concern). A risk assessment conducted last year (2015), concluded that the species qualified for (endangered status). Which is somewhat concerning. To date we know the species has already been pushed into regional extinction in the countries identified as; Moldova and Romania. Today the species still remains endemic within the following countries;
Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Bhutan; Botswana; Bulgaria; China; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Georgia; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Malawi; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Qatar; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia and finally Zimbabwe.
Aquila nipalensis is also a vagrant visitor to most of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, South East Asia, Southern and Eastern Africa, ranging from Spain; Norway; France; Germany; Finland, Korea; Somalia; Slovakia Etc. Continued rate of decline is (unknown), which is concerning bird lovers and conservationists. Data recorded from the last assessment back in (2015), stated that populations are declining very rapidly.
There seems to have been some perplexing information from the last assessment (before 2015’s) relating to population trend conducted we believe in (2010 or 2012). However the (2015) assessment has confirmed that the current population trend may stand at some: 100,000-499,999 (which is an estimate band or population band). Populations are not known to be (seriously fragmented). Surveys conducted back in (2001) placed the number of pairs at ‘80,000 pairs or 160,000 mature individuals’. Unfortunately the (European population) is estimated to be standing at 800-1,200 pairs in total.
Bird-Life International (2015) estimated that Europe holds the lowest population density standing at some 9%. So a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 17,800-26,700 mature individuals. A further assessment back in (2001) relating to the European trend stated “160,000 mature individuals was much lower than previously believed”. So as one can see ‘population uncertainty’ is the second likely reason why the species has been re-listed as (endangered). Not forgetting being rather confusing at times too.
Latest Population Assessment Estimate
The latest, and most current population assessment estimate states numbers range (in total) at 31,372 (26,014-36,731) which equates to 62,744 (52,028-73,462) mature individuals or 94,116 (78,042-110,193) individuals. The population is placed in the band 100,000 to 499,999 mature individuals. It must be noted that 100,000 to 499,999 is not the true population count, but more the ‘band that the species currently stands at/qualifies for’.
Habitat destruction, agriculture, conversion of Steppe Eagle land for farming, persecutions, but most worrying is wind-farming that is “seriously threatening the species as we know it today”. Collisions with wind-turbines is quite a serious concern as the Steppe Eagle is not exactly a small bird, and when hunting, especially within converted land that hosts wind farms, Steppe Eagles are either killed or seriously injured to the point that they can never be rehabilitated back to the wild. Night collisions are reported more than day collisions.
Image: White tailed Eagle killed after colliding with a wind farm in the background.
The image above depicts a White Tailed Eagle that was located dead after a suspected collision with a wind turbine. As one can clearly see these Eagles are not small, nor are wind turbines. Unfortunately birds come off the worst as we humans crave more and more greener energy. The only real reasonable solution here would be to now lobby governments and industries to build wind farms away from ‘all bird habitat’, or at sea. Unfortunately, again this is easier said than done. While at sea wind turbines are being blamed for whale beaching’s due to turbine vibrations, meanwhile birds are mostly, sadly dying when hitting these gigantic steel/carbon structure’s.
Steppe Eagles migrate, and are said to be closely related to the subspecies Aquila rapax. Steppe Eagles are around 25-31 inches in length, with a mean wingspan of 5.1-7.1 feet. Females weigh 5-10 lbs, while males weigh in at around 4.4 to 7.7 lbs. Steppe Eagles are said to breed mainly from Romania of which the species is currently (regionally extinct) within the country. Further evaluation of breeding behavior states the species breeds in Central Asia, Mongolia to Africa, with further breeding occurring within Eastern Europe. Females lay on average 1-3 eggs within a clutch.
Image: Credited: Peter Romanow (Germany).
Listed on the (Convention of International trade in Endangered Species wild flora and fauna - Cites), Cites Appendix II. Threats are listed below for your information.
The species has declined in the west of its breeding range, including extirpation from Romania, Moldova and Ukraine, as a result of the conversion of steppes to agricultural land combined with direct persecution. It is also adversely affected by power lines and is very highly vulnerable to the impacts of potential wind energy developments. It was recently found to be the raptor most frequently electrocuted by power lines in a study in western Kazakhstan. When one views the sheer size of these massive birds of prey, one can clearly envisage just how easy they can fall prey to hitting these massive carbon wind structures, and power lines,
Young eagles are taken out of the nest in order to sell them to western European countries. A decline in the number of birds and a reduction in the proportion of juveniles migrating over Eilat, Israel began immediately after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, leading Yosef and Fornadari (2004) to suggest that the species may have been affected by radioactive contamination. This species is vulnerable to the veterinary drug Diclofenac too. Read more here on Chernobyl.
CONCERNING DATA ON CHERNOBYL AND LOW BIRD SPERM RATE: https://www.audubon.org/news/chernobyls-radiation-seems-be-robbing-birds-their-sperm
Wind Farming | Eagles
Wind energy is the fastest growing source of power worldwide according to the World Bank. China plans a 60% increase in the next three years and the US a six-fold jump by 2030. The EU aims to produce 20% of its energy through renewables by 2020 - much of this is from wind. Will this huge expansion of wind farms have a serious impact on bird life? It looks likely, especially where birds habitat is being encroached onto by such developments.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) estimates that 440,000 birds are killed in collisions with wind turbines each year; without stronger regulation, says the American Bird Conservancy (ABC), the annual toll will exceed one million by 2030. To address this issue, the U.S. Department of the Interior has released voluntary guidelines to help developers minimize the impact of wind energy projects on bird habitat and migration. Developed over five years with an advisory committee that included government agencies, the wind energy industry, and some conservation organizations, the guidelines are intended to ensure compliance with federal laws such as the Endangered Species Act—although the rules allowing them to do so are controversial.
Image: Red Kite killed found dead after colliding with a wind-turbine.
There are reasons why birds are likely to be affected by wind farms. Wind developments tend to be placed in upland areas with strong wind currents that have a lot of potential to generate energy. Birds – particularly raptors like eagles or vultures – use these currents as highways – and so are likely to come into contact with the turbines. It’s not just the turbine blades that pose a risk to birds; research indicates that wind developments can disrupt migration routes. What’s more, foraging and nesting habitat can also be lost when turbines are put up.
Despite these concerns, the current body of research suggests wind farms have not significantly reduced bird populations. Several studies suggest birds have the ability to detect wind turbines in time and change their flight path early enough to avoid them. And one small study found no evidence for sustained decline in two upland bird species on a wind farm site after it had been operating for three years. Another found that wild geese are able to avoid offshore wind turbines. (Geese though fly at daytime, and are not predatory day and nighttime carnivorousness hunters).
A large peer-reviewed study in the Journal of Ecology monitored data for ten different bird species across 18 wind farm sites in the UK. It found that two of them- curlew and snipe – saw a drop in population during the construction phase, which did not recover afterwards. But the population of the other eight species were restored once the wind farms were built.
The current fate relating to the Steppe Eagle is somewhat worrying. Agriculture, persecution, young theft for trade, and wind - turbine farming is all but concerning plundering the species into further threatened status. After reading many studies dating back to 2012 regarding wind turbines, and whether they were indeed responsible for bird deaths, 2012 evidence didn’t really show much to prove that birds were affected. However after reading the ‘damning evidence relating to the Steppe Eagle’, its without a doubt that wind farms are most certainly ‘impacting on this species and others’ locally and internationally. The question is how do we deal with this problem?
We need wind to generate more greener energy thus decreasing our carbon emissions. Furthermore we also need birds of prey to control rodent, insect, and general pest control. Large birds of prey are also very useful within Anti Poaching operations, and act as the eyes and ears for both farmers and anti poachers. While there is no evidence to prove my own suspicions here, I do believe that certain bodies within government are being forced to ignore ongoing issues with wind farms and bird collisions. The excuse that birds can quickly change course is indeed factual to some degree, well, only if the bird is flying during daytime hours. Unfortunately most birds of prey also fly and hunt at night. So how is one supposed to change their course (at nighttime when unable to see the turbine in time)?
Please view the videos below for more information.
BIRD OF PREY | TURBINE COLLISIONS
Thank you for reading, please share and help create more noise about this subject before time runs out.
Dr Jose. C. Depre PhD. MEnvSc. BSc(Hons) Botany, PhD(NeuroSci) D.V.M.
Environmental, Botanical and Human Science
International Animal Rescue Foundation
Formal Public Apology addressed to: World Protection for Dogs and Cats in the Meat Trade Charity Registration No: 1154524.
Addressed to: (WPDCMT UK)
MR DAVID MERRILL
MME JULIA DE CADENET
MR Robert DONKER’S
Addressed to: (WPDCMT USA)
MME FIA PERERA
MME LORI ALLEN
Dear Mme Julia de Cadenet (CEO).
March (2013) our organisations investigations department the [E.A.D] and (CEO) Dr Depre was alerted to ‘allegations of possible fraud, deception, and misconduct relating to the misuse of public donations’. Once alerted we then conducted a tedious, and at times, quite frustrating investigation, within the public domain, and behind the scenes. From (2013-2016) we (the organisation) was provided with countless reams of data, emails dating back from 2013-2014, and alleged misconduct, (relating to deception and fraud).
From 2013-2016 the organisation then set about to investigate these alleged claims. At no point from 2013-2016 did we or third parties locate a single scrap of evidence that backed these claims up. The reasons for our own independent investigation was due to the gargantuan public backlash of which was bringing other (unrelated organisations into disrepute directly and indirectly). The public backlash has derived from what we can only locate 6-9 individuals online that are related directly or indirectly. Most of the names involved have been withheld.
The following data listed below has proven to be false from 2013-2016, which we (the organisation) apologize profusely, because at times we were led to believe that fraud, and deception was ongoing, regarding the communications that were posted online. These communications in the way of (screenshots and copied and pasted emails), pushed us briefly out of conservationism investigations, and into civil actions, which we believed at the best of times, that these allegations were indeed factual. A meeting that was held in relation to the work that we conduct annually bought up the alleged allegations and how we could either prove them to be true or false via ‘professional investigatory work’. From this point, allegations; he said this; she said that; (Etc) were then pushed aside. A meeting was then arranged with the Charity Commission (2015 September), and the Institute of Fundraising, with a further meeting (2016 and communications via telephone)..
1… When founded the charity allegedly illegally harvested donations from street pots without a license. (This allegation has been proven to be false, and the council involved have confirmed that a licence was indeed sent to the fundraiser).
2. Refunds were not awarded to a handful of individuals that purchased clothing from the charity website. (Emails from 2013-2014 have proven this to be false, receipts and PayPal data has also proven these allegations to be false).
3. 2014-2015 charity 1154524 ‘allegedly stole donations via a Total Giving platform donation link’. The allegations stated that charity 1154524, hadn’t given all incoming donations on a restricted UK fundraiser to the Philippines ‘non-registered charity Dogs Mountain’. Total Giving was in fact to blame here, for not closing down the fundraiser which they have confirmed. The reason why charity 1154524 were not made aware of incoming money was because PayPal does not state where that income is coming from. PayPal only confirms that an ‘amount has been delivered in the PayPal account, and who from, but doesn’t confirm which ‘titled platform’. Allegation is false.
4. The British charity allegedly didn’t provide all funding raised to the Romanian charity identified as: Adapostul de caini din Baia Mare. PayPal data has proven this allegation to be false. The charity provided the relevant funding, however ‘didn’t continue with their promises of providing blankets, food, cover Etc or a visit’. Charity 1154524 couldn’t keep their promise back in (2014) because other shelters were in need too. Furthermore the charity had exceeded their (2014) expenditure totaling £9,066. Charity 1154524 did not commit an illegal activity. See link here: http://forms.charitycommission.gov.uk/find-charities/
5. 2013 an image of actor Peter Egan was posted onto the main charities webpage and Facebook page. This allegation is factual. However the ‘allegations that stated the image was posted to harvest donations was false’. Mr Egan demanded a ‘trial by Twitter of which the charity refused to answer questions. This allegation is factual. However Mr Egan was asked to phone and/or email - which Mr Egan refused to do. Mr Egan an no point explained why he was at the charities demonstration, nor did he understand that the photos belonging to the charity could be posted. Traces online do actually show Mr Egan’s images being used to raise funds - see link hereto: http://www.ourdisappearingplanet.com/ the link is also advertised on Mr Egans site hereto http://www.peter-egan.co.uk/page_2157999.html
6. An allegation was made that Mme Brown, the then director of charity 1154524 hadn’t visited South Korea. The visit was confirmed. Donations raised for this visit were all legitimate. Skype records prove Mme Brown did visit, and the allegations that Mme Brown didn’t visit are in fact false
Points 1-6 have been extensively investigated and verified by all parties, councils, the charity, registered charities, non-registered charities, and individuals. Furthermore we have proof to back these claims up. Proof of where the communications derived from, telephone records, emails and communications from the Total Giving and PayPal platform.
From 2015-2016 we was then sent allegations that charity 1154524 stole donations totaling $80,000 GBP that was raised for the individual identified as Mrs Yang Xiaoyun, of China, Tianjin. The following data below is factual.
1. June 2015 Ms Ling opened and created a Total Giving fundraiser for Mrs Yang Xiaoyun. Ms Ling placed into that platform Mrs Yang Xiaoyun’s images, with brief description of ongoing problems. Data confirms that Ms Ling implemented the images into that platform. (fact).
2. August 2015 charity 1154524 then began receiving large amounts of donations of which was primarily due to various (unidentified individuals) sharing the platform link, during the June, Chinese YuLin festival. (fact).
3. After contacting trustees it has emerged that the charity was only going on Ms Lings say so, her own concerns, and why she believed setting the fundraiser up was necessary. (fact).
4. Ms Ling then retired from the charity at some time during October 2015 after ‘alleged re-naming of the fundraiser. Communications broke down between Ms Ling and the British charity resulting in the charity being left with no direct communication to Mrs Yang Xiaoyun. (fact).
5. Donations continued to roll in from June to December 2015. the charity stated that they would try to send to Mrs Yang Xiaoyun, food, veterinary help, and donations. Despite the fact they were working with little information on and about Mrs Yang Xiaoyun due to Ms Ling retiring from the charity. (fact).
6. Mrs Yang Xiaoyun was then visited by the charity and trustee (Aug-Sep 2015). Mrs Yang Xiaoyun was handed a years rent for an undisclosed address. Further to this Mrs Yang Xiaoyun was handed via various transactions public donations before and after the visit totaling £12.000GBP. (fact). However it’s been alleged that a total of £15,000 was given.
7. When charity 1154524 visited Mrs Yang Xiaoyun a catalog of abuse, neglect and hoarding was witnessed. (fact).
8. The charity then reported their findings back to the Charity Commission as instructed (fact).
9. The Charity Commission then ‘strictly advised’ that Mrs Yang Xiaoyun set up a banking account for the fund of £80.000 to be deposited, Mrs Yang still hasn’t complied with this polite offer instructed by the Charities Commission. (fact).
10. Unfortunately due to the reams of data coming in from unrelated Chinese rescuers, and what the charity themselves witnessed - the fund was ‘allegedly frozen’ (factual to some degree).
The video above is allegedly all innocent within those calling allegations. Translated into (real Mandarin) which will be within article no 1-5 it shows and proves exactly what happened that day. The images in the video also show evidence of (abuse, neglect, hoarding, poor animal husbandry, and dead, diseased animals laying on the premises.
1. Following the events that relate to Mrs Yang Xiaoyun, Mr Andrew Penman of the Daily Mirror was asked by Mr Peter Egan and Dr Daniel Allen to conduct an investigation into ‘fraud’. The reporter then published the following article (http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/dog-charity-cash-mystery-animal-6941593) - of which doesn’t prove under any circumstances that the charity 1154524 defrauded Mrs Yang Xiaoyun out of any money whatsoever, or anyone for that matter. (fact).
2. Mr Andrew Penman and Dr Allen then stated that the Charities Commission were investigating the British charity 1154524 for alleged fraud. On contacting the Charities Commission back in September and December 2015, as well as communicating and telephoning the commission. No investigation has been confirmed as going ahead whatsoever. (fact).
3. British charity 1154524 offered Mrs Yang Xiaoyun food vouchers, instead of money. This seems to have either 1. been ignored, 2. not communicated properly to Mrs Yang Xiaoyun, or refused by Mrs Yang Xiaoyun. (fact).
4. The Charity Commission have categorically stated (February 2016), “in the interests of public transparency, and the findings relating to Mrs Yang Xiaoyun’s yard. Its in public’s and charities interests to ensure that any-money raised, is provided for the reasons it was raised for”. The Commission confirmed the charities concerns being; the number of animals that were allegedly rescued (not on the premises), no cats that were allegedly rescued from the YuLin festival; hoarding; neglect; abuse Etc. (fact).
5. The Charities Commission have ‘confirmed’ that all funds raised (for Mrs Yang Xiaoyun) remain in the charities bank. Funds will not under-any-circumstances be administered to Mrs Yang Xiaoyun until she establishes a banking account herself, and proves to the charity where the animals that she rescued from YuLin are, which is what the public provided funding for.
The following data above focuses on the ‘alleged allegation of fraud, deception and misuse of public funding’s’, and nothing else.
Conclusion: The Charities Commission, ourselves, requests via the FOIA, and communications to various Chinese agencies have proven that no fraud, or deception is ongoing. Until proven otherwise we (International Animal Rescue Foundation) wish to make a public and frank apology to charity 1154524 for insinuating and agreeing that fraud/deception Etc was ongoing. I.A.R.F does not under any circumstances have any relation to the charity 1154524 nor do we want relations either now or in the future.
Members of the public that want these claims verified can contact the agencies above for further clarification (or the charity themselves). Furthermore a visit to the charity in London to view bookkeeping which is a term set out under the HMRC has located no wrong doing. British charity No To Dog Meat (WPDCMT) are fully registered as seen hereto: http://forms.charitycommission.gov.uk/find-charities/
The following five part (informal article) has been printed due to the mass online campaign that is being run by various individuals from the United Kingdom, United States, Holland, France and Eastern Europe. The online campaign has in the past 3-4 weeks been asked by ourselves to provide (proof of their allegations). When asking for proof to try and bring the public fact or false information we and the main (CEO) was insulted, blocked, threatened, intimated, individuals not related to us were threatened, and intimidated, and images were stolen, defaced, subsequently being named as ‘frauds ourselves’. The only question that was asked was listed below highlighted for your information. Does this question sound unreasonable to you?
“Please would you be most kind to show proof of your allegations, or evidence to back your claims up that prove the charity in question has committed an act of fraud, historically or to-date”?
To date not a single individual that has plastered all over Twitter, and Facebook have shown a scrap of evidence. the only data they show is “maybes, if’s, buts, well’s, or allegations”. When we confronted the individuals calling fowl here, they stated that they had the evidence and was keeping it for the Charities Commission. However when one goes over their postings on Twitter, it clearly shows that regardless of whether they have evidence or not, they’ll still post whatever they like.
Peter Egan has been asked over 17 times to produce evidence relating to his allegation that the British charity above are defrauding the public. We’ll not post all 17 screenshots but do ask that you stay tuned to the actual site to see if any response is ever given.
Image: 17 times this question has been asked, still no answer?
Board of Directors
International Animal Rescue Foundation (Int)
Sudanese Cinnamon Tea
There are so many teas and coffees on the market today its hard to choose which one is good for you. Some tea plantations are grown within habitats that have pushed various species of animal to the brink of extinction. While there are some coffee plantations that state they’re all for the environment, just to later find out they are not. Meanwhile lets be honest, tea is pretty much tea. Some may like it while others hate it, so why not jazz that cuppa up a little with some rather tasty African Sudanese Cinnamon Tea? Its nice, trust me!
My travels all over Africa have always been accompanied with cinnamon sticks and some real Sudan tea leaves, however in this recipe the leaves are English (the best of course - so they say), don’t forget you’ll need tea leaves and NOT tea bags!. I’ve received quite a number of requests on where to locate such herbs, spices, and foods themselves.
Most of the tropical vegan and veggie ingredients can actually be located in your local hypermarket, European, Asian or African wholefood markets. Just Google. These small stalls or markets host a massive range of peculiar ingredients, delicacies and flavors - all of which are mostly meat free. Don’t forget you can also follow us on our main vegan and vegetarian healthy eating Facebook page hereto: VEGAN & VEGETARIAN HEALTHY LIVING.
Ingredients & Recipe
4 cups boiling water
4 teaspoon of loose English tea
4 cinnamon sticks (approx 1/2-inch)
4 lumps of sugar, plus extra (reduce or leave out if required)
- Place 4 cups of boiling water in a tea pot with the tea & allow to brew for a few minutes then stir.
- Place 1 cinnamon stick & 1 sugar lump in a tea cup & pour the tea slowly over them.
Serve with an additional bowl of sugar lumps for guests to add if they like. (You may also add a cinnamon stick to the tea pot whilst the tea is brewing for a stronger cinnamon flavor).
That’s about as simple as it gets - Sudanese Cinnamon Tea (enjoy), oh, children that hate tea will absolutely enjoy this. Please don’t add milk, traditional Sudanese Tea does not require milk. You may be asking why not add milk?
Over twenty years ago my Grandmother who was a regular visitor to the continent of Africa once gave me [pure black tea] from from tea leaves grown on the continent of Central Africa. The reason for giving me black tea was due to recurring tonsillitis. My Grandmother always stated that drinking black tea would help cure tonsillitis. As a Doctor I now know why this is.
The tannins found in black tea have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties which will help to cure tonsillitis very quickly. Wonderful.
Plants containing tannins have astringent, hemostatic, antiseptic and toning properties. The tannins have the property of coagulate proteins and mucosal tissues, by creating an insulating and protective layer that soothes irritation and pain on the skin. I.e the throat! Herbal preparations containing tannins are used for stop local small hemorrhages, sore mouth, bronchitis, burns, scars of the skin, wounds and many others. They are also used to contain diarrhea.
Some people with digestive difficulties may have some intolerance to tannins, so they should be administered with caution in these cases and tannin-containing plants should not be consumed for long periods since they inhibit the absorption of some vitamins and minerals. These properties of precipitating the complex compounds are used in industry for the production of wines, beers, for tanning leather, making dyes and as a mordant in the textile industry. Tannins are considered antioxidants and ‘are alleged’ to prevent the onset of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Please note there is no real hard hitting medical evidence to back tannins and cancer claims up.
Have a nice week.
Dr Jose C. Depre. PhD. MEnvSc. BSc(Hons) Botany, PhD(NeuroSci) D.V.M.
Environmental, Botanical & Human Science
Endangered Species Monday: Turanana taygetica
This Mondays (ESP) Endangered Species watch Post I touch up on the T. taygetica identified by Dr Rebel back in 1902. Image credited: Zeynel Cebeci I am also dedicating this article to the early Mme Taylor Nicole who sadly passed away last week to Mother Christina Ann. Mme Ann is an unselfish animal rights activist dedicating her time, love and care to African, American and international wildlife. Mme Ann regularly undertakes animal rights projects for the Start for Animals Project, Missouri, United States.
The ‘odd spot blue butterfly’ as the species is commonly known was primarily identified by Dr Hans Rebel whom was an Austrian entomologist who specialized in Lepidoptera. Rebel, who had an early interest in natural history and butterflies, first became a lawyer. He devoted his spare time to studying Lepidoptera and established the entomological section of the Botanical and Zoological Society of Vienna.
He succeeded Alois Friedrich Rogenhofer (1831–1897) as keeper of the Lepidoptera collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, a post he held from 1897 to 1932. Dr Rebel enriched the collections and as a grand voyageur, made many collecting trips in Austro-Hungary and five trips in the Balkans. He directed the Department of Zoology in 1923 and was the museum’s director general in 1925.
T. taygetica is listed as [near threatened], although new data from Cites has suggested that the species may soon be re-listed as [vulnerable]. To date there is very little knowledge known about this specific species of butterfly, and the split related species identified as T. endymion.
Endemic to Greece and Turkey (Europe), populations of this stunningly beautiful insect are known to be decreasing quite rapidly. The odd-spot blue butterfly occurs in dry, calcareous places covered with low-growing shrubs, and are commonly witnessed drinking the nectar from the herb plant identified as Thyme, scientifically known as Thymus vulgaris. Males are known to leave their normal habitat for more ‘damper patches of ground’, while females commonly lay their eggs within the species of flora identified as Acantholimon karamanicum.
Image: Odd spot blue Butterfly shares its habitat with the L. thetis.
The odd spot blue butterfly shares its habitat with this utterly stunning copper-tinged Lycaena thetis (pictured above), both of which contrast one-another beautifully. Both butterflies caterpillars also share the same species of food-plant which is quite a rare behavior within the world of butterflies.
The Turanana taygetica (scientific identification) is not known to be listed on anyone of the Cites Appendices either, despite the fact the species is near threatened/vulnerable, with populations declining quite rapidly within Greece and Turkey. Furthermore populations have plummeted to a staggering 30-50% over the past two decades. To date there is no-known true or mean population count. International Animal Rescue Foundation England are though looking into this, and hope to release a more accurate report addressed too the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species wild flora and fauna (Cites).
This species has a restricted distribution. It is threatened by changes in the agricultural practices (mainly abandonment), quarrying and tourist activities. In Greece it is a popular butterfly for collectors. One population in Greece was recently destroyed by the building of a road. Regarding its limited distribution it might get threatened on the longer run by climate change. As the species is not treated in the Climatic Risk Atlas, there is no information on the possible change of the climate envelope.
Image: Odd spot blue butterflies watching each others backs
The length of the forewings is 10–12 mm. The ground colour of the upperside of the wings is blue with blackish marginal borders. The underside ground colour is whitish grey. Adult males are often found watering inside the forest zone and near the presumed host-plant.
This Mondays (ESP) Endangered Species Watch post is dedicated to the early Mme Taylor Nicole whom sadly passed away last week. Herein are a few links to share, tag, and to learn to cope with sudden bereavement within the family environment.
I myself never met Mme Nicole or her mother Christina, however have spoken to Christina occasionally in relation to the work that I have undertaken in the past regarding the pet meat trade. I believe I owe a little gratitude to such a wonderful person.
Image: Mme Christina Ann and Daughter Mme Taylor Nicole
Due to Mme Christina Ann’s daughter passing away suddenly, while Christina was on excursion on the continent of Africa, helping those within impoverished zones, and those with no voice, Mme Ann’s travel insurance would not cover the expenses of having to suddenly flying back home. Please be most kind to donate a small amount to help mother cover this charge by clicking the link hereto: https://www.gofundme.com/9nnawu5w
The link hereto https://www.compassionatefriends.org/Brochures/surviving_your_childs_suicide.aspx provides more details for parents on how to deal with sudden death. Compassionate Friends is a United States Not for Profit Organisation helping parents, relatives and friends dealing with the loss of a close loved one from suicide.
“The love between a mother and daughter is FOREVER”
Today’s Endangered Species Post (ESP) is dedicated to the Odd spot blue butterfly, Mother Christina Ann and Daughter Mme Taylor Nicole.
Thank you for reading.
Dr Jose Carlos Depre PhD. MEnvSc. BSc(Hons) Botany, PhD(NeuroSci) D.V.M.
Environmental, Botanical & Human Science
Chief Environmental Officer (CEO)
ETHICAL OR UNETHICAL
Last week we wrote an article in relation to the GoEco student/tourist travel firm, and the Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm. As usual we came under some pretty heavy criticism as apparently we were yet again in the wrong. Within many of the emails that we have received, students have literally blasted us for depicting themselves holding, petting or interacting with African predator cats, many of them cubs that seem to have no mother insight, and could be re-rehabilitated into the wild to boost wild predator populations up.
Back in 2015 from January to December we rolled out yet again another mass educational and awareness campaign aimed at mainly students and overseas tourists that paid up to $1,200USD for a two week visit to the many petting farms, lodges and resorts on the African continent, that was projected onto our main Facebook platform.
I.A.R.F.A’s educational and awareness campaign (2015) saw over 200 students give up this practice (one of many articles you can read here). Furthermore Zebula Golf and Spa Club that was hosting lion petting activities withdrew the practice, and removed adds from their main website. An African zoological garden removed its advertisement for cheetah petting, thus later ending their petting experiences, and finally a painter and artist that was promoting such activities eventually stopped.
The campaign also saw a decline in profit in relation to the Ukutula Game Lodge, and customer star rating, and less students visiting from 2014-2015. Amanzi Travel located within the United Kingdom have also allegedly withdrawn their lion petting advertisements focusing more on ethical conservation. (Amanzi Travel are still the focus of our attention though). The list goes on, and frankly we’re not going to stop until these practices are ceased immediately.
From 2014-2015 the organisation Blood Lions pounded the streets and cinemas (internationally) in relation too the petting and canned hunting industry which has seen quite a significant response from the petting and hunting fraternity too). In the wake of much controversy France has implemented an immediate ban on lion trophies being brought into the country. Now PHASA are at the throats of (Sapa, reported by Blood Lions) demanding the South African Predator Association immediately responds to the canned hunting problem that’s sparked fireworks around the globe. (See video below).
Unfortunately, despite the mass effort that we and others have placed into these projects, students, tourists, even trainee zoologists and veterinarians still thrash it out with us, believing that what they are participating in, is all good fun and doesn’t do the animal any harm whatsoever. Below are just a handful of the lame excuses that we read every week emailed to us in anger.
LAME RESPONSES FROM TOURISTS / PREDATOR PETTING
“None of these cubs were harmed and are all living a peaceful happy life”
“Your information is wrong, petting doesn’t harm the cubs, the cubs don’t have a mother, we’re helping them and their cuddly, so what!”
“Please research your information before posting my image, there is no hunting on this farm whatsoever, leave me alone”
“The image you posted of me misrepresents me, all I was doing was holding the cub for a Facebook photo avatar. I’m doing nothing wrong”.
“Lions are so cute, I can’t wait to go back again”
“They advertise release programs, and I participated in a release program within a fenced in area, none of the animals were harmed, or killed, what’s your problem?”
The above lines are just a handful of lame excuses that we read everyday from tourists, students, petting farms, and alleged predator rehabilitation sanctuaries. Furthermore no matter how much we try to explain, either in basic English or with science - the fact of the matter is this: Many students, tourists and sanctuaries fail to see the damage that they are doing, and contributing too.
Many of the students and tourists that we’ve highlighted as contributing too unethical conservation also scold us for using their images, stating that we’re misrepresenting them holding or petting a “predator cub”. So we’re going to try things a little differently. Back to basics. Below we’ve included a number of images, and under them images we’ve written a brief extract in relation to what’s wrong with each image/ real life scenario. However before we start, lets take a look at what real ethical conservation is within the “captive breeding and release industry”.
Image: Basel Zoological Gardens.
The image above was taken at Basel Zoological Gardens, and as you can see mother, father and three young cubs are happily strolling in the park on a fine late Spring day of (2015). There are no tourists, students or even the hint of petting, interaction, cuddling or manhandling on show here. Mother’s Oka and Uma gave birth to their cubs on May 28th, and June 15th (2015).
Many people may be asking, why are lions being bred and reared within a foreign non-African zoo? The answer to that is simple. Lions are listed as vulnerable (IUCN Red List population map), and while there may be many lions in countries such as South Africa where security is more tight. North and West African lions are practically extinct. Southern Africa is probably one of very few regions now on the African continent that holds more “larger populations”. Unfortunately within the past twenty years Africa has seen a staggering decrease of lion populations by over 30-50%. (See video below.)
Zoo Basel supports the Big Life Foundation, which works in the Amboseli-Tsavo ecosystem in Kenya to protect the Lions. The Zoo is also a participant in the EAZA Endangered Species Breeding Programme for African Lions. This means that every-single lion you see within a zoo that’s part of the EAZA Endangered Species Breeding Programme will eventually be released into the African wild, they’ll not be kept for photography purposes, or to interact with.
For release programme’s to be successful human interference must be kept to a bare minimal. You’ll not see any petting, interaction, man-handling or public photography exploitation going on here. EAZA’s Endangered Species Breeding Programme is what we refer to as “ethical conservation within captivity”, and there is much evidence in relation to EAZA’s working projects too.
UNETHICAL CONSERVATION PRACTICES
Below are prime examples of “unethical conservation practices”. From America too the continent of Africa you’ll not see EAZA’s Endangered Species Breeding Programme allowing this type of behavior. The reasons why you’ll not see such behavior played out within anyone of EAZA’s projects is listed below for your information in plain English.
Image: Sarah Haley lion petting United States
Back in 2012 Sarah Haley from Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States visited the Wild Wilderness Through Safari. Sarah’s reasons for visiting was quite simple. “I mostly went to play with the lions”. As one can see these lions are very young, and as normal there seems to be no mother or father in sight. What Sarah doesn’t realize is, the mother would have had her young ripped away from her at a young age, just so tourists and students can play petting.
Mother and cub[s] would have been left in quite an emotional state, suffering psychological trauma, and would have pined for one another. Its more or less the same behavior a new born baby and mother will play out when separation occurs. Did it make you feel good Sarah knowing that you was holding a pining mothers cub that simply wanted to behave like any normal human or animal mother?
There doesn’t appear to be any-form of breeding programme in operation at this alleged zoo either. Furthermore this cat will never be released into the wild, because all of its natural instincts have been removed by the human, and imprinted from the human onto the cub. Yet on the African continent we’ve lost over 50% of our lion populations. There doesn’t seem to be any form of hunting advertised, however we are somewhat suspicious here as to why so many cubs are being reared at this zoo, and what the so called zoo’s actual intentions are.
Image: Unidentified male at the Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm
Every month we bring into question many safaris, big cat projects, lodges and zoos. Many of them do not participate in hunting, while others are more than “questionable in relation to their mission statement and hunting”, and what they are actually projecting into the public domain (which most of the time doesn’t support their mission statement).
Furthermore contradictions from the owners in regards to their companies mission statement are rampant among such alleged rehab and non-breeding facilities. The image above seems pretty innocent, and quite adorable to most. The image was posted onto the Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm Facebook page of which the Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm has venomously protected as innocent.
Zanchieta have even gone to great lengths in the past week basically stating that were totally wrong, and everything that we’ve located in relation to their company (above and below) is more than legitimate. An insult that we did read stated: “We (Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm) know that this post by I.A.R.F. was done with good intentions, from people who, like us, love animals and fight for their rights”. We do indeed love animals hence why this article is proving wrongdoing and unethical conservation practices. I.A.R.F.A do not under any circumstances support such activities nor will we promote them either. (Please continue reading).
What the young unidentified male seems to be forgetting is that this young cub “may” have been removed from his/her mother at the prime milking age of three weeks old. PAAZAB’s Husbandry and Veterinary Guide states: The cub should also be supported under its bottom with the other hand, cubs must be supported correctly as to not injure the young developing cub. Further to this we all know that cubs aren’t exactly hygienic like their adult mothers and fathers. Regardless of how much Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm defends themselves, the images projected onto their Facebook page are clear signs of “exhibiting to profit from money”. The worst is to come.
Cubs this age want roam, explore, test their young muscles to develop coordination, and sleep for extended periods of time without interruption. They dislike being handled. While Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm states that they protect, rescue and rehabilitate, this behavior is neither protecting the cub, or (at the least) trying to rehabilitate this young cub into the Asiatic wild where the number of tigers are about 3,200 if that remaining in the wild.
Zanchieta Wild Cat Farm also hosts a number of lions identified as the (Timbavati white lions). This area of alleged predator conservation has been a great focus of concern to us, Timbavati white lions are practically extinct. There is said to be more white lions in captivity than in the wild. Meanwhile within the wild there is alleged to be no fewer than 13-20 individuals if that. So why is this predator rehab farm and rescue not helping to support white wild populations with captive breeding programmes? (See video below)
The owner of Zanchieta states via her website “I have never and never will breed or raise any BIG CAT at Zanchieta for onward selling to a third party. Our white lion pride has grown from the original male and female pair to five lions and these lions will never leave Zanchieta”. We believe this statement was written back in 2010 when the main domain and site was formed and registered.
NO THREATENED SPECIES RELEASE PROJECTS
Image: Timbavati white lion cub 2014.
Image: Timbavati white lion cub (new born) 2014.
The Zanchieta owner states: “No further natural breeding will occur as the females are on contraception programs. Our two male brown lions and our brown lioness were purchased as cubs and have never been allowed to breed. They too will never leave Zanchieta.” That statement has been on the main Zanchieta website since 2010, yet the lady is not prepared to release these lions into the wild via ethical conservation projects. Timbavati white lions are as explained (critically endangered), so this statement is very questionable.
Again where is the mother, but more importantly why is Zanchieta stating that none of her lions will be allowed to leave the farm? That’s a classical sign of unethical conservation for reasons that we do not fully understand. This lion as one can see (above) is only a few days old. Furthermore as the owner states none of the lions will be allowed to leave the farm.
If you are familiar with the sub-species of the Panthera leo krugeri, you’ll also know that their populations within the wild are dwindling. So theoretically any good “rescue and rehabilitation project” that states they’re not breeding (when they clearly are), would try to improve Panthera leo krugeri populations within the wild like EAZA’s Endangered Species Breeding Programme. So in our (expert opinion), this farm is nothing more than a breeding and captive facility. Indeed there are some release projects ongoing however as the owner states (no lions leave).
So instead students, tourists and volunteers can all help contribute to (nothing). That in our opinion is a complete waste of money, money that could be spent elsewhere on actual breeding and release projects to sustain threatened populations of predators.
Image: Chameleon Village Lion Park
Whenever we explain to tourists and students about the petting and interaction industry, they’ll often absorb only a certain amount of information (in most cases), which is why education needs to focus more on every aspect of this industry rather than just hunting. Many Non-Governmental Organisations, and “anti hunting groups” out there, will categorically state on locating a petting/breeding farm, that hunting is the major player regarding their find. Most of the farms, lodges and sanctuaries that we’ve located aren’t actually connected to hunting whatsoever.
So when a tourist or student hears them words I.e. hunting is not ongoing, they automatically believe that all is okay, we’ve got our wires crossed, and we’re simply trying to tar the name of a farm or lodge. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa researchers every single piece of detail on all industries and practices that we do not support practicing unethical conservation. That includes petting, disease, hunting, abuse, exploitation, and failure to keep to promises (I.e): release programmes, or helping increase threatened species in the wild.
Meet Mr Hennie Pio from South Africa. The image above looks very innocent again, and both the visitor and lioness seem pretty much laid back. Tourists need to remember that predators are like cats and dogs, they all have deeply embedded within their genes (hunting and predator behaviors). For E.g. I once owned a Springer Spaniel rescued as a puppy.
That wee dog was domesticated like any other dog into an adult dog. A few years into life and on a long walk, my pet dog jumped the lead, and naturally went after hens and chickens killing three instantly with a single bite to the neck. Yet the dog hadn’t seen a chicken or hen before, nor had she been raised to hunt. The same applies to lions, tigers, cheetahs, leopards, and jaguars Etc. Just because they’ve never hunted naturally in the wild, and had humans imprint their natural behaviors onto them, doesn’t for one single minute mean that, that animal will not attack you.
Listed below are real life captive predator attacks that left their owners or keepers, tourists and visitors with life threatening injuries or in some cases death did occurred.
WHEN CAPTIVE PREDATORS ATTACK
Jan 21, 2016 Australia: A 12 year old tiger has attacked a keeper at an Australian zoo founded by the late Steve Irwin. The incident, which took place Thursday morning at the Sunshine Coast’s Australia Zoo, left 41-year-old Che Woolcott with “significant puncture wounds” to his head and forearm, according to local media reports. He was treated at the scene before being transferred to the hospital.
Nov 29 2015 Malta: Ħal-Farrug zoo was closed by its owners after a tiger severely injures a 3 year old boy. A spokesman for the zoo said the incident happened when the two handlers were walking the “friendly” tiger, which they had raised, outside its cage since it had been slightly unwell. The tiger was lying on the floor when the incident happened. Upon seeing the animal, the boy ran towards it, prompting the tiger to raise its paws, lashing the child in the face in the process, the spokesman said.
Jun 1, 2015 Johannesburg, SA: Katherine Chappell, 29, a visual effects artist for Game of Thrones, was killed and her tour guide seriously injured in an attack by a lioness at the Lion Park near Lanseria. The two people were travelling in the car with their windows open. It’s understood a lioness jumped through the open window, biting the woman who was in the passenger seat. The driver, a tour guide, was badly injured while attempting to free the woman from the animal’s grasp. The park’s Scott Simpson said, “There was a car driving to the lion camp and the lioness came through the window and it bit the tourist. The ambulance arrived quite soon but the lady has passed away.” Three months ago an Australian tourist was bitten in the thigh while driving though the park, also with his window down.
Please view the video below which shows the worlds top ten predator on human attacks, Mr Hennie Pio is in our opinion a very lucky man, like most of the students, tourists and visitors that man-handle allegedly “friendly hand reared predators”. They’re only friendly if they want to be. When you place yourself within a predators environment your acting irresponsibly, furthermore if that animal attacks you, its very likely the animal will be shot dead.
Lastly if your lucky to walk away with minor or serious injuries its highly unlikely that your insurance will cover you, and you have very little chance of receiving compensation - because you placed yourself in that predators environment.
Image: Helping Hands for Underprivileged Children
While we all like to visit animal shelters, and provide a helping hand, one will find that some animal shelters and farms in the Western Hemisphere will point out to you the notices that inform you not to pick the animals up, touch the animals, feed them and always ensure that your hands are washed should you come into contact with animals. The reasons for these “polite notices” is to ensure you do not fall ill with anyone of the known zoonotic diseases that are fatal in some cases.
The organisation identified (above) as Helping Hands for Underprivileged Children is where the image above derives from (click the link above that’ll direct you too the Facebook image). The image was picked due to myself being a parent, and because I know just how easy it is for a child to unknowingly place their hands within the mouth dozens if not hundreds of times a day. The data below we do advise you take seriously.
When zoonotic diseases pass from animals to humans, pandemics can result. When a pathogen leaps from some nonhuman animal into a person, and succeeds there in making trouble, the result is what’s known as a zoonosis.
The word zoonosis is unfamiliar to most people. But it helps clarify the biological reality behind the scary headlines about bird flu, SARS, other forms of nasty new disease, and the threat of a coming pandemic. It says something essential about the origin of HIV. It’s a word of the future, destined for heavy use in the 21st century.
About 60 percent of all human infectious diseases currently known are shared between animals and humans. Nearly all zoonotic diseases result from infection by one of six kinds of pathogen: viruses, bacteria, protozoans, prions, fungi, and worms. Toxocariasis is a mild zoonosis caused by roundworms; you can get it from your dog, cat or in this case a predator. But fortunately, like your dog, cat or predator, you can be wormed. On some farms the owners lie to the public, and there is no way of telling if these animals are treated. Should the animal not be treated as the owners have advertised - your insurance doesn’t cover this either. Your unlikely to be compensated, and you could spend anything from 2 months to 1 year+ off work, or out of action.
Fore more information on zoonotic diseases in lions click the link below. here http://cbs.umn.edu/research/labs/lionresearch/research/diseases
We have deliberately left out all mention of hunting within this article, because frankly many tourists, students and visitors that visit predator farms seem to believe that if hunting is not seen as the “major problem”, then all is as explained pretty much okay. The petting and interaction industry can at times be directly related to hunting, however there are as seen above other issues that you need to take into consideration over hunting.
If you believe an image that we have posted “misrepresents you”, then just stop and think how that individual predator cat thinks about you misrepresenting them as a cuddly “pet”. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa supports all EAZA’s breeding projects, reputable projects that do take in predators that are unable to be released into the wild, I.e: circus, rescues, domestic rescue Etc. We are able to view the lies and contradictions within each alleged rescue, lodge, farm or sanctuary and can if required go to great lengths to prove “unethical conservation practices are being played out here”, with more than sinister motives possibly attached.
This article hasn’t been written to attack, or place blame, but more point to where problems are occurring within the predator breeding and petting industry. If your allegedly rescuing, and rehabilitating then please print and practice just that. If your not breeding and have stated all your animals are on contraceptives, then keep to that promise. If you knowingly understand ethical conservation and really do plan on helping wildlife in their endemic wild, then please practice that. Please do not mislead the public into thinking that your indeed 100% ethical - as we will find you, and highlight them problems always steering the public into the correct conservation path.
If you feel that you’ve been led astray and would like to visit and participate in ethical conservation, please click the links below.
BIG CAT RESCUE: https://bigcatrescue.org/get-involved/volunteer/
Thank you for reading.
Chief Environmental Officer
Dr Jose C. Depre.
Endangered Species Friday: Solenodon paradoxus
This Friday’s (Endangered Species Post) E.S.P, I touch up again on the Hispaniolan Solenodon, scientifically identified as Solenondon paradoxus. Image credit: Mr Jose Nunez-Mino. My reasons for re-documenting on this species is primarily due to my belief that extinction is now most certainly imminent. Therefore for that reason I think its critical that we all make as much noise as possible for this little one due to is importance within the theater of conservation, and because its one of very few mammals that do actually host a venomous side to them.
Written by Dr Jose C. Depre; Botanical and Conservation Scientist.
Solenondon paradoxus was identified back in 1883 by Dr Johann Friedrich von Brandt (25 May 1802 – 15 July 1879) was a German naturalist. Brandt was born in Jüterbog and educated at a gymnasium in Wittenberg and the University of Berlin. In 1831 he was appointed director of the Zoological Department at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, where he published in Russian. Brandt encouraged the collection of native animals, many of which were not represented in the museum. Many specimens began to arrive from the expeditions of Severtzov, Przhevalsky, Middendorff, Schrenck and Gustav Radde.
Listed as (endangered) the species is endemic to the Dominican Republic; Haiti. Back in 1965 the species was re-located and reassessed of which scientists agreed the species ‘required watching due to concerns relating to low population levels’. Unfortunately, and despite the species then being known as severely threatened, from 1982-1996 the Solenondon paradoxus was re-listed as (endangered), now nearing almost complete extinction within the wild. It is without a doubt that we may be seeing this stunning “slotted tooth mammal” extinct within the next two to three years. The name Solenodon means ‘slotted tooth’ of which this insectivorous mammalian is known to be (venomous).
Population levels within the wild have been identified as (severely fragmented), and a population decrease within the species native wild has been ongoing since the early 1980’s, the mammal-like-shrew is considered to be extremely rare. Furthermore within Haiti the species “could be considered as critically endangered” due to an isolated population that covers only 100 kilometers square. Habit loss and persecution are the primary threats associated with the species.
The Haitian solenodon as the species is commonly known to the locals resides mainly next to plantations, forest and brush country. The species leads a mainly nocturnal life where it hides among rock clefts and under large stones, dark caves or hollow trees. Diet atypically consists of insects, but mainly spiders which the species digs from the ground and leaf litter. Small frogs and reptiles are also known to be part of the mammals diet. Haitian solenodon will use its long snout to sniff out food even buried deep into the ground then its powerful claws to locate food via burrowing which are about 2-4cms long, a venom will if required be administered to much larger prey.
The species is relatively social and does not live a solitary life, its been noted that the species prefers to live within groups of 5-8 within underground burrows, which is almost similar to the European moles behavior. Gestating females will normally give birth to 1-2 young and no more, young will always be born within the main family burrow. Young will remain with their mother for approximately seven to eight months, from which after maturity they are left to fend for themselves, however its been documented that the young and parents will ‘sometimes socialize and live together’.
Currently under Dominican Republic law the species is protected under the General Environmental Law of 64-00. A recovery plan was published back in 1992 aimed at improving surveys, and management of the National Park Pic Macaya followed up with educational plans to help reduce species populations decline. A further implementation within the protection plan was to decrease exotic animal sales of the mammal and address these main issues wildly over the animals range.
Unfortunately since 1992 nothing “hard hitting” has been put into practice, and its quite likely that should anyone of the actions now be played out - its most likely to have no affect whatsoever due to the species now bordering complete extinction within the wild. However I myself do believe that we can only but try create as much noise as possible, applying pressure where needed thus forcing the Haitian Department of Environment, and Government to now protect this specie and implement whatever actions necessary to preserve this mammalian and its current habitat.
The most significant threat to this species appears to be the continuing demise of its forest habitat and predation by introduced rats, mongoose, cats and dogs, especially in the vicinity of human settlements. In Haiti persecution and hunting for food is a major threat, and there is devastating habitat destruction also occurring.
Despite the fact humans and other predators prey on the animal, and the fact this animal is rather small, Solenondon paradoxus does indeed pack a small “unknown venomous punch”, and you’d not really want to be bitten by this little one. I cannot emphasize the importance of wearing “protective clothing in the way of gloves” should you come into contact with this animal. Venom is administered in more or less the same manner as snakes administer their venom (not poison). Please note there is a very big difference between (venom and poison).
The solenodon is particularly fascinating because it delivers its poison just as a snake does—using its teeth as a syringe to inject venom into its target. Not a lot is known about these unusual mammals. There are only two solenodon species: One lives on Cuba and the other on Hispaniola (home to Haiti and the Dominican Republic). At night when the species goes in search of food venom would typically be administered to more larger prey such as frogs, and smaller reptilians that the animal also feeds on, despite the animals diet mainly consisting of insects. While the venom is not “considered dangerous to humans” there is actually no hard hitting evidence that its venom is or isn’t dangerous.
The reason I state that, is because most handlers within zoological gardens do actually wear gloves in order to protect themselves from being bitten. So theoretically speaking it would be considered safe to say that while little is known about the animals venomous side - please wear gloves should you come into contact with the animal until more data can be located on the animals venom Etc.
There remains no current data in relation to how many mature and non-mature solenodon individuals there are within the wild, furthermore little is known about life expectancy, however locals have stated local populations can/have lived for up-to 5-7 years.
I am unsure what the future holds for this rather peculiar animal, its one of very few mammals that do actually have the ability to administer a venomous bite via its salivary glands too. The Hispaniolan solenodon represents a remarkable amount of unique evolutionary history, diverging from other living mammal groups some 75 million years ago and before the extinction of the dinosaurs. Conservation efforts don’t seem to be improving the animals population levels, however I am told that conservation actions have been planned. Will they work though now is another story.
The clock is ticking fast for this little one…While I want to believe that we can do something I do believe that its probably too late. Therefore I predict that my next document on this species will be informing the general public of its wild extinction. That would be considered quite sad to be fair regarding my look at things. Check out the video below.
“EXTINCTION IS IMMINENT”
Thank you for reading.
Dr Jose C. Depre. PhD. MEnvSc. BSc(Hons) Botany, PhD(NeuroSci) D.V.M.
Environmental, Botanical and Human Science.
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