Rhino poaching within Africa has reached yet again an all time new high with a total of some 543 Rhinoceros poached dead for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Even with vast awareness campaigns, increased border patrols, upping Anti Poaching and funding the killing continues. Will it ever end? how long is a piece of string?
From the 30th June 2014 the (DEA) Department Of Environmental Affairs (South Africa) issued their Rhino poaching statistics of which was then 496. Since then a further 50+ have been bludgeoned leaving many people feeling hopeless, let down by their government, and debating on whether it is really a practical choice to support a trade in Rhino horn.
Poaching statistics for 2014 have again beaten records for the years 2010-2011. For both years, poaching statistics for 2010 were 333 poached Rhino and for the year 2011 we saw a total kill rate of 448. Poaching statistics for 2012 look as if they are most likely going to be beaten by this years June-July figures too that saw a total of 668 Rhinoceros poached in cold blood.
On a positive note arrest rates are also allegedly increasing from last year that saw a sky-rocketing 1003 Rhinoceros poached. Increased arrest rates doesn’t necessarily mean we are winning the battle, it merely shows that more and more poachers are encroaching from over the border into South Africa. 2010 saw a total of 165 poachers arrested, 2011 - 232, then in 2012 a total of 267 poachers were arrested, 2013 arrest rates shot up of which a total of 343 Rhino poachers were arrested. For June-July 2014 a total (estimate) arrest rate sees some 141 arrested. So 1148 poachers have been arrested yet we have only seen a handful of these poachers actually charged, brought to justice and convicted.
Its hard to actually believe too that Rhino horn made up of almost the same identical properties as human hair, finger nails, horse hoof, and parrot beak is selling illegally on the black market for a whopping $65,000kg whereas gold sells for a mere $43,000 kg and cocaine illegally trading at some $20,000 kg. Demand is not decreasing and while demand increases so will poaching and as explained there seems to be no end of the onslaught insight.
A powder made from the horns is prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine to cure fever and convulsions, but the substance is now used as a status symbol and a very expensive way for affluent Vietnamese to cure hangovers or, supposedly, to get high—even though the horns are composed of the common material keratin and have about the same psychoactive effects as snorting a fingernail clipping.
By weight, the horns go for anywhere from $60,000 to $100,000 per kilogram—single horns are about 3.5 kg, on average—making the substance significantly more pricey than other ubiquitous status symbols and intoxicants. Indian Rhino horns are still the most sought after and pricer too. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa spoke with their Indian counterparts of which confirmed Indian Rhino horn is illegally trading for $80,000 kg. The reason for such high price is mainly due to the Indian Rhino’s endangered status. South Africa is home to about 75% of the world’s 29,000 rhinoceroses, but if the country can’t stop the poaching, it may lose that status, said Naomi Doak of the wildlife monitoring network, Traffic. “We are going to reach the tipping point for rhinos,” she told the BBC. “By the end of 2014, we’re starting to be in the negative in terms of deaths and poaching outstripping birth, and the population will start to decline very quickly.”
Trade in Rhino horn is outlawed by the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, but some argue that the best way to undercut black market horn trade is to give it competition in the form of a well-regulated, cheap and legal market for cultivated horns. Rhino horns can be removed harmlessly and regrow—so legalizing the trade could facilitate horn farming that doesn’t harm the animals. Others argue that such an option would encourage misconceptions about the medicinal properties of ingesting the horn and overwhelm the market with demand, allowing poachers to simply coexist with legal trade.
The South African government acknowledges that something has to change. The country’s minister of environmental affairs, Edna Molewa, said that government officials have been meeting to consider “a proposal for the legalization of commercial international trade” to be brought up at the next Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species meeting in 2016. Whilst many are arguing and debating on whether a legalised trade should be opened International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and Asia are still venomously against such trade of which will kick all conservation efforts backwards. We’re basically giving into the Asian using community should trade be made legal, we’ve fought for so long and provided evidence that clearly shows Rhino horn has no medicinal active properties.
By giving in and should trade not work there us no going back and we will most certainly lose our ionic species the second largest land mammal. According to government statistics, a great majority of Rhino poaching occurs at Kruger National Park, the largest game reserve in Africa, covering 19,000 square kilometres. At the reserve, hunters and those who are impoverished slip through the park’s borders to kill and de-horn Rhinos, earning the equivalent of a typically monthly wage in a single night. Though Kruger has hired soldiers and dogs to stand watch against poachers, they cannot efficiently patrol all of the park’s land. However, when rangers or soldiers do come into contact with poachers, a shoot-out often occurs, with poachers regularly getting killed in a skirmish with security staff. And were not just talking about any reserve here that to some may sound quite easy and straightforward to patrol. Kruger National Park is the size of Israel covering a massive 19,485 kilometres square.
In Nov. 2011, two rangers spotted poachers who were tracking a white Rhino at Ndumo Game Reserve. When the rangers ordered the men to lower their weapons, the poachers, instead, pointed their guns at the rangers and shot. The shoot-out eventually led to the apprehension of one poacher and the death of another, Erasmo Mazivele. Astonishingly, the magistrate, who ruled over the court case in June 2013, convicted the apprehended poacher, Wawito Mawala, with murdering his accomplice, even though it was the rangers who killed Mazivele. The magistrate stated that Mawala had been the cause of Mazivele’s death because Mawala had knowingly put the Mazivele’s life in danger.
The placement of security at game reserves and the persistence of rangers have been positively helping the fight against Rhino poaching. According to the Game Rangers Association of Africa, within the first four months of 2014, 96 low-level Rhino poachers have been arrested. However, not all law enforcement assigned to protect these Rhinos can always be trusted. There have been numerous cases where rangers assigned to guard reserves have been found aiding poachers. This has always been a major concern to International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa of which is strictly monitoring where they place funding too and where equipment is sent, the risks are high, corruption is rife and where a months wages can be made in a day the urge to cross that line and illegally slaughter or aide poachers is tempting to rangers that are barely paid a weeks salary for a months work.
Though the majority of Rhino poaching occurs at Kruger, smaller reserves have also been affected. Poachers have hunted in a variety of game reserves, leaving behind mutilated carcasses of Rhinos, with their horns hacked out of their heads, their eyes gouged out, and their genitalia and ears cut off. To make matters worse, new hunting methods and high-calibre weapons have been developed to make the poaching of these 900 kg animals easier. Helicopters, high-powered rifles, tranquillizer guns, veterinary drugs and night vision goggles have all been used. Since Edna Molewa ordered a “restriction” of Entorphine (M99) back in 2012 there has been quite a large reduction of Rhinos being poached using tranquillizer guns and M99.
Unfortunately the poachers are fighting back. The eyes and and ears of the African skies the Vulture has been targeted viciously by both Rhino and Elephant poachers using cyanide or diclofenac a NSAID anti-inflammatory that is normally used within human and veterinary medicine to reduce skeletal inflammation. Vultures would normally be the first alerting sign to law enforcement on the ground of a dead carcass or seriously injured Rhino that is haemorrhaging profusely.
Have we lost the battle though>? it seems not, nor are we going too. This month has seen more people such as high ranking celebrities and wildlife photographers taking up awareness campaigns or helping to reduce Rhino poaching through whatever means they can. Rhino horn smuggling and selling is transnational and worth millions of dollars, causing the rise in Rhino poaching to only increase throughout the years.
However, in response, in 2012, South African and Vietnamese governments signed a treaty increasing enforcement of hunting bans to deal with Rhino poaching and other conservation issues. The two governments have since been sharing information to clampdown on offenders. Their goal is to disrupt Rhino smuggling transit routes from Africa to Asia.
Celebrities have also played a huge part in Rhino horn awareness, Prince William, David Beckham and Yao Ming teamed up with WildAid to create a series of public service announcements (PSAs), aimed at China and Vietnam, urging people to not support the trading of illegal wildlife. In the first video, the trio focused solely on the ever decreasing population of rhinos due to poaching.
WHEN THE BUYING STOPS THE KILLING CAN TOO!
PLEASE TELL YOUR FAMILY AND FRIENDS NOT TO BUY RHINO HORN, IVORY OR SHARK FIN!
David Beckham and the Duke of Cambridge Prince William team up to protect our mega fauna;
Back in June Prince William and soccer legend David Beckham teamed up to launch a campaign that aims to protect animals from illegal poaching. The Duke of Cambridge, who is also the president of United For Wildlife, promoted the new hashtag #WhoseSideAreYouOn while flanked by Beckham and other star athletes at Google Town Hall in Central London.
“The illegal wildlife trade is responsible for the slaughter of tens of thousands of animals a year, pushing some of our most beloved species to the brink of extinction,” William said. “Our children should not live in a world without elephants, tigers, lions and rhinos. Enough is enough. It is time to choose between critically endangered species and the criminals who kill them for money.”
The #WhoseSideAreYouOn campaign aims to reach people via Twitter, Facebook, Google Plus and You Tube. Supporters will also be urged to participate in or watch United For Wildlife sports events. In anticipation of the launch, William posed alongside his brother Prince Harry for a photo posted to United For Wildlife’s Twitter account. The brothers held a sign that bore the campaign start date of June 9, as well as their royal signatures that can be seen below along with Tennis Champion Andy Murray.
While there are many celebrities now taking up the fight to protect our critically endangered wildlife species there are also the likes of Hilary O’Leary a Zimbabwean wildlife photographer that has been creating awareness of the Rhino poaching epidemic. Miss O’Leary entered a stunning picture of a baby Rhino calf into the Wildlife Photographer of the Year award back in June 2014. Entered into the Natural History Museum (WPY) Award Hilary O’Leary explains in her own words to Dr Josa Depre what inspired her to enter this particular photograph into the award - The interview can be seen below;
Picture Hilary O’Leary
An interview with Hilary O’Leary - Hilary O’Leary has entered one of her stills into the Natural History Museum - Wildlife Photography of the Year Award that has since we published seen an unprecedented amount of support from the public voting in their droves. Please scroll down to view the image, click on the picture and please vote.
Josa - When did you become interested in photography?
Hilary O’Leary - I am fortunate to live in a place which has the most magical things to see and about 3 years ago I realized there was so much more to see when you change the way you view things.. I would say my first interested in photography was about 5 months after I started taking wildlife pictures.. when all of a sudden I felt that wonderful feeling of capturing a great
image. Only then could I see the difference between taking pictures and
Josa - What’s been your most worked on project and what obstacles did you have to overcome in concluding that particular project?
Hilary O’Leary - My photography is purely a hobby and the only project I could assign to have had has been two or three Photography competitions. So no obstacles yet.
Josa - Whom inspired you to become such a professionally outstanding photographer? I state outstanding as I have viewed some of your past work and you have a great eye for detail.
Hilary O’Leary - I would say I know what I like and have admired and recognized styles throughout all Wildlife Photographers work I have witnessed. I would say the feeling you get when you look at some pictures is what inspires me most.
Josa - I can see you have quite a fondness for African Rhino, do you intend on using your work to fund Rhino projects such as anti-poaching or funding orphanages?
Hilary O’Leary - Yes I love Rhino, only when you have a chance to spend time with them to you realize how innocent and gentle they are. I want to help in anyway I can.
Josa - Rhino poaching has for this year drastically overtaken previous records from 2010, 2011 and 2012 with a near 600 Rhinos slaughtered for fake medicine. How does this make you feel knowing that we could soon see the second largest land mammal banished from the face of the earth and do you have any projects to help sustain Rhino preservation?
Hilary O’Leary - The feeling is - desperate. I can’t help but think the next generation will spend all its resources repairing the damage… But I believe we can make a difference and we will win.
Josa - Can you please explain to our readers what inspired you to take this particular photograph and what sentimental value it has to you?
Hilary O’Leary - The picture was quite incidental as I was driving past and saw a scene.. I only saw what I had captured when I downloaded the images… and the message was so strong. I felt it fitted ” a picture says a thousand words” connotation perfectly.
Josa - Environmental News and Media, Speak up for the Voiceless and International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa have been hosting a youth photography group on-line for the past two years. Do you have any advice, skills or information you’d like to provide to our younger readers that are currently actively involved within youth photography and wildlife preservation?
Hilary O’Leary - I can only say the world is in our hands and there are enough of us to make a difference. I love a quote a read in a different context about training but would like to re-use it here in the war against anti-poaching - its like fighting with a lion… you don’t stop when your tired you stop when the lions tired. We all respond to an image and a single flash of one can stay in our minds
forever… capturing the right images keep the moment real forever and that can change lives!
Josa - What camera and exposure did you use to take this photo pictured above and how long did you have to wait to obtain that pure brilliant shot?
Hilary O’Leary - I use Canon, and it was early morning so light was a little low… 1/200, f2.8
Josa - You have entered this particular piece into the wildlife photography of the year award and since we have published this onto our pages and now ENM site it has generated hundreds of votes and many thousands of shares and likes. Will you be planning on furthering your career outside of your home country Zimbabwe and if so what areas do you plan on working on?
Hilary O’Leary - I have not thought about it… will see what opportunities arrive.
Josa - What’s been your proudest moment in life during this career of photography and why?
Hilary O’Leary - Well it would have to be the current situation, a picture that has created such a wonderful, strong response and a message that has been received correctly.
Josa - On viewing your work past and present I can see that a great deal of patience has gone into perfecting that best shot that has won the hearts and minds of many. Can you describe to our readers just how long it takes you to obtain such outstanding stills, the work that goes into obtaining that perfect still, and how many days and nights have you worked on just one single project?
Hilary O’Leary - I think the time has been spent in recognizing, out of the thousands of images I have taken, which one had the special message. Hours of editing, deleting and searching for a great image..
Josa - What’s been your worst downfall within your career of photography?
Hilary O’Leary - Can’t think right now… I hope its not yet to come either!
Josa - Where do you see oneself in ten years time and do you plan on keeping this amazing work up?
Hilary O’Leary - I hope I will have managed to make, support or assist in the changes we are desperate to see. I hope the success can be measured over years and decades to come. . I hope in 10 years we still have the animals that are so critically endangered.
End of interview.
Hilary O’Leary met this little black Rhino whilst spending time at the Malilangwe Conservation Trust in Zimbabwe. The Rhino’s story, however, is not as sad as it might seem. His mother is alive and they are protected by the trust. This image is part of our first ever People’s Choice Award. Since publishing the Hilary O’Leary’s still via our Facebook, Environmental News and Media sites there has been a whopping amount of public support.
People in their thousands have liked and hundreds more have set about voting too. Please don’t forget to vote by clicking on the photo above or by clicking the link here please remember that the closing date for voting is 5th September 2014. Please share this article and ask your friends and family to vote too. The more awareness created of our endangered species the more support can be generated hopefully securing their future furthermore.
Meanwhile in Zimbabwe it has been alleged that Rhino poaching has decreased and Zimbabwe’s Black Rhinoceros population has increased too. The Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate has revealed that there has been a significant drop in Rhino poaching between 2010 and 2013. The African rhino has continued to attract the world’s attention with fears the species might become extinct due to poaching.
In an effort to raise awareness on the need to protect the Rhino species, the country has carried several awareness campaigns. In a speech read on his behalf during the launch of a 500km Rhino Awareness Walk, Minister Saviour Kasukuwere said 52 Rhino were killed in 2010, but the number went down to 38 in 2011 before further decreasing to 22 in 2012.
In 2013, only 16 Rhino were killed.
The black Rhino population has also been steadily increasing from 429 in 2011 to 457 in 2013. The white Rhino species has also increased from 279 in 2011 to 296 in 2013. A professional guide, Sam Nkomo will carry out a 500 kilometre walk from the Matobo National Park to Victoria Falls from the 14th to the 18th of September in a bid to educate communities on the need to preserve the country’s wildlife.
Zimbabwe Tourism Authority chief executive Karikoga Kaseke pledged $1000 towards Nkomo’s walk and urged the corporate sector to contribute towards wildlife conservation awareness programmes. Rhino are classified as endangered on the red list database of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as their numbers are critically low. Zimbabwe developed a National Rhino Policy and Management Framework for the period 2011 to 2016 in March 2011 in an effort to increase the Black and White Rhino population.
Whilst Rhino poaching has been slowly decreasing in Zimbabwe President Barack Obama United States President has been lobbied by environmentalists to now place sanctions against Mozambique in an effort to curb Rhino and Elephant poaching in other African countries where poaching of both Elephants and Rhino is spiralling out of control. Investigators say substantial evidence exists of Mozambique’s failure to abide by international conventions against wildlife trafficking, including to back up allegations of state complicity.
While President Obama last year mounted a new initiative by the U.S. government to tackle international wildlife trafficking, with a particular focus on ivory, some say Mozambique’s actions are undermining those efforts – and threatening these species worldwide. A new petition, publicly announced that Wednesday, now provides evidence on the issue and urges the president to make use of legal authorities to encourage Mozambique to crack down on poachers.
“Mozambique continues to play an ever-growing and uncontained role in Rhinoceros and Elephant poaching,” Susie Ellis, executive director of the International Rhino Foundation, one of the petitioners, told IPS.
“Although they have been given direction by the international community to enact certain controls, those have been only superficial and have had no meaningful effect. If you look at the large-scale poaching and illegal trade in Rhino horn and Elephant ivory out of Mozambique, it’s directly undercut President Obama’s [efforts] on wildlife trafficking.”
Increasingly working hand in hand with organised crime, poachers over the past three years have killed record numbers of Elephants and Rhinoceroses, particularly in Africa. Some 50,000 Elephants are being killed each year in Africa, alongside 1,000 Rhinos, leaving perhaps as few as 250,000 Elephants in the wild globally.
Driving this illicit market is increased consumer demand in Asia, particularly in China and Vietnam. According to a U.N. report from last year, large seizures of ivory bound for Asia have more than doubled since 2009. The new petition focuses on the central international agreement around wildlife trafficking, known as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and warns that Mozambique’s outsized role in African ivory poaching is diluting the convention’s effectiveness. The CITES standing committee is meeting next week in Switzerland.
“Available evidence indicates that Mozambican nationals constitute the highest number of foreign arrests for poaching in South Africa. Organized crime syndicates based in Mozambique are driving large scale illegal trade in Rhino horn and Elephant ivory,” the petition states. (Please sign the petition by clicking the link to your left highlighted)….
“Given the scope and depth of the illegal killing and trade in Rhino and Elephant products by Mozambican nationals, we urge the United States to … enact substantial trade sanctions.”
Supporters say that strong action by the Mozambican authorities would have a significant and immediate impact on the global supply of illicit ivory.
Officials reportedly estimate that 80 to 90 percent of all poachers in South Africa’s massive Kruger National Park are Mozambican nationals. Local groups say that on most nights more than a dozen separate poaching parties can be prowling the park, most from well-documented “poaching villages” located across the border in Mozambique.
Meanwhile, enforcement of wildlife-related legislation in Mozambique is said to be essentially non-existent, with penalties for poaching and trafficking thus far not effective. Yet changing that situation has been complicated by what appears to be state collusion.
“It’s impossible for that level of illegal activity to be going on without high-level complicity,” Allan Thornton, president of the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), a watchdog group based here and in London that co-authored the new petition, told IPS.
“We believe that there are ex-military officials who are providing political protection to the [trafficking] syndicates who are arming and funding these poaching teams. There is substantial evidence implicating both the police and military.”
Mozambique keeps strict control over the types of weapons used by the country’s poachers, Thornton notes, yet such weapons are available to the military. Similarly, police and military uniforms have repeatedly been found in poaching camps.
Thornton says that putting together the new petition took several months, due to the mass of evidence available.
“If all Mozambican citizens were prevented from illicitly crossing over the border, poaching would drop significantly. But there has been no enforcement on the Mozambique side, despite legal obligations under CITES,” he says.
“We believe that the Mozambique government should be held accountable for their activities and act rapidly against these poachers, criminal syndicates and those protecting them. They could close this trade literally in a week.
Thornton says his office is not yet clear on whether the Obama administration has exerted diplomatic pressure on the Mozambique government over the issue of wildlife trafficking. But in filing the new petition, these groups are highlighting the fact that the president does indeed have the legal backing to act on the issue.
Under U.S. legislation known as the Pelly Amendment, the president is allowed to impose trade sanctions if a country is certified to be “diminishing the effectiveness” of an international conservation programme. (U.S. officials could not be reached for comment for this story.)
Further, there is notable precedent under which past determinations – set in motion by EIA petitions – have met with particular success. Two decades ago, for instance, a similar petition was lodged around the trafficking of rhinoceros and tiger parts through Taiwan into China.
That effort resulted in U.S. trade sanctions. Over the following two years, both the Taiwanese and Chinese governments engaged in a broad crackdown on these trades.
“This had a huge impact on reducing demand [for ivory] and reducing the poaching of Rhinos virtually around the world,” Thornton says.
“We saw Rhino populations stabilise worldwide, because two of the biggest markets had closed for demand. This is the same thing we’re now looking for in Mozambique.”
He continues: “And we’re hoping for a particularly prompt response, because the scope of illegal activities we’re currently seeing – where one country is sending hundreds of poachers into another country – is almost unparalleled.”
ALL OUT WAR!
International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and many hundred more organisations are desperately trying to reduce the Scrooge of Rhino and Elephant poaching that is considered now a war. This war doesn’t just affect Africans or their wildlife. Black market trade of both ivory and Rhino horn is fuelling the trade in firearms and terrorism abroad and within the continent of Africa of which has to be tackled at top governmental level. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa have been lobbying the United Nations and sent to all (CITES) signatories communications to now support an immediate call for sanctions against Mozambique, Vietnam and China for their failure to reduce both poaching and black market trade. Regardless of what many have stated would actually harm an already impoverished country something has to be done (sanctions must be implemented). While we know poaching and black market trade would decrease sanctions wouldn’t necessarily be spread out over a course of time. So in reality finical harm would be of the lowest. One has to look at it like this. If we lose the Rhino and Elephant, tourism that is a huge money generator would be significantly impacted of which would increase unemployment, crime and anti-social behaviour and leave South Africa that is a modernising country in turmoil financially. We cannot any longer continue to treat the symptoms we have to cure the illness full stop.
Since 2012 the Environmental and Animal Welfare Organisation have sent countless emails and met with a dozen ministers within countries assigned to the (CITES) agreement. Furthermore the Environmental Organisation has been lobbying the United Nations and the British Government to push for sanctions, and to increase military presence from British soldiers not on active service or from the territorial army. Kruger National Park as explained is massive in size and there is simply not enough troops on the ground to fight this war. Training is also needed to now combat the new wave of poachers that are heavily armed and ex-military special forces. South Africa’s ranger units are not equipped or trained in such warfare so training and funding to provide equipment is essential. SNARE the video below was released in 2012 and depicts true real life events, those that comment on Social Media platforms such as Facebook, YouTube, Myspace do not always grasp just how serious this war is. An insight into a rangers life can be seen in last years video release below.
Rangers in the thick of it;
Since the war on poaching began many African ranger and Anti Poaching Units have come under heavy from psychotic rangers. Poachers have also been actively involved in terrorising farmers and individual security services employed to secure our Rhino species. Wildlife rangers endure similar ordeals to soldiers in combat. They routinely face death, injury, or torture from poachers, and the wild animals they protect can kill them too. In the DRC, which has been riven by almost two decades of civil war and political instability, about 150 rangers have been killed in Virunga alone since 2004.
Rangers are exposed to deeply disturbing scenes, with each poached carcass a frustrating and grisly reminder of failure, and they operate in the bush under harsh physical conditions, often with inadequate equipment, pay, and support. International Animal Rescue Foundation this year began phase II of Funding African Wildlife Survival - Operation Equip. This July IARFA have successfully donated $1,111USD to Fund a Ranger - Save a Rhino and donated a further $100USD to the Virunga National Park of which will see a seven man team in combat for a total of one week. F.A.W.S has proven successful since phase II and has already began its phase III Anti Dog Meat Education Operation focusing attention on Liberia the largest African dog meat eating country on the continent.
“Worldwide, about two rangers are killed every week,” says Sean Willmore, president of the International Ranger Federation and founder of the Thin Green Line Foundation, a charity that trains rangers and supports the widows of those killed in the line of duty. “But that’s only partial data,” he adds. “It could be double that amount.” Should Elephant poaching take off in South Africa of which has seen one Elephant poached for its ivory in the Kruger this year we could very well see more rangers shot dead or fatally wounded. Were dealing with heavily armed, well trained and fearless African poachers that will not stop at nothing, especially when a months wages can be earned in a single day.
However its not all doom and gloom. Whilst we all continue to chip in to help those that require more help than IARFA then this war can be won. Rangers are fighting back harder than before. At the start of the year Eleven suspected poachers were killed alone in the flagship national park by SA National Parks (SANParks) rangers and members of the SA Defence Force. Most of the gun battles happened at night after poaching gangs crossed the border from Mozambique. The killing to some may be seen as a godsend however is unfortunately not stopping the bandits from continuing to enter the parks.
Poachers operate in groups of four to six. They are aggressive and engage and shoot at the rangers on sight, creating a daily, life-threatening situation. SANParks said in a statement it was “appealing to the South African public to support efforts by rangers to stop the mass killing on both sides.
International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has been actively involved in helping to reduce poaching in many ways. Investigating corrupt professional hunters then passing the evidence on, engaging small Rhino ranches pushing funding and equipment to staff on the ground that have literally nothing to defend themselves. Lobbying (CITES) signatories, the United Nations and British Government to now impose and support an immediate temporary sanctions against Mozambique, Vietnam and China. Furthermore we are supporting a no trade in Rhino horn and are venomously pushing and succeeding to now ban Rhino hunting across Africa where Rhino populations are still extant. When the demand stops the poaching will too.
Thank you for reading and please do not forget to vote for Hilary O’Leary Wildlife Photographer.
Dr Josa C. Depre
Chief Environmental Officer
Rhinoceros poaching is officially out of control, as if we didn’t know this already. The press are only reporting on poaching and what if’s, along with the pro trade lobbyists idea’s of how they truly believe the Rhinoceros is going to survive with it’s horn removed just above the growing point.
The Rt Honourable Edna Molewa has simply bypassed all talks from others and technologies that have been presented to her in blue print and other formalities that are still awaiting patent pending. Both from ourselves International Animal Rescue Foundation© along with two proven security technologies that we are ready to put to use within the fields of Africa and upon ranches and farms.
Proven at a cost over e17,000 from our own pockets. The press though seem to only want to drivel on about the dehorning of our 50 million year old prehistoric realm with very few mentions locally and internationally of the Rhinoceros treatment programme that has been proven to work time again and not one single Rhinoceros has been poached to date with this security implementation in place.
The Trans-frontier fence that was protecting around 89% all species of Rhinoceros and other fauna still hasn’t been erected from which International Animal Rescue Foundation© are now pushing for the dividing fence to be re-erected and electrified within the next two to three months before we completely lose all the Kruger Rhinoceros. Deputy Water and Environmental Affairs Minister Honourable Rejoice Mabudafhasi and Vietnam’s Deputy Agriculture and Rural Development Minister, Honourable Ha Cong Tuan, on Monday May 6th 2013 signed an agreement to now take furthering action to curb the epidemic of Rhinoceros poaching thus preserving our African and international heritage protecting both ours and our children’s future. However we have yet to see these actions implemented to even put into practice. The date for these 26 proposals have been stated to be released within a year.
Early last week June 2013 Minister Molewa and Minister Carvalho Muaria met to speak on working together on tackling the cross border insurgencies of mainly Mozambique’s crossing into South Africa illegally with talks also focusing on the (MOU) Memorandum of Understanding, and the village that we call (Little Mayfair) that once hosted around 1,200 underprivileged individuals.
The village is now soon to be moved (apparently). The village no longer hosts 1,200 poor and non-working individuals, it holds millionaires that have pocketed from poaching the Rhinoceros thus selling the horn on for around $65,000 to $75,000 a kilogram. Both ministers have still done nothing to take action, with no dates, other than a (2016) promise deadline. 2016 will see most of the 15,000 (estimated) rhinoceros pushed into nearing extinction.
Please note that the 15,000 is not an accurate number as we simply do not know how many Rhinoceros there are within Southern Africa. Observing poaching rates though and mathematically calculating gestation rates, the number of Rhinoceros poached a day and populations of the last census (2010) we have come to the conclusion that this is all we have in the way of Rhinoceros left within Southern Africa that hosts the world’s largest populations with ¼ owned to private owners. No census has still be undertaken so that it can be assessed if the Rhinoceros needs to be moved up from vulnerable on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species to endangered.
The (IUCN) have quoted that the White Rhinoceros was listed from 1994 as vulnerable to then hitting (NT) from 2002-2011 as near threatened. So how can these numbers be increasing if there hasn’t been a census undertaken? As of 31ST December 2010, there were an estimated 20,170 White Rhinoceros in the wild. As of December 2008 there were an estimated 750 in captivity worldwide. The majority (98.8%) of White Rhinoceros occur in just four countries (South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Kenya).
This doesn’t make sense though as the Department of Environmental Affairs stated to us (2012 Jan) that the populations of White Rhinoceros for 2010 was in fact 22,800. Hence why we need a census sooner rather than later. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) and the Department of Environmental Affairs both confirmed that when the Vietnamese hunting permits were banned (2012), there was a 100% increase in hunting permits from continents within Europe.
Them continents were in fact Poland, the old Yugoslav Republic, Russia, Estonia, Serbia, and the Ukraine. Both parties agreed that pseudo hunting was still ongoing yet not one department has actually acknowledged this professionally nor have they still implemented a temporary Rhinoceros hunting moratorium that would then prove we did have pseudo hunters deriving from non-European states. By placing a temporary ban on Rhinoceros hunting too this would make evident if their would be any change on the market.
In March 2013 the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna confirmed that Europe was the key supplier of “resins” to Asia that was in fact flooding the Asian black market with a colossal 90% fake Rhinoceros horn material. INTERPOL and Cites have still yet to locate the suppliers of these resins that would if they were banned cut demand and reduce poaching of our majestic species the Rhinoceros identified by Dr Burchell in 1817. Companies and organisations are moving as fast as they can to preserve the Rhinoceros both on ranches and within the wild exhausting every type of security method that can be used.
However no sooner after the Conference of Parties meetings took place Minister Molewa then decided that the “taboo” subject of legalising the Rhinoceros horn trade had to be on the agenda for CoP 17 that coincidentally is to be held within South Africa.
Coincidentally poachers are back to using hunting rifles and old school techniques which we knew would happen when the Department of Environmental Affairs in (2012) banned farmer’s and any other individuals unless they were a veterinary officer from using (Entorphine) more commonly known as M99. This fact doesn’t seem to have been raised though as to why poachers are back to using guns and not tranquilising darts.
Without accusing a single individual here it’s blatantly obvious that the farming community was heavily involved within the 2011 horrific murders of almost 500 Rhinoceros.
So lets take a recap of the Rhinoceros poaching numbers from 2010 to 2013 to date for June 24th;
2010 - 330 Rhinoceros poached 1 poached a day
2011 - 448 Rhinoceros poached 1-2 poached a day
2012 - 668 Rhinoceros poached 2-3 poached a day
2013 June 24th 436 Rhinoceros poached - 3 poached a day
2013 - Saw all the Limpopo Rhinoceros pushed to extinction 2013 - In one week alone we lost twenty four Rhinoceros
The poaching statistics stand at - 11.5 hours a Rhinoceros is poached, however this is no longer factual and we are losing Rhinoceros faster than we are losing water from leaking manholes.
The pro trade lobbyists argue that a dehorning the Rhinoceros will cease the poaching. We and others have known this to be non-factual as even if there is a stub at around six inches from the base to the growing point this will still place the Rhinoceros in more danger.
Please view the May 2013 link http://showme.co.za/nelspruit/news/poachers-strike-pro-trade-advocate/
The pro trade lobbyists may argue that whilst the Rhinoceros is de-horned then this will most certainly preserve their life. We disagree.
The Rhinoceros is also placed in more danger of extinction. Whilst there is a stub of horn and there is also a farm containing Rhinoceros then the poacher will have to kill more Rhinoceros to gain the “full horn”. So one 6 inch stub simply is not enough. 3-4 Rhinoceros would have to be poached and that is exactly what happened in May on Mr and Mrs Hume’s farm of de-horned Rhinoceros.
This is not the only case of Rhinoceros that have been poached with horns partially removed too.
6th March 2012 - Two de-horned Rhinoceros were poached http://m.looklocal.co.za/looklocal/content/en/lowveld/lowveld-mobile-news?oid=5070537&sn=Mobile-Detail&pid=4732825&Dehorned-rhino-poached-in-Onderberg
Then another hit dating 2012 - http://safaritalk.net/topic/9394-dehorned-pregnant-rhinos-killed-zululand/
ZWF HOTLINE - Dehorned, pregnant rhinos killed - Zululand Observer 08/10/12 Story Dave Savides Plus two more in Sabi Game Reserve adjoining Kruger Despite strict security and the fact that they had already been dehorned last year, two pregnant white rhinos were found dead at Bonamanzi Game Reserve on Friday.
The poachers got away with barely a few centimetres of newly-grown horn after shooting the animals. Well aware of the poaching threat, the private reserve outside Hluhluwe employs round-the clock security, all their rhino are equipped with GPS tracking devices and all but one had been dehorned last November. ‘The last of the Bonamanzi rhinos to be dehorned, will undergo the painless procedure on Tuesday and is currently under the protection of eight armed guards,’ said a spokesperson.
It is unfortunate that this was set to be done two weeks ago but was postponed. The practice is conducted under the supervision of an experienced and qualified wildlife veterinarian, the district conservation officer and attending wildlife practitioners. ‘Horns are stored off the property in a secure vault.’ Bonamanzi said all horns are micro-chipped, enabling tracing. ‘Aeroplanes all over the country are tracking the culprits as we speak. ‘Owners and management of the reserve will spare no expense to create an idyllic, safe sanctuary for a healthy breeding population of rhino on the reserve.’ End of news update 2012 ——
De-horning does not work and one can do their own investigations into this should they wish too and then view more Rhinoceros that have been dehorned only to be poached for a mere few centimetres.
What do we do then? Well we have the many technologies that are currently being developed, two of which International Animal Rescue Foundation© have already developed one of them we are awaiting patent pending. The security is vast, affordable, and only requires a small team to secure 100 hectares of land or more.
There is though of which we will speak more on at a later date the Rhinoceros Horn Treatment Programme an excellent and proven technology that has now many new introductions.
This we recommend 100% and NO Rhinoceros have been slaughtered by poachers since being treated. You can read more about the Rhinoceros treatment programme within the link below; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2335274/Rhino-horns-poisoned-painted-PINK-poachers-away-revolutionary-scheme-South-Africa.html
Please note the Rhinoceros horn is not actually painted pink as the headlines in the Daily Mail have stated, they do though have a pink dye injected that will show up on Airport Scanners. Most if not all customs officers have been briefed on this and what to spot.
For now we leave you and will be bringing you some excellent updates on the new updates that we are working on and others have already placed with the field.
Say no to Rhinoceros horn trade and please vote below on whether you want Rhinoceros horn legalised or not legalised until all other options are exhausted.
Please sign our petition to which we require only 1,500 signatures to now enforce the trans-frontier fence to be erected within the next 2-4 months or at least a response to state that this will be undertaken and not just empty promises.
Failure is not within our vocabulary and we will break the back of poaching. Please watch out for our upcoming documents on Poaching and Terrorism. Director International Animal Rescue Foundation
If not you then WHO? - If not now then WHEN?
Just as we believed and predicted although cannot prove on publishing the first document 20th April 2013 with regards to our own concerns with chemical trails a document was released by the American government stating that chemtrails were nothing to be of any concern and all the hype was over a few misconceptions and ill-informed individuals that were “paranoid”.
However the United States Government and the Environmental Protection Agency along with NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) still refuses to acknowledge why they feel it is necessary to pollute our skies with more toxic chemicals that have been proven past and present to be harmful to one’s health, and environmentally damaging although yet again this is still to be ascertained.
Within the team at International Animal Rescue Foundation © all staff paid and voluntary have extensive educational and professional backgrounds of up to forty to fifty years and are now in the process of challenging all governmental environmental agencies (within this training programme) into providing validating information via the freedom of information act on the usage of over forty chemicals.
Forty chemicals that are frequently sprayed from military tanker planes over America and Europe, why they are spraying, why they have lied to the public as seen within the video of our first document paragraph (16) first video 20th April 2013, why they stipulated at first that chemical trail programmes were part of weather pattern modifications to now being used as stated within the first video for military training programmes.
We are fully aware that obtaining this valuable yet crucial information is going to prove extraordinarily difficult so we have asked our own environmental, climatological and marine biology researchers within continents that are being sprayed to gather after spraying has been viewed water, soil, air and live botanical samples to establish exactly what other chemicals are being used and what dangers these could pose to human, animal and aquatic life.
The first nation we have already approached of which we are now releasing this information is the United Kingdom under section 2000 of the Freedom of Information Act.
The reasons for this request under Sec. 2000 of the FOIA Act are listed below;
- Chemicals that are being sprayed.
- Why these chemicals are being sprayed
- Any proven evidence to establish if these chemicals pose a health risk that could reduce fertility, increase or bring on the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, environmental pollution to marine and land mammals
- Evidence to prove that these chemicals are used for weather modifications
- Confidentially and secrecy involving weather modification
- What companies are involved and who is providing these chemicals
- Why are military jet liners undertaking these missions with global positioning systems disabled within civilian airspace
- Biochemical species experimentation
We are more than aware that the questions and concerns raised will most likely not be acknowledged so, because the United Kingdom falls under one of the nations that are being sprayed then we have contacted as of the 16th April 2013 other organisations/companies of which should we be refused this information that in theory should be placed within the public domain then we will use these companies at our disposal as well as other individuals that we are not naming for privacy, confidentially and security reasons.
Within paragraph 16(first video) one American scientist blatantly admits that the chemicals that are being sprayed at an altitude of just under 40,000 feet “have not been researched on whether they are a danger to public health” so for that reason the public under section 2000 of the FOIA Act has every reason to be informed on the short term or long term health risks of such chemical trail exposure - exposed to them.
Conspiracy theories are and have been circulating the World Wide Web along with much misunderstanding and governmental cover ups to corruption and wrong data published on many sites that show many misconceptions and errors to non-proven factual evidence. International Animal Rescue Foundation © must and will only under our mission statement provide the truth and only factual data and not theories, maybe’s, if’s or buts.
As stated in part one of the chemtrail exposure we briefly explained an operation named as Operation Black Swan of which much if not most of this data has vanished or been removed from Google, Facebook forums, to private forums and YouTube videos with no reasons made public as to why the content was removed.
Normally when content is removed one has to provide to a “company” although it’s not legally binding in Europe or America [as such] a DMCA: Digital Millennium Copyright Act notice, “WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998, “Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act.
The law creates limitations on the liability of online service providers for copyright infringement when engaging in certain types of activities, “Computer Maintenance Competition Assurance Act,” creates an exemption for making a copy of a computer program by activating a computer for purposes of maintenance or repair.
There is also Title IV that contains under the Clinton Treaty 1998 six miscellaneous provisions, relating to the functions of the Copyright Office, distance education, the exceptions in the Copyright Act for libraries and for making ephemeral recordings, “webcasting” of sound recordings on the Internet, and the applicability of collective bargaining agreement obligations in the case of transfers of rights in motion pictures. ! Title V, the “Vessel Hull Design Protection Act,” creates a new form of protection for the design of vessel hulls.
When we viewed all information on Operation Black Swan thus then reporting on this coincidentally “although not evidentially proven” our own information then other’s was removed immediately without warning.
As stated in the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act notice the company that removed[s] must provide information on who removed that data and the informer[s] name be published whether it be a court order, complaint or simple removal for theft of materials should there be a specific order placed that states no name is to be provided then under international law this indicates that the informer and/or company/organisation/government maybe a high profile figure that has to be subject to a secrecy gagging order.
As explained though this does not imply to every one of which we do believe the government are exempt which is why we are extremely suspicious. The content that was removed derived from “American sources”.
The subsequent information that was published on Operation Black Swan that involved millions of animals both land and marine being washed up and located dead in mysterious circumstances still remains just that, a complete mystery with many theories circulated and still in circulation although limited to quantity and data “for now”.
The persons that “informed” the domain[s] host[s], company[s] to remove all data from the networks is still as yet non-identifiable. So for that reason we will still formally investigate into and ascertain as to what caused these mass deaths and why no one was accountable or disciplined to no formal data released to what this “phenomena was” or if chemical trail weather modification technology had been used. It is blatantly obvious that this technology is however no evidence as yet can back this up with Operation Black Swan and extremely touchy subject with regards to the United States Government.
We do believe that this was an international military exercise of which all nations that have been implicated in chemtrail usage also saw a colossal death rate of birds, fish, and other mammals and non-mammalians.
We also have a right to be more than concerned because if the governments or whomever was involved within this exercise are spraying deadly chemicals that can on a gargantuan level kill millions of animals then what’s to say they “cannot do the same to human life” which then brings into question as explained in the first video (document 1 paragraph 16) video (1) that this is a form of “population control and/or new military biochemical weapon being devised” for the use in modern warfare to eliminate an enemy rapidly.
Ruling out all other theories for this moment in time we have placed below evidence of mammal and non-mammal deaths that “could be related to Operation Black Swan” although as yet not proven.
- http://news.nationalpost.com/2010/12/31/green-chemical-in-b-c-river-not-toxic-study-confirms/ (interesting case as the river turned fluorescent green – then an update stated after a fountain beside the veterans memorial parkway in Langford also turned green) so this was not a natural occurrence and the only way the fountain could possibly had turned the same colour is if the same chemicals within it and but not connected in “anyway” to the river is if someone or a large drop of chemicals had been placed within it via spraying. Again all cases are reported or noticeable within the early mornings and never in the evenings or night indicating that areas are/or maybe under monitoring by the government of which they know that more reports would come in of odd irregularities.
- http://beforeitsnews.com/mass-animal-death/2011/01/operation-black-swan-killing-birds-fish-people-352025.html (When we reported on Operation Black Swan our documents and other sites vanished of line along with other mysterious events. The main governmental whistle blower was also found dead along with one other Russian individual – Cause of death’s) – Suicide, many documents and videos where subsequently removed from social media sites, one of our main environmental investigation intelligence sites was shut down immediately by “unknown organisations” of which we was sent a message stating that we had broken the Freedom of Speech Act, to this day we have never known of such law.) – We simply documented on a military operation that had no explanation to conclusive data to explain why many thousands of animals perished internationally. To this day the Government of the United States of America have still refused to acknowledge FOIA’s to even scientific emails from our own environmental unit. International Environmental Investigations Committee (IEIC)
The list of mysterious environmental animal deaths have gone fairly unnoticed to the international public, however some cases as stipulated by federal investigators and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that’s coincidentally working with (HAARP) have been reported to have been started deliberately by agriculturists administering ground poisons all of which the cases were mostly within the early mornings.
This would give us reason to believe on a professional status that should the governments of the United States and Europe be using some form of High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program technology, then the most likely time of day to be conducting experimental frequency research would be early morning when more animals are mostly active and members of the public can report thus then informing environmental agencies that consequently then report to (HAARP) High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program Unit in Alaska of the outcome of such environmental experimental activities.
Any furthering investigations by members of the public or questions/debates on why such events are occurring have been placed down to “disease or human/species interference” from which no evidence is placed within the public domain.
It is not the first time mass birds deaths have occurred on American soil.
Just before the stroke of midnight on New Year’s Eve 2010, thousands of birds started to rain down on the small town of Beebe, Arkansas. (Would this be because of the party celebrations increasing noise pollution of which if (HARRP) did fire the high frequency fields up then no one would be none the wiser)?
Up to 5,000 red-winged blackbirds fell in a short stretch no more than 800 yards wide, sprinkling roads, rooftops and lawns. In some places, the ground was turned almost black. Officials initially blamed high-altitude hail or lightning hitting the birds.
Then preliminary lab tests concluded they had died from ‘multiple blunt force trauma’, implying they had flown into something. (Birds don’t just fly into blunt objects and it is very rare for any species of blackbird to be flying to at night FACT) The black birds are not nocturnal hunters and feed mostly of insects, small tree fruits and seeds to worms and snails. (Why was there no predatory birds found dead)?
The prime suspect was New Year fireworks, which could have startled the birds from their roosts thus sending them crashing into houses, trees and each other. (Non-proven) The U.S. Geological Survey has said it knew of 16 cases over the past 20 years of large numbers of blackbirds dying at once. Investigators admit they may never discover what happened.
Within our mission statement we must provide factual evidence and not “theories or conspiracies” as by doing this it misleads the public and thus creating panic and misconceptions. HAARP is of a concern to us and we have raised the following questions;
- If HAARP was being used to for environmental protection then why has climate destruction disaster increased from a rate from 1980 to 2011 skyrocketing from $100 billion USD to over $400 billion USD that’s gradually increasing yearly with more cyclones, typhoons, hurricanes or tropical storms, extensive catastrophic flooding, and some of the most harshest winters and summer’s and extraordinarily unpredictable weather patterns?
- America and Europe have both been implicated in using High Frequency Active Auroral Research technology HAARP, so if we look back at the recent firestorms and damage created if HARRP was being used to alter weather patterns thus moving clouds then why did we not see this technology used within America and Europe within 2011, 2012, 2013 when summer fire storms hit the many continents. Surely HARRP would then use this so called weather adapting technology to then erase these colossal fire damaging storms thus decreasing government expenditure, economic crisis, and insurance claims and death?
- It was quoted - HAARP would be the largest ionospheric heater in the world, located in latitude most conducive to putting Eastland’s invention into practice.” Furthermore, from this northern latitude, the energy could be aimed into the ionosphere so that it would bounce back down to the earth so it would come down wherever the scientists wanted it to come down. The secret was to learn how and where to aim it to hit the earth where they wanted it to hit creating the type of disaster or whether they desired. So if they can and most certainly have manipulated the weather then why has Africa been hit by vast drought effecting millions of citizens, claiming animal and people lives, displacing individuals too. HAARP is present in the US, UK, Canada and Europe to Russia and China so looking back at the United states of America from 2011 and 2012 of which saw some of the worst heat waves and “tropical type storms” then why wasn’t HARRP used to manipulate these climatological high and low pressure fronts that subsequently if used moved cloud formations in the stratosphere over these affected states thus providing rains?
- Weather manipulation has been used as far back as 1969 as described in [part 01] of chemtrail exposure presented by www.infowars.com narrated by the first ever military weather manipulator from Western Texas – United States of America – retired Pilot Captain Ben Livingston from the United States Air force (USAF) that stated categorically he was able to manipulate cloud formations over Asia within the stratosphere that caused extensive wind and tropical hurricane damage, washing away bridges, resulting in flooding causing many deaths. This technology Captain Livingston used placed chemical liquids within the clouds to freeze them thus forming the “cloud or better known as the eye of the storm” the first ever pilot to view and alter Mother Nature. Why then has HARRP been implicated in weather adaptions utilising High Frequency Active Auroral Research technology with the “United States Air force” military tankers still seen within the stratosphere spraying chemicals? Surely we don’t need both? Or is it factual that HARRP is using the United States Air force base that is using High Frequency Active Auroral Research technology as a high grade weapon of mass destruction? But then why allow others such as the Americans worst enemy Russia and China to the use “similar technology”?
What is HAARP?
The following is purely based on HAARP’s “about section” which we do not accept as factual or non-factual at this moment based on many climate issues from renowned physicians, environmental critics, and investigative media.
HAARP is a scientific endeavour aimed at studying the properties and behaviour of the ionosphere, with particular emphasis on being able to understand and use it to enhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian and defence purposes.
The HAARP program is committed to developing a world class ionospheric research facility consisting of: The Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), a high power transmitter facility operating in the High Frequency (HF) range. The IRI will be used to temporarily excite a limited area of the ionosphere for scientific study.
A sophisticated suite of scientific (or diagnostic) instruments that will be used to observe the physical processes that occur in the excited region.
Observation of the processes resulting from the use of the IRI in a controlled manner will allow scientists to better understand processes that occur continuously under the natural stimulation of the sun.
Scientific instruments installed at the HAARP Observatory will be useful for a variety of continuing research efforts which do not involve the use of the IRI but are strictly passive. Among these studies include ionospheric characterization using satellite beacons, telescopic observation of the fine structure in the aurora, and documentation of long-term variations in the ozone layer.
How is HARRP related to Chemtrails?
HAARP has been claimed to be a weapon of mass destruction.
Radio Waves strong enough to cause earthquakes are controlled by the U.S. military. It’s the largest ionospheric heater in the world capable of heating a 1000 square kilometre area of the ionosphere to over 50,000 degrees. It’s also a phased array. Which means it’s steer-able and those waves can be directed to a selected target area. What they have found is that by sending radio frequency energy up and focusing it, as they do with these kinds of instruments, it causes a heating effect. And that heating literally lifts the ionosphere within a 30 mile diameter area therein changing localized pressure systems or perhaps the route of jet streams. Moving a jet stream is a phenomenal event in terms of man being able to do this. The problem is we cannot model the system adequately. Long term consequences of atmospheric heating are unknown. Changing weather in one place can have a devastating downstream effect. And H.A.A.R.P. has already been accused of modifying the weather.
HAARP has been implicated within the following;
Create Earthquakes on demand wherever and whenever you wish on the earth. However, the military discovered, by accident, how to create earthquakes using slightly different technology (this is a blatant lie as this technology was devised from oil rigging companies in the 1960’s)
The planetary-scale engineers tried to replace a ten by forty kilometre section of the ionosphere with a ‘telecommunications shield’ of 350,000 copper needles tossed into orbit … when the military sent up a band of tiny copper wires into the ionosphere to orbit the planet so as to ‘reflect radio waves and make reception clearer’, we had the 8.5 Alaska earthquake and Chile lost a good deal of its coast. That band of copper wires interfered with the planetary magnetic field. (Does this sound NORMAL and SAFE to YOU?)
Magnifying and focussing sunlight, called ‘Sky busting. This process could burn holes in the protective ozone layers, thus allowing intense sunlight to pour through, burning mankind severely.
(For this time being we are leaving out mind control theories and conspiracies) that have been placed before the European Union Courts of Justice and have been shown to work, however as yet have not been implicated within any form of technology at the Alaskan Air force base that has some extreme security for a so called “climatological research station” of which the locals that are living within the village will not speak about HARRP which explains to us that they have either been approached by federal agents and forced to sign documentation or something more sinister.
Barium – what is it?
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide was known in pre-modern history as baryta; this substance does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate.
The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulphate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), both being insoluble in water. Barium’s name originates from the alchemical derivative “baryta”, which itself comes from Greek βαρύς (barys), meaning “heavy.” Barium was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808, shortly after electrolytic isolation techniques became available.
Barium has been implicated within the usage of chemtrails that we ourselves find slightly nerve-racking and worrying because of such environmental use it could also be used to excite the molecules within the atmosphere thus when charged with an electromagnetic force alter or excite fields of energy to become erratic. This then places the HAARP and weather modification within the field of suspicion and if one is spraying this chemical then they must inform the public.
The following highlighted information extracted from Wikipedia is most concerning;
Barium has only a few industrial applications. The metal has been historically used to scavenge air in vacuum tubes. It is a component of YBCO (high-temperature superconductors) and electro ceramics, and is added to steel and cast iron to reduce the size of carbon grains within the microstructure of the metal. Barium compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green colour. Barium sulphate is used as an insoluble heavy additive to oil well drilling fluid, and in purer form, as X-ray radio contrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract. Soluble barium compounds are poisonous due to release of the soluble barium ion, and therefore have been used as rodenticides.
Keeping conspiracy theories and he said this they done that “out of this second part documentation” the above [has] been implicated within chemical spraying which then takes us back to the following points that one has raised.
- Barium is toxic to rodents and has been used as a poison – could this be a reason why so many small species of mammals and non-mammalians have perished in fourteen separate continents of which no formal autopsy results have ever stated factual autopsy results.
- We know that the technology HAARP used was not formulated by them originally it was in fact drawn up by oil well drilling companies that the United States Military then purchased all plans, so is it a coincidence that barium has again been implicated within protect HAARP?
- Barium has been used within pyrotechnic displays - Barium compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green colour is this coincidental then that HAARP that is firing into the atmosphere via the Alaskan military site and by chemical spraying planes barium to form what has been stated by many people “glowing skies of green, red, black, and rose colourisations?. http://transmissionsmedia.com/haarp-creates-artificial-aurora-lights-up-the-sky/
Moving back to the aerial chemical trail’s that are frequently spotted all over the states of America is Barium being sprayed on the people of America from which the American government claim is weather modification. There are many other compounds that can react in the ways described above however the pinpointing evidence clearly states that;
- The metal is being used as a (high-temperature superconductors)
- Has been and still is used within fireworks to impart a green or other colour
- An insoluble heavy additive to oil well drilling fluid of which this technology “to a degree” as stated in video documentaries on part one of chemtrail exposure clearly states that the USA government purchased the technology that was used by oil drilling companies that then subsequently established into HAARP - High Frequency Active Auroral Research technology, could this be just coincidental too?
- Soluble barium compounds are poisonous due to release of the soluble barium ion, and therefore have been used as rodenticides – Barium can and will kill rodents however is it factual that barium can kill other mammalians http://rense.com/general21/tox.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20807132 http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0010.htm
- The Environmental Protection Agency quote “Barium used over a long period of time is not a risk to humans” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2185434/Top-doctor-tried-poison-wife-FIVE-MONTHS-putting-barium-morning-coffee.html
Barium is just as dangerous as arsenic, mercury and lead. It shows up regularly in public water supplies and yet there is almost no awareness of it.
Exposure to small amounts of barium, dissolved in water, may cause a person to experience these problems:
1. Breathing difficulties
2. Increased blood pressure
3. Heart rhythm changes
4. Stomach irritation
5. Muscle weakness
6. Alterations in nerve reflexes
7. Damage to your brain, liver, kidney and heart
Although there is much evidence to read through as an animal and environmental programme/investigative unit we have to be seen to show the factual evidence and not conspiracies and/or lies.
This would be detrimental to our mission statement, could or would misguide the general public, could or would be open to a law suit from the government, to creating many misguided misconceptions of the truth and what we really need to obtain to and that us why HAARP and the United States Government and European Union feel it is relevant to spray the harmful chemicals within the ozone to conducting stratosphere and aerial bombardment exercises.
We have to ask ourselves the following the questions;
- If weather modification is being undertaken via the air force using tanker planes internationally then where does HAARP come into the equation?
- Is HAARP really being used a weather modification site?
- Are the scientists at HAARP really making a weapon of mass destruction?
- Has HAARP really been used to create earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes?
- Should HAARP be shut down?
The institute of High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program Unit in Alaska are concealing much information based on weather modification and exactly what they are undertaking at the Alaskan Air force base.
Surely if HAARP was just simply helping to solve weather problems or better them then why have we not seen any changes within the African or other continents where millions are perishing and/or being misplaced by famine brought on by environmental climatological change? Why within the states of America has environmental destruction skyrocketed from $100 1990 billion to over $300 billion 2011 in damages as published in many environmental journals? Surely HAARP and chemtrail technology would have decreased this?
Stay tuned for more in-depth scientific analysis – Many questions unanswered and many worried citizens internationally.
Board of Investigative staff – Ukraine and Moscow
Conservation Investigations Crime Unit (CICU)
Chemtrails better known as chemical trails and the theories to conspiracies have been circulating the networks now for some years, however documentation on these “governmental training exercises” didn’t really pick up until around 1996 when many people, mostly environmental activists, animal welfare activists and members of the public became extremely concerned as to what these chem trails were and why many governmental organisations failed to give reasonable explanations as to why they felt it necessary to spray over civilian airspace and sensitive aquatic and land regions too.
International Animal Rescue Foundation’s © Animal Protection Front documented on this case in 2011 of which within literally three hours the entire forum and documents were removed, which was documented under (Operation Black Swan) that we are not going to document about on this site. You can Google Operation Black Swan and analyse whatever data you may find if it is still present however we must warn you that you may be subjected to a removal order without notice.
Operation Black Swan an international military governmental operation lasted two to three years of which chemicals were sprayed from military and “some” adapted passenger planes that involved over twenty seven nations globally.
Although not proven to a degree millions of aquatic life, avian life, reptilians, large marine and land mammalians were washed up dead within the oceans or fresh water streams, land mammals found dead with no official conclusive autopsy results ever released or located, and what was vaguely recorded pointed to apparent natural occurrences to pollution or simply overhead jet liners flying below normal altitude levels causing noise disruption.
Chemtrails are causing much concern internationally and the governments that are releasing these chemicals have still yet to acknowledge Freedom of Information Requests [FOIA] as to why they had been flying military tanker jets in civilian airspace at just below or at cruising altitude that civilian aviation companies never knew had been in the airspace.
Questions raised as to what chemicals the governments were using, why they were spraying thousands if not millions of litres of [unidentified] toxic or non-toxic substances within the atmosphere, to not informing civilian airspace of such exercise’s that has resulted in now some thirty five passenger and military avian near misses at altitudes of over or just under 25,000 feet that could if the plane’s both collided at some hundreds of kilometres an hour caused catastrophic death and pollution.
We have been watching many forums of which we have viewed many photographic evidence of jet liners flying with civilian aerospace, along with some confusion “not all” of which members of the public have mistakenly identified cloud formations, contrails to jet [stream’s] as actual chemtrails from which I have formally identified the difference below so that you can log and document actual chemtrails in the hope that we can all finally get to the bottom of why governmental aviation tankers are releasing millions of litres in colossally large payloads over land and sensitive marine biodiversity areas.
Identification of a jet stream;
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth. The main jet streams are located near the tropopause, the transition between the troposphere (where temperature decreases with altitude) and the stratosphere (where temperature increases with altitude)
Jet streams are caused by a combination of a planet’s rotation on its axis and atmospheric heating (by solar radiation and, on some planets other than Earth, internal heat). Jet streams form near boundaries of adjacent air masses with significant differences in temperature, such as the polar region and the warmer air towards the equator.
Other jet streams also exist. During the northern hemisphere summer, easterly jets can form in tropical regions, typically in a region where dry air encounters more humid air at high altitudes. Low-level jets also are typical of various regions such as the central United States.
Meteorologists use the location of some of the jet streams as an aid in weather forecasting. The main commercial relevance of the jet streams is in air travel, as flight time can be dramatically affected by either flying with the flow or against the flow of a jet stream. Clear-air turbulence, a potential hazard to aircraft passenger safety, is often found in a jet stream’s vicinity but does not create a substantial alteration on flight times. (Chemtrails can appear as jet streams as of the vast spread and “type” trails they leave behind covering some hundreds of miles.
Identification of contrails;
As explained above we have viewed many forums that have shown much photographic evidence of trails in the skies. However one must not be confused by the “jet stream-chemtrail-cloud formations” to that of the “contrail” that is naturally formed condensation and/or exhaust vapour only viewed at certain altitudes mostly being 40,000 feet and within changing atmospheric temperature’s, contrails are mostly seen in the summer months too being mainly daytime and never night.
Contrails or vapour trails are long thin artificial clouds that sometimes form behind aircraft. Their formation is most often triggered by the water vapour in the exhaust of aircraft engines, but can also be triggered by the changes in air pressure in wingtip vortices or in the air over the entire wing surface. Like all clouds, contrails are made of water, in the form of a suspension of billions of liquid droplets or ice crystals.
Depending on the temperature and humidity at the altitude the contrail forms, they may be visible for only a few seconds or minutes, or may persist for hours and spread to be several miles wide. Persistent spreading contrails are thought to have a significant effect on global climate. The common “contrail” has been confused by many people as a “chemtrail” which must be ruled out when identifying to presenting evidence to governments in asserting the Freedom of Information Request.
As an environmentalist and climatologist I never knew myself just exactly how many different forms of cloud formations were in the skies, at what altitudes, what the formations were informing us of with regards to climatological weather fronts of low and high band depressions moving in until qualifying. The formation’s described below are cloud example’s that could/can also be linked to misidentification of “chemtrails”.
The Cirrocumulus formation mostly located at an altitude of 50,000 feet can alternate between pattern formations. Cirrocumulus usually forms in large upright blocks indicating a low pressure that is normally about to move over the atmosphere bringing with it large rain, wind and storm disruptions. However the Cirrocumulus can also at these extremely high altitudes along with the stratus formation can be disrupted by high velocity winds and incoming high/low pressure current thus giving the impression upon cloud dispersal that a “chemtrail” has been dispersed.
I must though also point out that the altocumulus formation mostly located at aviation cruising level can easily be misidentified as a “chemtrail” especially as it has large tail’s and spread over some seven to ten miles that appears to be a “trail” when in fact it is merely a formation of disrupted cloud.
Chemtrails would most likely viewed at these levels too and would most certainly be released at these altitudes due to the altocumulus formation cloud being able to spread over large swathes of land and marine areas.
Most military and civilian aviation aeroplanes, tankers or jets would normally fly around 1,000+ feet above the altocumulus formation of which a “chemical release” would most likely be viewed thus identified correctly.
I would suggest that when one is viewing or searching for chemtrail dispersals that one checks with local or international climatological agencies and weather stations. The altocumulus formation can easily hold and thus disperse these unidentified chemicals once released in minute vapour droplets exactly suitable for mass land coverage once a low depression moves within.
Identification of chemical trails [chemtrails];
There is limited information in terms of why the military government agencies are dropping large quantities of chemicals over civilian and non-populated land, however with regards to identifying and documentation there is much information highlighted although denied to not formally or even informally acknowledged by governmental scientists to provide a transparent response as to why they believe polluting the atmosphere with billions of litres of unknown substances is acceptable.
The most concerning yet “disturbing” issue that we at International Animal Rescue Foundation © must point out that such large dispersal of chemicals at high altitudes is not, based, on our own educations and qualifications in environmentalism, environmental science, ecology, agriculture, climatology and more is that these chemicals are not under any circumstances “safe” and nor are they any form of [direct contact] with any botanical or agricultural plant to animal.
Under the COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) plus other PH1 and PH2 analytic studies we ourselves are more than aware that to apply a “direct contact agent” would have to be dropped at a level of almost 100 feet such as crop spraying by fixed or rotary wing aircraft. Applying direct contact chemicals at this level is considered in the “agricultural and botanical” industry under the European laws of COSHH and the Health and Safety Act to be safe.
Direct contact pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, to fertilisers are normally sprayed at close contact more commonly known as [direct contact chemicals] when no high winds are present as to avoid polluting or harming others and the environment.
Chemtrails though have been around for a long time and not as some members of the public have been led to believe from blogs to other sites simply because these individuals are young or their elders never knew of why such chemtrails were evident in the skies to what the purpose of using high compound chemicals.
The earliest we knew of such continental governmental military practices was back in the 1970’s just after the Vietnam war ended in 1975, although rare it was believed and still is that these types of aviation atmospheric experimentation’s were being undertaken in the event of a probable Ariel military strike on enemies to subdue them should a direct hit of nuclear, chemical or biological (NBC) warfare be used against Europe or America.
Why chemtrail warfare would be used though when we have fleets of aircraft and underwater submariners that can fire instantly missiles from hundreds of miles away to take out communication, fuel and transport locations thus then moving in ground forces to then illuminate the enemies is baffling to say the least.
The chemtrail conspiracy theory holds that some trails left by aircraft are chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed at high altitudes for purposes undisclosed to the general public in clandestine programs directed by various government officials. This theory is not accepted by the scientific community, which states that they are just normal contrails, as there is no scientific evidence supporting the chemtrail theory.
NOAA http://www.noaa.gov/ publishes a list of silver iodide projects and the companies that perform the atmospheric releases. Reporting weather modification is required by US Federal law. There is no scientific evidence silver iodide leads to chemtrails in the sense that fire would produce smoke but it is the only reported weather modification of significance. http://search.usa.gov/search?affiliate=noaa.gov&v%3Aproject=firstgov&query=silver+iodide+projects+&x=-1091&y=-84
We are aware that NOAA and the other Environmental Agencies internationally have been trying to modify the weather patterns which “could” give reason as to why such chemicals are being sprayed at high altitudes and not via “direct contact” however [why the secrecy]?
Releasing these chemicals within the altocumulus cloud formation to any formation or within atmospheres that have no impending storm surges oncoming doesn’t make sense thus increasing our own professional suspicions.
We was then led to believe that as chemtrails are viewed more within the summer months then maybe they are experimenting on creating rains using high volatile chemicals. However as some may not know in order for that to occur one needs cloud formations.
Many photographic data has shown no cloud formations though, so in theory these chemicals would then be scattered over many nautical land miles via wind dispersal thus ending up inhaled by the public to laying on public or agricultural land, could this be why so many species of animals perished during Operation Black Swan?
We are all looking into the helping the environment and researching more alternative methods of improving atmospheric conditions however what NOAA seems to be forgetting is that the military are releasing these chemicals of which their planes had all GPS transmitting units turned off so that civilian airspace traffic control didn’t know they were within civilian airspace. In 2012 several VERY near misses with tanker planes was recorded by FEDEX and other airliners that had to perform emergency manoeuvres at high speeds to avoid a mid-air collision.
The following was recorded 2012 December;
Two United States Air Force KC-135 Tankers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:100225-F-3252P-617.jpg spraying thick plumes of material from their wing ducts pass within 2,000 feet of the FedEx craft. The FedEx pilot immediately requests a different altitude from Air Traffic Control, only to be met with a third near-miss collision - with yet another USAF KC-135 Tanker, spewing tons of chemicals from its ducts.
Clearly, Air Traffic Control was oblivious to the presence of these three USAF tankers, which were operating at commercial altitudes. This may have happened if the military planes had their transponders turned off. Also, it appears that the Air Force planes were not detectable by radar.
The shocking episode is followed by footage taken by a passenger of a commercial jet, showing a tanker clearly dumping a thick toxic substance which does not resemble a contrail. This footage is followed by a sequence of even more amazing shots of unbelievably thick plumes of stuff being dumped by Air Force jets, accompanied by serious daredevil flight manoeuvres.
Following extract from NOAA;
Subject: C4) Has there ever been an attempt or experiment to reduce the strength of a hurricane?
Contributed by Chris Landsea
The U.S. Government once supported research into methods of hurricane modification, known as Project STORMFURY. For a couple decades NOAA and its predecessor tried to weaken hurricanes by dropping silver iodide - a substance that serves as effective ice nuclei - into the rain bands of the storms.
During the STORMFURY years scientists seeded clouds in Hurricanes Esther (1961), Beulah (1963), Debbie (1969), and Ginger (1971). The experiments took place over the open Atlantic far from land. The STORMFURY seeding targeted convective clouds just outside the hurricane’s eye wall in an attempt to form a new ring of clouds that, it was hoped would compete with the natural circulation of the storm and weaken it.
The idea was that the silver iodide would enhance the thunderstorms of a rain band by causing the super cooled water to freeze, thus liberating the latent heat of fusion and helping a rain band to grow at the expense of the eye wall.
With a weakened convergence to the eye wall, the strong inner core winds would also weaken quite a bit. For cloud seeding to be successful, the clouds must contain sufficient super cooled water (water that has remained liquid at temperatures below the freezing point, 0°C/32°F). Neat idea, but it, in the end, had a fatal flaw.
Observations made in the 1980s showed that most hurricanes don’t have enough super cooled water for STORMFURY seeding to work - the buoyancy in hurricane convection is fairly small and the updrafts correspondingly small compared to the type one would observe in mid-latitude continental super or multi cells.
In addition, it was found that unseeded hurricanes form natural outer eye walls just as the STORMFURY scientists expected seeded ones to do. This phenomenon makes it almost impossible to separate the effect (if any) of seeding from natural changes.
The few times that they did seed and view a reduction in intensity was undoubtedly due to what is now called “concentric eye wall cycles”. Thus nature accomplishes what NOAA had hoped to do artificially.
No wonder that the first few experiments were thought to be successes. Because the results of seeding experiments were so inconclusive, STORMFURY was discontinued. A special committee of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that a more complete understanding of the physical processes taking place in hurricanes was needed before any additional modification experiments.
The primary focus of NOAA’s Hurricane Research Division today is better physical understanding of hurricanes and improvement of forecasts. To learn about the STORMFURY project as it was called, read Willoughby et al. (1985).
Project STORMFURY was an ambitious experimental program of research on hurricane modification carried out between 1962 and 1983. The proposed modification technique involved artificial stimulation of convection outside the eye wall through seeding with silver iodide. The invigorated convection, it was argued, would compete with the original eye wall, lead to reformation of the eye wall at larger radius, and thus, through partial conservation of angular momentum, produce a decrease in the strongest winds.
Since a hurricane’s destructive potential increases rapidly as its strongest winds become stronger, a reduction as small as 10% would have been worthwhile. Modification was attempted in four hurricanes on eight different days. On four of these days, the winds decreased by between 10 and 30%, the lack of response on the other days was interpreted to be the result of faulty execution of the seeding or of poorly selected subjects.
These promising results came into question in the mid-1980s because observations in unmodified hurricanes indicated:
- That cloud seeding had little prospect of success because hurricanes contained too much natural ice and too little supercooled water.
- That the positive results inferred from the seeding experiments in the 1960s stemmed from inability to discriminate between the expected results of human intervention and the natural behavior of hurricanes.
Reference; Willoughby, H. E., D. P. Jorgensen, R. A. Black, and S. L. Rosenthal, 1985: Project STORMFURY, A Scientific Chronicle, 1962-1983, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 66, 505-514.
One can view past and present on-going atmospheric and storm research experiments here http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/programs_sub/science_proj.html
Toxic Chemicals & Metals in Chemtrails:
Aluminium Oxide Particles
Bacilli and Molds
Desiccated Human Red Blood Cells
Human White Blood Cells-A
Lithium Salts and Chemtrails
Radio Active Cesium
Radio Active Thorium
Sharp Titanium Shards
Yellow Fungal Mycotoxins
Toxic Chemical List from U. S. Navy
Aluminium Coated Fiberglass Particles (CHAFF)
Jet Fuel Emissions
Source of information - http://www.stopsprayingcalifornia.com/index.php
What would be the purpose of releasing these chemicals or biological agents?
Humans have had the ability to physically affect the weather since learning how to seed clouds in 1946, or possibly 1880. The popular conception of weather manipulation is limited to cloud seeding, but the possibility that the extents of our abilities may have progressed in the meantime is definitely plausible. The fact that the military is very interested in weather control is no secret and many propose that the Chemtrail Phenomena is a part of this. If true, what is the goal of the weather modification and what negative effects could it have on the environment? NASA is currently conducting several programs that are studying the effects of contrails on weather and the effects do not appear to be beneficial.
The use of chemical and biological agents by a government against its own people is, unfortunately, a historical fact. Even unintentional accidents can occur. But, some people suggest that Chemtrails could actually be part of a program to reduce the population and many feel Chemtrails have caused them to become ill and perhaps they are right. If the Chemtrails contain biological agents then people already weakened by other factors may have even died as a result of the additional strain on their systems, but could such a diabolical purpose be the ultimate goal? History has taught that even the most unconscionable schemes can be made into reality by men filled with fear and hate, and with such weapons in the hands of government we must remain vigilant until answers are forthcoming.
Chemical and biological weapons have been used for centuries but have recently entered the world stage as a primary threat. Biological agents have the ability to spread and multiply in casualties. These bioweapons are easy to produce and difficult, but possible, to defend against. The recent actions of the military to require anthrax vaccines for all service personnel show that this matter is of high importance. Some propose that the government may be quietly releasing bio agents to vaccinate citizens via the air. This could account for reported illnesses since a vaccine sometimes makes a person sick. Municipal water supplies might not be universal enough and could be easily sampled and tested, but everyone breathes the air. And the federal government rules the air.
No concrete proof yet exists and no governmental admissions have been issued for the Chemtrail operation. It has been openly admitted by the Pentagon that the U.S. military has performed many biological warfare tests on unknowing servicemen in the past, additionally the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post have even reported that civilians may have died as a result of exposure to live agents sprayed by the Army and Navy during biological warfare tests.
There are thousands of reports and hundreds of photos. You must decide for yourself what they amount to. Some people think it is just contrails, but many are saying that there is more, that something unusual is happening.
New research indicates that there may be a unique type of trail. Using atmospheric soundings and Flight Explorer, the trails over Houston, TX were observed, measured and analysed.
The largest number of reports seems to be from the US, followed by Canada. Several other countries have some reports, often noted by western visitors. Since reports are coming from multiple countries, it seems to transcend individual governments. But with no obvious controlling body the answer remains to be seen.
View the full summary here http://www.chemtrailcentral.com/report.shtml#summary
Until we are able to obtain more information from more reliable sources and the Freedom of Information Requests then as an animal and Environmental International Unit we cannot comment further on any forthcoming or on-going investigations.
What we can clearly quote is that weather modification on this level is just never going to work and if the government haven’t got anything to worry about in the United States or other nations as listed above from which we will be applying for the FOIA’s then what is the big issue?
We are more than aware too that when the main whistle blower on Operation Black Swan informed the public that then aroused what was going on, he was later found dead via suicide. A second man a Russian governmental agent was also found dead.
Many questions many answers, and much information to source however as an environmental and animal rescue company we can only and will only print the factual data as it stands of which we will not rely on unreliable blogs, internet articles, to uneducated thoughts to misinform the public thus creating hysteria.
We will be updating on this area of interest soon.
Dr J C Dimetri and Directors
International Animal Rescue Foundation
International Animal Rescue Foundation © has been reporting for some time now on many climatological events and environmental weather disruptions to extremely rare climate phenomena that have been occurring since 2000 when the planets climate behaviour started to fluctuate hitting us with unpredictable weather events that has caused vast environmental and economical damage and will continue too unless we all start to take imminent action in reducing our carbon emissions internationally.
The (WHO) World Health Organisation, most signatories of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of Wild Flora and Fauna better known as the Washington Convention to the IUCN and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) to governments alike are not taking the planets proceeding/forthcoming climate change seriously.
With the summer now over in Africa and most parts of the Quarter and Arabian region we have now been warned that America and Europe will soon be under immense climatological attack from what has been described as a catastrophic cycle of weather patterns that will cause mass loss of life and colossal economic disruption effecting tens of thousands of business’s and hundreds of thousands old and newly constructed domesticated homes.
The homes and businesses that will be mostly affected are those constructed on low graded land to flood plains that holds the rivers excess waters once flood defences or barriers have been breached.
That was the good news though, the bad news is, all recent and past weather and climate change predictions and events measured by climatologists, meteorologists, environmentalists, marine biologists, botanists and environmental agencies have proved Europe now in for an extreme battering.
Up to date environmental reports stipulating the high amounts of carbon emissions, global temperature increases of just over 3.4oc by 2050-2100 international global census reports of human population that is rapidly increasing now to almost 8.9 billion with one child born every minute which “will” reach 9 billion by 2014, and the overuse of atmospheric pollutants, continuous deforestation and illegal logging, and still gargantuan usage of fossil fuels has now concluded that Europe is and will be under immense environmental atmospheric attack causing mass carnage on a colossal and worrying scale never seen.
George W. Bush, ex-president of the United Stated of America should be held officially accountable for this now impending carnage that could have been lessened had American governmental scientists informed the public of the real impending dangers of environmental change however were instead ordered to concoct lies and asking many non-profit organisations to push their compulsive and arrogant damaging non-factual misinformation further from which they have since rebutted their claims and stated they were indeed in the wrong when working in the Bush Administration.
The now irreversible damage has already been done and with all European and International scientists and experts providing the most up to date and accurate data we are now aware that Europe is going to face the harsh identical extremities as the United states is.
International Animal Rescue Foundation © is now 100% certain this is why Operation Black Swan undertaken by over 27 continents and kept strictly confidential until a whistle blower of the United states Government blew the cover when viewing millions of dead land and marine animals washed up and found dead worldwide with human health affected too. Coincidentally he and a further Russian military advisory were found dead months later of which both analysts had apparently committed suicide. No further investigations were uncovered on this and all reports that we did locate on Operation Black Swan have since vanished of the World Wide Web, although there is come data it is little and mostly taken of the original domains.
Come the end of the century super storm Sandy’s could be battering the European nations and beaches. Hurricanes usually form in the western tropical Atlantic and normally head north-west to the United States. Occasionally they will make it to Europe by piggybacking on the jet stream. Simulations of these impending hurricanes were undertaken by the Netherlands Meteorological Institute that conducted further examinations based on current predictions. A detailed climate model for 2094 to 2098 assuming modest future greenhouse gas emissions was conducted that showed startling trends and conclusive results.
Meteorologists and scientist’s found that future hurricanes formed further east within the tropical Atlantic, as that area had warmed sufficiently to provide enough heat and moisture to power them massively. As a result, many didn’t hit the United States of America and instead hit the European Union with devastating consequences mostly hitting and damaging Western Europe.
The storms weakened once they left the tropics but significantly powered up again when they entered cold and windy areas that then culminated into “hybrid storms” like Sandy, halfway between winter storms and hurricanes.
Within the Bay of Biscay the climate model quite accurately predicted the average number of yearly hurricanes will increase in Europe from one to six increasing massive environmental carnage, increased flooding from both river and sea, will have a detrimental yet damaging impact and effect on the European economy, thus leading to loss of life both animal and human and effecting farming communities to displacing species and human population. Diseases and infections will increase, mental illness and suicide caused by such major environmental damages will rise and yet we as humans still aren’t taking enough notice to eve reducing our carbon emission and greenhouses damage.
Abnormal weather patterns that are already amongst us within Europe have ranged from heavy spring snows killing thousands of agricultural animals with a total loss of over 335 human lives. After a brief tease of spring-like weather Europe has been hit with cold temperatures and heavy snow. Keeping in mind that “cold” and “heavy snow” are relative terms — these storms were one of the worst of the season for 2013, not to mention among the worst in years.
Airports across Europe were either closed, or had traffic reduced dramatically. And even the trains were stopped. In Germany, there was traffic accidents on the autobahn involving over 100 vehicles, though fortunately nobody died during that wreck.
In Paris, we had roughly 4 inches of snow — which may not sound like much, but for Paris it’s unusual, and it’s been like this for several years now (snowing when it shouldn’t). Earlier this season we had about twice as much snow as last night, which was also a surprise. As I mentioned before, Paris is not equipped for snow — we just never get that much (or at least we didn’t) — so any snow that sticks will cause major problems mostly affecting transportation thus cutting off the entire country and leaving it at vulnerable security threat.
The melting Arctic ice is also to blame here which is causing the North Atlantic to warm, which is bringing a lot more precipitation to the region. That means the miserable weather of northwest Europe has gone from bad to worse with even more rain and snow because of the warming seas. As the Arctic ice melts, the situation is likely to become worse.
In addition to the warming ocean, the jet stream is unusually far south at the moment, which means that the cold northern air is dipping to the south.
One cannot quote we was never forewarned about these forthcoming events as that is nonsense, the problem is that many governments don’t want you to know about these events because it causes;
- Panic buying
- Over usage of fossil fuels thus draining the grid
- Economical breakdown
- Tax raise
These are one of three reasons why the United States Government paid scientists to quote that climate change was all myth and no evidence because the government wanted you the average $200 a week purchaser of basics fuel’s and groceries kept motivated and moving so they can continue raging political wars, to ensuring the nation is not left at vulnerable level from a potential terror threat or more.
Regrettably though American and international news agencies the very people that are to be trusted to this very day are still compulsively lying to the public of which FOX news was caught with publishing very “dodgy unsound information” on climatological change.
Rupert Murdoch’s companies have been found to be grossly misleading the US public over climate change, with Fox News ‘coverage classed as giving dodgy info 93% of the time. In the report, compiled by the Union of Concerned Scientists, Murdoch’s Wall Street Journal comes a close second in the inaccuracy stakes, with a massive 81% misleading coverage in their opinion pages. The Wall Street Journal Opinion Page’s coverage of climate change was categorically proven to be 81% misleading with only 19% accurate. However Fox’s news channel on climate change was proven to be a massive 93% misleading with and only 7% accurate.
The WSJ, whose commentary include such beauties as “No Need to Panic About Global Warming“, claim that the alarmism created by global warming is something of a conspiracy, offering “an excuse for governments to raise taxes“.
Fox News, who evidently can’t even muster a one in ten success rate of accurate reportage, has certainly got a somewhat dubious record when it comes to accuracy and fairness of their journalism. Readers may recall:
Reporting the death of “Obama Bin laden” http://politicalscrapbook.net/2011/05/fox-news-obama-bin-laden/
Making up new section of the US constitution http://politicalscrapbook.net/2011/12/fox-news-fabricate-constitution/
Describing David Cameron as “President” of the United Kingdom http://politicalscrapbook.net/2011/08/fox-news-president-cameron/
Although this is just mumbo jumbo it still proves that not only the government but also the media provide little accuracy when reporting real life affairs that the international community need to be informed off. Lying and asking others to lie is tantamount to global extinction caused my human negligence.
We truly believe that the spin doctors and non-profit organisations as listed in Greenpeace’s leaked document that the government conveniently paid over 100 (NPO’s) to lie to hundreds of thousands of supporters is still to this date on-going.
Non-profit organisations are the government’s most desired weapon within the area as organisations contain followers both online and offline with some one billion just on Facebook that view many “governmental non-profits”. So by quietly paying them off to place every now and then reports that climate change is all myth” then the United States Government of the Bush and Obama administration must be held fully accountable for loss of life, economic damage and mass environmental carnage that could have been reduced in the past and now present.
This private musing between two climate scientist colleagues first surfaced along with a whole raft of embarrassing material in 2011, when the anonymous Climate gate leaker who calls himself “Mr FOIA” leaked his second set of emails from Britain’s disgraced Climate Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia, Norfolk. Now, Mr FOIA has emerged for a third time, sharing with the world not only his entire batch of 220,000 encrypted emails and documents but also, for the first time, his thoughts. We are fully aware of Mr FOIA whom is a godsend to science and critics alike.
Mr FOIA had previously released two batches of 5,000 files each in 2009 and 2011. This enormous third batch went to a network of friends for decoding, sorting and publication within East Anglia and Cambridge, of the United Kingdom.
The first and second email batches contained conversations among “scientists” who appear to have dishonoured a once respectable discipline, documenting that their claims of a “man-made global warming crisis” look exactly like deliberate contrivances for academic career gain, research funding and positions of political power in “the cause.” Some big-name players are playing games with people’s lives and livelihoods.
The biggest player The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the scientific panel whose reports contain the work of Climate gate figures – and are highly politicized and publicized to increase fear of Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW): “imminent catastrophic man-made climate change.” Many horrendously expensive and needless local, state, federal and international policies have flowed from IPCC’s flawed reports.
The most powerful symbol Professor Michael Mann’s “Hockey Stick Graph” was featured prominently in the 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report. It alleged that global temperatures were flat for a thousand years before 1900, but then radically increased because of AGW. The chart looks like a hockey stick, a long straight line that bends sharply upward at the end. With recent IPCC admissions that temperatures have not increased for at least the past 16 years, the curve has now plunged downward to become as flat as the rest of the hockey stick, which is where public trust in climate science is headed.
The Game: “The game is communicating climate change; the rules will help us win it,” says an astounding, horrifying UK government-funded booklet leaked by Mr FOIA titled “The Rules of the Game: Evidence base for the Climate Change Communications Strategy.” Written by the UK public relations firm Futerra for six UK agencies – including The Carbon Trust – for use by ethics and public relations tone-deaf scientists,
“The Rules” teaches sophisticated behaviour change tactics, including: “Climate change must be ‘front of mind’ before persuasion works” … “Link climate change mitigation to positive desires/aspirations” … “Beware the impacts of cognitive dissonance” and “Use emotions and visuals” (e.g., scare people with the Hockey Stick Graph). It treats the public like gullible idiots who can be frightened and manipulated by seemingly trustworthy scientists to believe in AGW. For a long time, it worked.
The Team: Phil Jones, head of the CRU; Peter Thorne of the UK Met Office (the national weather service, originally the Meteorological Office) was joined by Kevin Trenberth, climate analysis section head of the U.S. National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Tom Wigley, also of NCAR; and the litigious Penn State University Hockey Stick originator, Michael Mann.
James M. Taylor, senior fellow for environment policy at The Heartland Institute, sums their actions up this way. The team consciously distorted and actively suppressed critical knowledge, then furiously tried to hide their actions by conducting a vicious smear campaign to discredit critics.
Consciously distorted: NCAR’s Wigley once complained to Mann, “Mike, the Figure you sent is very deceptive … there have been a number of dishonest presentations of model results by individual authors and by IPCC..”
Peter Thorne of the UK Met Office warned Phil Jones, head of the CRU: “Observations do not show rising temperatures throughout the tropical troposphere, unless you accept one single study and approach and discount a wealth of others. This is just downright dangerous. We need to communicate the uncertainty and be honest. Phil, hopefully we can find time to discuss these further if necessary.… I also think the science is being manipulated to put a political spin on it, which for all our sakes might not be too clever in the long run.”
Suppressed critical knowledge: Phil Jones wrote, “I’ve been told that IPCC is above national FOI Acts. One way to cover yourself and all those working on the IPCC 5th Assessment Report would be to delete all e-mails at the end of the process. Any work we have done in the past is done on the back of the research grants we get – and has to be well hidden. I’ve discussed this with the main funder [the U.S. Department of Energy] in the past and they are happy about not releasing the original station data.” The U.S. government was colluding with the hiders, who received tens of millions of dollars over the years.
Jones wrote to Mann, “Mike, can you delete any emails you may have had with Keith Briffa re AR4 [the IPCC 4th Assessment Report]? Keith will do likewise. … We will be getting Caspar Ammann to do likewise.”
Tom Crowley, a key member of Mann’s global warming hockey team, showed crass disregard for the lying and hiding: “I am not convinced that the ‘truth’ is always worth reaching, if it is at the cost of damaged personal relationships.” It’s more important to keep the career back-scratching team happy.
The distortion, spin, suppression and smear campaign went on for years. In fact, the revelations sparked a furious “hide the lies” denial campaign that ironically calls sceptics “deniers.” What the sceptics actually deny is that there has been much honest science involved in the IPCC process; that there is any evidence to support claims that we face an imminent climate crisis; and that humans are primarily responsible for weather and climate variations that have always been controlled by hundreds of complex, inter-related natural forces and processes.
“Hide the lies” generated lawsuits between climate science “believers” (what kind of real science requires belief?) and sceptics of “dangerous man-made planetary warming” – along with ridiculous conspiracy theories such as “Big Oil hired evil hackers in a plot to discredit angelic climate scientists.”
Mr FOIA denies these absurd allegations in his 3.0 message. “I took what I deemed the most defensible course of action, and would do it again,” he said. “That’s right; no conspiracy, no paid hackers, no Big Oil. The Republicans didn’t plot this. USA politics is alien to me, neither am I from the UK. There is life outside the Anglo-American sphere.”
“The first glimpses I got behind the scenes did little to garner my trust in the state of climate science – on the contrary,” Mr FOIA continued. “I found myself in front of a choice that just might have a global impact.” Reveal what he had discovered, or keep it to himself and let the lies continue?
Didn’t he fear discovery? “When I had to balance the interests of my own safety, the privacy and career of a few scientists, and the well-being of billions of people living in the coming several decades … millions and billions already struggling with malnutrition, sickness, violence, illiteracy, etc. … the first two weren’t the decisive concern.”
Why did he do it? His answer was both angry and anguished: “Climate science has already directed where humanity puts its capability, innovation, mental and material ‘might’ …. The price of ‘climate protection’ with its cumulative and collateral effects is bound to destroy and debilitate in great numbers, for decades and generations,” he wrote. “We can’t pour trillions in this massive hole-digging-and-filling-up endeavour and pretend it’s not [taking] away from something and someone else.”
That’s the most important statement so far in the decades-old climate debate: You’re forcing us backward into poverty and ignorance – for nothing, except to further your careers, funding and power. Less than a week later, London’s Mail on Sunday’s newspaper ran an outraged feature based on the British Meteorological Office’s recent admission that global surface temperatures haven’t risen in more than 15 years. Citing a chart of predicted and actual temperatures, the Mail noted: “Official predictions of global climate warming have been catastrophically flawed. The graph they produced blows apart the ‘scientific basis’ for Britain reshaping its entire economy and spending billions in taxes and subsidies in order to cut emissions of greenhouse gases. The chart shows in incontrovertible detail how the speed of global warming has been massively overestimated. Yet those forecasts have had a ruinous impact on the bills we pay, from heating to car fuel to huge sums paid by councils to reduce carbon emissions. The eco-debate was, in effect, hijacked by false data.”
Is it improper to label the people responsible for this costly, miserable catastrophe as “eco-thugs”? And should we worry that the latest no-real-energy “energy security” proposal from the White House is telling us that President Obama has become America’s “Eco-thug in Chief,” who will continue to peddle fraudulent science and nearly worthless renewable energy to further his agenda? It’s worth pondering.
A set of pro forma “investigations” claim to have exonerated PSU’s Mann. The internal PSU inquiry – with no impartial truth-seekers involved – was not going to harm their grant-getting cash cow Mann; instead, it whitewashed the evidence to ensure the preferred conclusion. Professional science groups that relied upon public funding for their financial survival fell in line behind a huge Tom Sawyer campaign of “exoneration.” There was no exoneration.
Summaries presented in court filings for the case of American Tradition Institute v. University of Virginia and Michael Mann – which demands release of Michael Mann’s emails – say, “Mann has never been exonerated…. Exoneration requires investigation; investigation requires pursuit aimed at discovering material facts. Mann’s employer since 2005, Penn State University, has conducted no such thing. Neither has the University of Virginia.”
The same conclusion applies to the UK’s Muir Russell and Oxburgh inquiries, which didn’t even mention Mann, because they were “investigating” only employees of the CRU.
I asked Christopher C. Horner, senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute and attorney in the ATI v. UVa/Mann lawsuit for his take on the leaker’s message. He told me, “Whatever prompted ‘Mr FOIA,’ I take it as a statement that, so far, the courts have failed us, as have our political institutions – and he has concluded that those in the public who have resisted the climate industry agenda should now have a chance to review these taxpayer-financed records, which are the subject of a remarkable campaign to subvert transparency laws.”
We ourselves can’t avoid blame for the science disaster uncovered by Mr. FOIA. As Peter Foster of London’s Financial Times noted, we didn’t heed President Dwight Eisenhower’s warning. “Most people are aware of Ike’s warning in 1961 about the military-industrial complex,” Foster wrote. Our fatal error was to ignore what he said next: “In holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of scientific-technological elite.” [Emphasis added]
Americans won’t take captivity. It’s time to demote our climate masters to our humble servants. We won’t kill them. But we should sentence them to prison – or Siberia, where they’ll wish the climate was warming.
Should we continue to not open our eyes and view what is on-going around us for ourselves such as peculiar weather patterns, plants blooming at the wrong time of seasons, reliable metrological reports, heat waves, and flooding then we will all be a major victim to the lies that have been consequently spread and still are being spread to this day.
April 15th 2013 –
Millions of people will die of starvation across the world as agricultural yields are expected to tank and the price of food is expected to double by 2050 scientists warned in a new report released this week. The culprit? Extreme temperatures, floods and droughts brought on by climate change and scientific negligence, modern scientists though warned in this year’s US National Climate Assessment that you can view here - http://www.globalchange.gov/home and for Europe http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/climate
Lead researches of the study told The Observer that food insecurity risks turning parts of Africa into permanent disaster areas. Frank Rijsberman, head of the world’s 15 international CGIAR crop research centres, stated:
Food production will have to rise 60% by 2050 just to keep pace with expected global population increase and changing demand. Climate change comes on top of that. The annual production gains we have come to expect … will be taken away by climate change. We are not so worried about the total amount of food produced so much as the vulnerability of the one billion people who are without food already and who will be hit hardest by climate change. They have no capacity to adapt.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to keep global warming below 2 °C, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) must be halved by 2050 (compared with 1990 levels). Developed countries will need to reduce more – between 80 % and 95 % by 2050; advanced developing countries with large emissions (e.g. China, India and Brazil) will have to limit their emission growth.
Agreed in 1997, the UNFCCC’s Kyoto Protocol is a first step towards achieving more substantial global emission reductions. It sets binding emission targets for developed countries that have ratified it, such as the EU Member States, and limits the emission increases of the remaining countries for the first commitment period from 2008 to 2012. The 15 pre-2004 EU Member States (the EU-15) have a joint emission reduction target of 8 % below 1990 levels. Through the internal EU “burden-sharing agreement”, some EU Member States are permitted increases in emissions, while others must decrease them. Most Member States that joined the EU after 1 May 2020 have targets of -6 % to -8 % from their base years (mostly 1990).
EU emissions represent about 10 % of total global emissions. The United States, which has a large share of total global GHG emissions, has not ratified the protocol. China and several other countries with large GHG emissions do not have binding emission targets under the protocol. Countries are expected to meet their target mainly through domestic policies and measures. They may meet part of their emission reduction targets by investing in emission-reducing projects in developing countries (the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)) or in developed ones (Joint Implementation (JI)). The CDM is also meant to support sustainable development, e.g. by financing renewable energy projects.
The Cancún Agreements, adopted at the UN Climate Conference in Mexico (December 2010), include a comprehensive finance, technology and capacity-building support package to help developing nations adapt to climate change and adopt sustainable paths to low-emission economies. The agreements also include a time schedule for reviewing the objective of keeping the average global temperature rise below 2 °C. The agreements confirm that developed countries will mobilise USD 100 billion in climate funding for developing countries annually by 2020, and establish a Green Climate Fund through which much of the funding will be channelled.
The ‘Durban Platform for Enhanced Action’, adopted at the UN conference in South Africa (Dec 2011) agreed a roadmap towards a new legal framework by 2015, applicable to all Parties to the UN climate convention. It also foresees a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, starting in 2013. Agreement was also reached on the design and governance arrangements for the new Green Climate Fund.
Many European countries have adopted national programmes aimed at reducing emissions. Similar EU-level policies and measures include:
1) Increased use of renewable energy (wind, solar, biomass) and combined heat and power installations;
2) Improved energy efficiency in buildings, industry, household appliances;
3) Reduction of CO2 emissions from new passenger cars;
4) Abatement measures in the manufacturing industry;
5) Measures to reduce emissions from landfills.
This is sounds all good and positive news however is it going to work? The Abatement measures should have been implemented a long time ago when the European Union and America knew of these problems.
These measures give authorities the power if companies pollute or break environmental laws to close an entire company down to protect our vulnerable environment to flora and fauna. This type of order is more or less an anti-social behaviour order. Should the abatement team ascertain enough data and believe that a crime is being committed or rules are being flouted then action will be taken immediately to preserve our natural environment.
Current unpredictable weather patterns that have been hitting the Europe from 2013;
Insurance companies were faced with a flood of claims yesterday following Tuesday’s freak hail storm that hit the north and east of Malta. Certain crops can be replanted but some will have lost everything Middlesea Insurance said they received a flurry of claims for damage at property located in Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq, St Andrew’s, Għargħur, Mosta, Naxxar and San Pawl Tat-Tarġa. These came in the wake of reports of tennis ball-sized hailstones lashing certain localities around midday on Tuesday.
Claims under property insurance policies were submitted for damage to solar water heaters, photovoltaic panels, glass and water pipes, said Middlesea’s chief claims officer, Patrick Muscat. A number of private motor vehicle claims were also filed under comprehensive policies. Asked if hail was considered an ‘act of God’ by insurance companies, Mr Muscat said the term was an old misnomer that should be avoided. “It is now standard practice to have storm cover under most, if not all, property insurance policies,” he explained. Mile-End car repairs and towing services said it was busier than usual when the storm hit. “We were called to accidents in Rabat, Mosta and Naxxar. The water on the road was a big problem,” a spokesman said. However, they did not have an unusually high number of repairs yesterday – “just a few for spark plugs caused by water damage”.
The hail mostly caused slight cosmetic damage to vehicles, the spokesman added.Farmers also suffered with some having their crops destroyed by the hail, according to Joe Galea, president of the Rural Manikata Cooperative.
Although the farms around Manikata were unaffected, Mr Galea said farmers in the Mosta, Rabat and Ta’ Qali areas were not so fortunate, with potatoes and onions badly hit. “The storm did not hit everywhere but some farmers were very unlucky. Certain crops can be replanted but some will have lost everything,” he said.
“It’s too early to say if they will ask for compensation from the Government,” Mr Galea said. There were widespread reports of the hailstones denting solar panels even though a spokesman for Solar Solutions in Naxxar said they had received no calls about damage to products they had sold as of 11am yesterday. “Our solar heaters have thick security glass and are designed to withstand some punishment. Good quality solar panels would not normally be damaged by hailstones,” he said.
In Għargħur, which bore the brunt of the storm, locals enjoying morning refreshments in San Bartilmew band club said many cars belonging to residents were dented and windows were broken.
One woman said her adult son was distraught after his 35 racing pigeons, costing some €2,000, were caught in the hailstorm.
“Lots of them did not come home and the ones that did were badly injured. One lost an eye,” she said. The parish priest also suffered extensive damage to his home, according to locals, but he was not available to comment when The Times visited his house.
A woman died and numerous commuters were left stranded in Athens after the Greek capital was hit by its worst storm in 50 years on Friday.
At least 900 calls were made to the fire department requesting for aid to pump water out of homes, with many basements being inundated. Another 90 rang asking for assistance after being ensnared in their cars. Many cars were seen to be swept and overturned by the deluge.
A 27-year-old woman died from a suspected heart attack after being extracted from her marooned vehicle by other motorists, in the northern suburb of Halandri.
The Greek city suffered power outages overnight, after a river bank bursting. Early commuters were brought to a standstill as a result of the flooding. A house collapsed in the city centre, but no injuries were reported.
The flooding culminated in havoc for public transport as the tram system was stalled for an hour while rail schedules were temporarily postponed after a tree fell on the tracks.
Many parts of Europe are struggling to return to normal after a freak snowstorm caused travel chaos. On Tuesday the Eurostar trains had to be suspended as severe weather in Northern France and Belgium forced operators to close sections of the railway. Other high speed train services were also halted.
Even Jersey, normally one of the warmest parts of the British Isles, was not spared from the severe conditions. Residents had to cope with 100 kph winds as snow covered the island. Meanwhile more snow fell on central Germany. North of Frankfurt the Autobahn had to be closed after a 100-car pileup injured dozens of people. Nearby, Europe’s third largest airport also had to close forcing more than 355 flights to be cancelled.
Italy - A strong tornado hit Italy’s Venice and its lagoon causing big damage to local environment. Hundreds of trees were destroyed by the storm which hit the renowned northern city and some small islands of its lagoon including Sant’Elena, Sant’Erasmo and Certosa.
Britain’s impending cold snap could cause hundreds of millions of pounds of damage as a result of frozen or burst pipes, householders were warned. British Gas is predicting that the plummeting temperatures expected next week could trigger more than 20,000 emergency calls a day.
Forecasters have warned that a cold blast from the Arctic is on its way, beginning with snow showers in Scotland on Sunday and gradually spreading south. It is estimated that one in five homes could be at risk from damage caused by frozen and burst water pipes, British Gas said.
Figures from the Association of British Insurers show that burst pipes across the UK cost insurance companies more than £415 million in 2002 - three times as much as the total cost of river flood damage to UK homes that year. And in 2003, British Gas reported more than 15,000 call-outs on the coldest day on January 8, when average temperatures fell to just below minus 3C (27F).
As a precaution, the company has cancelled all routine visits in the early part of next week. Dave Kendle, director of British Gas home service operations, said: “The message is simple - never underestimate the misery caused by burst pipes and no heating.
“Colder weather puts added pressure on your heating systems as they work harder to keep homes warm. Not only this, but the damage caused by torrents of water from burst pipes could run into thousands of pounds.” The company advises householders to check that their main stopcock works and that all pipe work, cisterns and tanks are well insulated.
April 2013 – Colossal Climate Destruction is no longer confined to the United States of America;
Current Hurricane Historical Data;
Europe’s hurricane history
Only once since accurate records began in 1851 has an actual hurricane with full tropical characteristics hit Europe. This happened on September 16, 1961, when Category 1 Hurricane Debbie hit north western Ireland. Wind gusts reached 106 mph at Bally Kelly and 104 mph at Tiree and Snaefill, and coastal radio stations reported the airwaves were jammed with calls for help from small ships and fishing craft. Eleven people were killed and 50 injured in the storm. The only other tropical cyclone recorded to have hit Europe since 1851 was Hurricane Vince of 2005, which hit southern Spain as a tropical depression on October 11, 2005. Historical documents also suggest a hurricane hit Spain on October 29, 1842.
Britain’s history of ex-hurricane strikes
Hurricanes that transition to powerful extra tropical storms hit the British Isles several times per decade, on average. In 2011, Hurricane Katia brushed by Newfoundland, made the transition from a tropical system to a powerful extra tropical storm, and maintained strong winds of 50 - 65 mph as it crossed the Atlantic.
Ex-Katia hit northern Scotland on September 12, 2011. Glen Ogle, Scotland, at an elevation of 1500 feet (546 meters), received sustained winds of 60 mph, gusting to 86 mph. Cairngorm, in the Scottish Highlands at an elevation of 4085 feet, reported sustained winds of 67 mph. With the trees in full leaf, tree damage was much higher than a winter or springtime storm of similar ferocity would have caused.
One person was killed by a falling tree, and heavy tree damage and numerous power failures were reported throughout Britain. Other gusts experienced in Britain included 76 mph at Edinburgh Blackford Hill, 75 mph at Capel Curig in Wales, 72 mph at Glasgow Bishopton, and 71 mph at Loftus, North Yorkshire.
As reported by UK Met Office forecaster John Hammond in a post on the BBC 23 degrees blog, Britain has been affected at least eight times in the past twenty years by extra tropical storms that were once tropical storms or hurricanes. Before Katia of 2011, the most recent such storm was Hurricane Bill of 2009, which hit Ireland as an extra tropical storm on August 25 with sustained winds of 45 mph. Bill was a Category 4 hurricane northeast of the Lesser Antilles five days prior. In 2006, a record three extra tropical storms that had once been tropical cyclones hit Britain.
Extra tropical Storm Alberto, which had been a strong tropical storm that hit the Florida Panhandle, hit northern Ireland and Scotland as an extra tropical storm with 35 mph winds.
Extra tropical Storm Gordon hit Ireland on September 21, 2006, with sustained winds of 65 mph. Gordon brought record warm temperatures as tropical air pushed north across the UK, and also strong winds that brought down power lines in Northern Ireland. Wind gusts to 60 mph (97 km/h) occurred in the Isles of Scilly off the southwest coast, and 81 mph (130 km/h) on the mainland.
Other post-tropical cyclones that have the U.K. in the past twenty years include Hurricanes Isaac and Leslie of 2000, Hurricane Karl of 1998, and Hurricane Lili of 1996. The most severe of these storms was Extra tropical Storm Lili, which hit Ireland on October 28, 1996, with sustained winds of 65 mph. Lili caused $420 million in damage, in the U.K; Lili produced a 92 mph (148 km/h) gust at Swansea, South Wales, while bringing a 4′ (1.2 meter) storm surge that inundated the River Thames.
In Somerset, 500 holiday cottages were severely damaged. A U.S. oil drilling platform, under tow in the North Sea, broke loose during the storm and nearly ran aground at Peterhead. On the Isle of Wight, a sailing boat was beached at Chale Bay; luckily all five occupants were rescued. It was the most damaging storm to have struck the United Kingdom since the Great Storm of 1987, which killed 22 and caused $660 million in damage. However, Lili also broke a four-month drought over southwest England. All but one of these storms hit during the peak part of hurricane season, mid-August - late October. The only exception was Ex-Tropical Storm Alberto of 2006, which hit Britain in June.
Hurricanes in the Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Africa has experienced several damaging hybrid subtropical storms in recent decades, but has never experienced a fully tropical hurricane in recorded history. However, global warming may cause the Mediterranean to start spawning hurricanes by 2100, according to a 2007 study by a research team led by Miguel Angel Gaertner of the University of Castilla-La Mancha in Toledo, Spain.
They ran nine different climate models with resolutions of about 50 km and found that some (but not all) of the models simulated hurricanes in the Mediterranean in September by the end of the century, when ocean temperature could increase by 3°C, reaching 30°C.
Though the Mediterranean may start seeing hurricanes by the end of the century, these storms have been quoted to be rare and relatively short-lived for three reasons as one independent American scientists claimed below;
- The Mediterranean is quite far north and is subject to strong wind shear from jet stream activity.
- The waters are shallow, and have relatively low heat content. There is no deep warm water current like the Gulf Stream.
- The Mediterranean has a lot of large islands and peninsulas poking into it, increasing the chances that a tropical storm would weaken when it encountered land.
Can one rely on these three climatological unproven theories though?
- December 14th 2010 - A luxury cruise ship has been left in disarray - and dozens of its passengers hurt - after it encountered unexpectedly heavy seas in the southern Mediterranean. The Brilliance of the Seas is now limping to Malta after being assailed by giant waves - which caused it to rock dangerously from side to side - while sailing to the Egyptian port of Alexandria.
- February 2012 – NASA Space Agency quoted a nasty looking storm was spotted by a satellite today (Feb. 23) as it spun over the Mediterranean Sea. The cyclonic, counter-clockwise spin of a low pressure system was viewed from the NOAA-19 AVHRR satellite sensor taken on Feb. 23, 2012. This system has brought up to 4 inches (10.2 centimetres) of rain over the last 24 hours to coastal areas in Europe and Africa. NOAA-19 is the last of the POES line of polar-orbiting satellites run by NOAA. Its successor, the Suomi-NPP satellite, was launched late last year and is currently undergoing its check-out phase as the sensors are gradually turned on.
- January 8th 2013 - Stormy weather, including snow, high winds and heavy rainfall, lashed the eastern Mediterranean coast, downing power lines and trees and causing several injuries in a number of countries. Heavy snowfall blanketed Turkey’s commercial hub Istanbul, a city of 15 million, paralysing daily life, disrupting air traffic and land transport. Officials said the snow is expected to continue until late tomorrow, according to the weather forecast. Syrian refugees in a Jordanian camp attacked aid workers with sticks and stones on Tuesday, frustrated after cold, howling winds swept away their tents and torrential rains flooded muddy streets overnight. Police said seven aid workers were injured.
- March 2010 - Earlier in the week transport in Barcelona ground to a halt as snow covered the Catalan capital and the snow storms have continued, passing over the Balearic Islands and the Costas, both popular with holiday makers hoping for some spring sunshine. Roads were closed as up to four inches of snow fell across Majorca and many residents and holidaymakers stayed indoors.
There are still to this very day much confusion and irresponsible lies that are being regurgitated to the public so that panic is not started, not creating panic is within our eyes a professional manner to adopt. However to completely lie, and to pay scientists and non-profit organisations that we are supposed to trust “not naming any names” but if I quote [certain climate and environmental groups] is dangerous and dicing with people’s lives as well as affecting our next generations future and economy.
Scientific data has long been out within the open that proved this climate prediction would eventually occur however the government wish to censor this and/or take legal action against these proof writers to keep their counties economy stable, to push people into purchasing more products, and, and to rage transnational wars as without the tax payers money then wars cannot be fought. The governments then cannot obtain oil and petroleum via occupying foreign continents that they believe to be of a high security risk to them.
The lies are still continuing and being raged even as I document more on sporadic climatological change.
Evidence is out there that proved and “proves” climate change is more than real. We only have to look at the mass shifting ice sheets within Antarctica to viewing the Polar Bear now facing extinction to now understand that climate change is now a “domestic and international terror threat to life” that the American government could have taken seriously and acted upon rapidly reducing loss of life, economic instability, agricultural damage, and species extinction.
That time regrettably has since passed and now we are the ones that are too now pick the pieces up caused by deliberate governmental negligence. Had the PUBLIC been informed correctly and NOT lied to then we could of all back within the early 1980’s when air and marine temperatures noticeably began warming could of taken action to reduce the now forthcoming climate carnage.
Climate carnage is going to hit Europe hard thus then moving us all into economic meltdown the current cost of climate change destruction has risen in the United states from $100 billion (1989) to now (2013) $390 billion and climbing fast. 730 million European citizens and “non-European” the most vulnerable are now in danger, can they afford these types of “hurricane Sandy” hurricanes?
I finish with more lies that the United States Government are still spouting;
Representative Chris Stewart (R-UT) is the chair of the subcommittee on the environment, the congressional group in charge of the EPA, climate change research, and “all activities related to climate.” It is therefore extremely troubling that Stewart denies the basic findings of climate science. (What’s new though the EPA support’s sustainable hunting) Stewart has said that he is “not convinced” that climate change is a threat, despite the fact that the EPA, NOAA, and all of the climate science and scientists that he now oversees, disagree with him. In fact 98% of actual climate scientists disagree with his views on climate science.
At a recent town hall meeting, a group of activists confronted Stewart on his ill-informed views on climate science. The activists, working with the group Forecast the Facts, presented Stewart with a 17,000 signature petition demanding “the Chairman of the Science Committee’s Subcommittee on Environment stop using his seat to promote climate denialism.” They also held up banners reading “Believe It Or Not Climate Change Is Not Going Away,” “97% of Say Climate Change is Human Caused. We Trust Them,” and “Stewart Denies While Utah Burns.”
The group of activists included high school student Sara Ma. “Many people think climate change is a future problem for my generation to solve later, but it’s not. The data shows that it is here, it’s happening and it has a cost,” said Ma, a 17-year-old senior at West High School. Utahns are particularly upset by Stewart’s ignorance on climate issues due to the record wildfire season they endured last year. Wildfires did over $50 million dollars in damage to Utah in 2012.
Stewart’s climate denial is made more suspicious by his close ties to carbon polluting industries. His brother and campaign manager, Tim Stewart, is a Washington, DC lobbyist for fossil fuel corporations. In addition, he has received more campaign donations from oil and gas companies than any other single source.
Cyclones causing wind storms in the Mediterranean: characteristics, trends and links to large-scale patterns
Climatology studies of cyclones with a focus on their relation to wind storm tracks in the Mediterranean region (MR) are presented. Trends in the frequency of cyclones and wind storms, as well as variations associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic/West Russian (EAWR) and the Scandinavian variability patterns (SCAND) are discussed.
The study is based on the ERA40 reanalysis dataset. Wind storm tracks are identified by tracking clusters of adjacent grid boxes characterised by extremely high local wind speeds. The wind track is assigned to a cyclone track independently identified with an objective scheme.
Areas with high wind activity – quantified by extreme wind tracks – are typically located south of the Golf of Genoa, south of Cyprus, southeast of Sicily and west of the Iberian Peninsula. About 69% of the wind storms are caused by cyclones located in the Mediterranean region, while the remaining 31% can be attributed to North Atlantic or Northern European cyclones.
The North Atlantic Oscillation, the East Atlantic/West Russian pattern and the Scandinavian pattern all influence the amount and spatial distribution of wind inducing cyclones and wind events in the MR. The strongest signals exist for the NAO and the EAWR pattern, which are both associated with an increase in the number of organised strong wind events in the eastern MR during their positive phase. On the other hand, the storm numbers decrease over the western MR for the positive phase of the NAO and over the central MR during the positive phase of the EAWR pattern. The positive phase of the Scandinavian pattern is associated with a decrease in the number of winter wind storms over most of the MR.
A third of the trends in the number of wind storms and wind producing cyclones during the winter season of the ERA40 period may be attributed to the variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation.
The full article can be read here http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/10/1379/2010/nhess-10-1379-2010.pdf
International Animal Rescue Foundation © will continue to document on the recent spurge of climate patterns and the “on-going” negligent speeches of government officers in the hope that we can now start to educate the public into now taking evasive and firm action into now protecting our environment, themselves and our future generations of eco-warriors.
Dr JC Dimetri
Director and Founder
International Animal Rescue Foundation & International Delegates
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International Animal Rescue Foundation © is pleased with the overall majority of the meetings at the 16th conference of parties (CoP 16th) held in Bangkok, Thailand from the 4th March to the 14th March 2013, although a handful of critics state otherwise regarding Tiger, Elephants and Rhinoceros, Polar Bears and other species listed within the 34,000 species that are brought up within the meetings every three years.
We are though somewhat disappointed in other decisions of which Asia was seen to group mostly together with nations that deal in illegal ivory, Rhinoceros horn but mostly illegal weaponry taking most of the floor.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), also known as the Washington Convention adopted in 1963 and then consequently signed March 3rd 1973 by the then 177 nations which some sceptics seem to be forgetting Cites are not law makers as such. Cites is simply a “signed agreement” that consisted of 177 parties or countries with the majority of them nations from the European Union with one new nation entering four days that now consists of 178 parties in total.
Cites and the IUCN’s aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 34,000 species of animals and plants.
In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process. The agreement has also as of the 40th anniversary implemented and founded new adoptions such as task forces M.I.S.T from which nations will now work on forming an international conservation rescue unit to combat illegal poaching, pseudo hunting, illegal wildlife trade in plants and animals to the preservation of our water ways, soil and natural environment.
Should a serious event of poaching or natural disaster happen placing species in critical danger of extinction or other then transnational agencies will reach out to help other continents in dealing within in a multitude of tasks of which will be effective we hope within the next forty days. Forwarding on from the 15th March 2013, new Deoxyribonucleic acid laboratories will be set in place and internationally recognised departments dispatched and organized to now hit poaching and wildlife crime harder than before, although this is going to take some time to establish we will await and view what the outcomes of M.I.S.T and how effective other orders implemented will come about.
Cites and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature DO NOT see “hunting as a crime” or major problem from which it clearly explains that “sustainable utilization” to protect species is a must as explained in part of their mission statement above to not threaten the survival of the species in the wild http://www.cfr.org/natural-resources-management/convention-international-trade-endangered-species-wild-fauna-flora-cites/p21750 http://www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/cec/cec_how_we_work/
Sharks, Tiger, Elephants and Rhinoceros;
Much confusion is floating on the international networks that Cites has been caught with its pants down as is only thinking of monetary gain, this is complete utter nonsense. CITES is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.”
In laymen’s terms each nation has to engage in protection of some 34,000 species from which they can ignore such as most of Asia has. However should the “signed parties” FAIL then sanctions can and will be placed of which evidence is shown by the nation’s effected to those that are want action or are concerned with crime in their continent.
The states then voluntary agree by VOTING that sanctions will be implemented. By applying these sanctions this then BANS the aggressor nations from importing, or exporting any of the listed 34,000 species of plants and animals that would see the violating the nations revenue hit drastically.
The 16th meetings of the Conference of Parties (CoP) finally after much debate and disapproval by Asia and some African nations, listed the Ceanic White-tip sharks, three species of Hammerhead Sharks, Scalloped Hammerhead, Great Hammerhead, and Smooth Hammerhead, Porbeagle sharks and manta rays. We are very pleased by this as some 100 million Sharks and Rays a year are slaughtered for their fins to produce Asian Shark Fin soup and Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Had this very historical move by all nations not of been implemented then the Sharks explained above would have been pushed to near extinction from over fishing, poaching, hunting, and the Traditional Chinese Medicine trade which in turn would also have seen a mass over population of their prey thus placing more small species of marine aquatic life in danger we would also of seen a colossal loss of such amazing species effecting marine biodiversity more.
Asia are the main number one offenders and should such nations NOT abide by the ruling that will come into place after the honey moon period of 40 days then sanctions could be placed at any alternative meetings plus17 Conference of Parties (CoP) thus seeing ALL trade banned.
Although the Tiger species was not mentioned much about in the meetings it was actually spoken about on the just before the meetings of which Cites quoted the following;
Police and customs heads from 13 Asian countries agreed today to tighten controls and improve cross-border cooperation to curb the illegal smuggling of tigers and other critically endangered species. The accord came at the conclusion of the two-day international “Heads of Police and Customs Seminar on Tiger Crime”, which brought together top Police and Customs Officers from countries that still have tigers living in the wild.
Hosted by the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC), and organised by INTERPOL, in cooperation with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the World Customs Organization (WCO), and with the technical and financial support from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Secretariat and the World Bank, the Tiger Seminar objective was for participants to agree on a robust set of law enforcement-based solutions to protect tigers and other rare and highly threatened species.
“The tale of the Tiger is not simply about conservation, it is also about crime,” said Mr. Yury Fedotov, UNODC Executive Director. “It concerns transnational organized crime, high profits, widespread corruption, money laundering, fraud, counterfeiting, and violence.”
The Tiger Seminar brought together 26 delegates from 13 tiger range countries as well as senior representatives from ICCWC members and key partner organisations operating in the field of tiger conservation and wildlife crime. A critical Tiger Seminar activity was to raise awareness among Police and Customs authorities of the impact wildlife trafficking has on wild tigers.
“We must take immediate and urgent action to save these magnificent animals from extinction,” said Mr. Kunio Mikuriya, WCO Secretary General. “The global Customs community is firmly committed to working closely with its partners to stop criminal trafficking in endangered species and other environment sensitive goods, by ensuring more vigilant and effective border enforcement among a range of measures.”
Environmental crime is a serious international problem with a detrimental impact on the global economy and security. Criminals violate national and international laws through increasingly sophisticated techniques and highly organised networks. Their activities directly affect human health, and threaten the environment and global biodiversity.
“Our efforts to fight tiger crime must not just result in seizures - they must result in prosecutions, convictions and strong penalties to stop the flow of contraband,” said Mr. John E. Scanlon, CITES Secretary-General. “If we get the enforcement system right for the tiger, we will help save countless other species together with their ecosystems.”
Tiger conservation experts presented an up-to-date situation analysis of wild tiger conservation threats, particularly worldwide and Asian trans-national organized crime links to wildlife crimes, including the trade in tigers and tiger parts.
“Wildlife and other environmental criminals too often operate in remote areas with impunity, evading detection, and circumventing full prosecution under the law,” said Mr. Keshav Varma, Program Director, World Bank Global Tiger Initiative. “The World Bank and Global Tiger Initiative fully support the resolve of the police and customs officials from tiger range countries to collaborate on intelligence. We applaud efforts to intensify pressure on the organizers of criminal networks and corrupt officials who shield them.”
Working with environmental crime experts, participating tiger-range country police and customs senior officials agreed on cross-border action points, opportunities and cooperation strategies, after discussing national priorities, challenges, and reviewing best practices.
“This important seminar has highlighted the environmental crime challenges facing senior law enforcement officers and the need for enhanced international cooperation.” said Mr. Jean-Michel Louboutin, INTERPOL Executive Director of Police Services. “Criminals cannot prosper from abusing our shared natural heritage.”
Tiger Seminar attendees discussed the need to develop a coordinated response to combat tiger crime.
“We need to work collectively through our respective environmental programmes,” said INTERPOL’s Mr. Jean-Michel Louboutin. “In this context, the INTERPOL Global Complex for Innovation in Singapore will from 2014 provide a key platform to fight environmental crimes in the 21st century.”
The Seminar also recognised INTERPOL’s Project Predator, which aims to develop the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies and form National Environmental Security Task Forces.
“If we lose an emblematic species like the Tiger, mankind will be acknowledging that it is prepared to lose any animal on the planet. This must not be allowed to happen.” said Mr. Yury Fedotov, Executive Director of UNODC. “By our actions, we must show that we have the capacity, the ability and the commitment to protect other species living on this planet.”
Compelled by the need to urgently respond to the burgeoning threat of environmental crime, five inter-governmental organisations formed in 2010 the International Consortium to Combat Wildlife Crime or ICCWC (read I-Quick). These organisations are: the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), INTERPOL, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the World Bank and the World Customs Organisation (WCO). The consortium seeks to scale up wildlife law enforcement effectiveness, by intelligence-led interdiction and advanced investigative methods.
The “Heads of Police and Customs Seminar on Tiger Crime” is one of the Consortium’s first activities. It is a follow-up to the November 2010 St. Petersburg Summit on Tiger Conservation, during which Heads of Governments of 13 tiger range countries committed to increase their cooperation to eradicate poaching, smuggling, and the illegal trade in tigers and tiger parts. Addressing illegal trade is an essential part of the Global Tiger Recovery Program, a comprehensive 12-year strategy endorsed by all 13 countries to double the population of wild tigers by 2022, the next Year of the Tiger.
The Seminar also addressed Decision 15.48 made at the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) held in Doha in 2010, which states: “The Secretariat shall seek funds to convene, as soon as possible, a seminar involving senior-level Customs and police officers from tiger range States, to brief them on the threatened status of this species, particularly the impact wildlife crime has upon it. The officials shall also be briefed by the Secretariat regarding the Global Tiger Summit, planned under the Global Tiger Initiative, so that the law enforcement community throughout tiger range States is prepared to engage in efforts to safeguard this species and respond to measures adopted at the Summit. The Secretariat shall collaborate with ICPO-INTERPOL, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the World Customs Organization in preparing the seminar.”
Cites recognises that the PAOCHING crises is more of a challenge and by hitting this hard and also WARNING the offending nations that should they NOT cease or tackle poaching then by CoP 17sanctions will be placed and that will effect over twenty three nations. Cites and the signed nations have also agreed to input more Tigers into the wild, which would boost their number up by 3,000. Should the violating nations then not ACT sanctions could be placed on all nations.
Placing sanctions would be seen as catastrophic to those that deal in animal and plant part trade, many people rely on animals and plants that brings in on the “legal market millions” in revenue on the illegal market though the entire animal part trade is bringing in an estimated $25 million a year with the illegal plant trade taking in over $12 million. Think of it like a school child being given a warning “misbehave again and all your pocket money is removed”. However in order for all nations to agree on FIRMLY on this at the next meeting then the Tiger and other big cats need highlighting more.
With regards to Tiger bine wine it has been suggested in many reports and those reports from ourselves that most Tiger bine wine is now counterfeit, or is in fact a substitute. Other wildcats are being used for such non-medicinal liquors from the Lion to the Ocelot. The same applies to the Tiger balm and Rhinoceros horn of which 80% of Rhinoceros horn is indeed fake/imitation made up of fine resins and minerals.
Rhinoceros and Elephant;
The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, Asian and African elephants.
Ivory has been traded for hundreds of years by people in such regions as Greenland, Alaska, and Siberia. The trade, in more recent times, has led to endangerment of species, resulting in restrictions and bans.
While African elephants have been hunted for several centuries, the exploitation of elephant herds on a massive scale began in the 1970s. Organized gangs of poachers used automatic weapons, profited from government corruption, and laundered tons of elephant tusks through several African countries to destinations in Eastern and Western countries.
Threatened with extinction, the elephant is theoretically protected from international trade by their listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1989. The enforcement of this ban, the level of compliance adhered to by CITES Parties, the response of non-CITES members, as well as the policy question as to how trade “interventions” best serve the environmental objective of species preservation, are all key concerns of this dispute.
Both Asian (Elephant maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are listed on Appendix I of CITES The Asian Elephant is now heavily endangered. Male Asian elephants have small tusks and Asian females are tuskless.
Remaining herds are located in small numbers in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Sumatra and are now populated for 2012-13 at 22,000. The Asian species once was found throughout Southern Asia, was severely over-hunted. Although ivory trade has experienced sustained growth since the 1940s, the huge increase that occurred during the 1970s was the result of automatic weapons availability and widespread government corruption in many exporting countries which decimated elephant populations across Africa.
In the 1960s, raw ivory prices remained between $3 and $10 per pound. In 1975, the price reached $50 because ivory was perceived as a valuable hedge against rising inflation. By 1987, the price was $125 per pound. The relative price inelasticity of ivory also fuelled demand.
New manufacturing techniques which enabled the mass production of ivory carvings along with rising demand in East Asia led to increased elephant kills.
Hong Kong was the primary consumer of raw ivory from 1979 to 1987 and probably remains important today. Japan was the second largest consumer in this time (whose market share dropped markedly during the period), followed by Taiwan (whose share rose). For both Hong Kong and Taiwan, there is significant trans-shipment of product to China. In 1979 the EC began was a major consumer, but by 1987 its share dropped to 4 per cent. At the same time, the United States market share rose from 1 to 6 per cent
Cites quoted at CoP 15 the following;
“There has been increasing willingness within the Parties to allow for trade in products from well-managed populations. For instance, sales of the South African white rhino have generated revenues that helped pay for protection”. “Listing the species on Appendix I increased the price of rhino horn (which fuelled more poaching), but the species survived wherever there was adequate on-the-ground protection. Thus field protection may be the primary mechanism that saved the population, but it is likely that field protection would not have been increased without CITES protection”.
Trade in both Ivory and Rhinoceros horn is banned so there is not much now that Cites can do other than now order an ultimatum to the main twenty three nations that should the poaching not be ceased by the removal of ivory and tackling poachers, couriers, purchasers, kingpins to drug barons then Cites will as explained above impose immediate sanctions which would severely impact on the economy hard off the violating nations. However could placing sanction’s then increase poaching more?
This is the main worry that Cites has hence why they are cautions with regards to listing other Elephant and Rhinoceros species. So these offending nations are being given the chance, with the help of increased law enforcement, M.I.S.T and environmental policing agencies and “HELP of the Google to now remove all banned animal parts thus hitting demand harder and pushing the criminals into the streets which International Animal Rescue Foundation © required to now combat crime and cease all trade in three years. SHOULD it fail then sanctions will be implemented.
The conference has identified 23 countries including China, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo that are key to the supply and consumption of ivory.
A committee of the conference will outlined the actions that each of these countries must take to stem the trade. If these steps are not taken by the summer of 2014, sanctions could be applied.
It depends though on how much progress there is, but if there is absolutely no intent to follow up on those actions, sanctions are a very real possibility,” Targets for countries like Nigeria were achievable.
If you see ivory being sold at the airport terminals, all they need to do is shut it down. These are do-able actions, they are not ones that would require a great deal of new resources.
Governments were no longer seeing these species issues as being about biodiversity - they were seen as threats to national security. The criminals who are now poaching elephants and smuggling tiger parts are the same who are funding terrorism and funding militias.
Hong Kong is already at the front line with colossal seizures from 2011-2013 http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1190036/hand-organised-crime-ivory-trade
Tourists are being urged now to STOP purchasing ivory from which International Animal Rescue Foundation © has seen much off and sent many papered documents to the environmental law enforcement agencies to now cease this, the press have launched now a multi-national appeal to STOP purchasing ivory this hitting trade even more http://www.asianewsnet.net/Thailand-tourists-urged-to-refrain-from-buying-ivo-43984.html
Please read following reports http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2012/20120621_elephant_poaching_ivory_smuggling.php
Taiwan has stated it will also burn all ivory and ban all market trade before the next summit, Taiwan is the largest distributor and importer of ivory internationally with China and Vietnam being the second and third. http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/local/338598/thailand-in-landmark-pledge-to-end-its-ivory-trade all reports can be viewed here http://www.cites.org/eng/news/cuttings/2013.php
Rhinoceros is also under the same predicament and although there was not a mention of the trade being lifted at the Cites conference it has been seen by some “mostly Rhinoceros owners and some wildlife” agencies as unfair to allow the ivory trade to commence yet “not the Rhinoceros horn” however that is just blatantly ridiculous as on cannot de-tusk as Elephant of which all monies amassed from “sized Ivory” went into conservation protection “although that protection is to still to be seen” the sale never actually decreased poaching just made matters worse by supplying the market thus keeping the demand flow high and lucrative.
The Chinese government also then after purchasing the ivory re-sold this on for 10X the price they paid for it “that’s why poaching didn’t decrease”. The same in theory has been applied to the Rhinoceros from which the Department of Environmental Affairs quoted that the “the Rhinoceros horn debate will NOT “be lifted BUT has to spoke on as this a taboo area.
This clumsy researcher that was born in Africa that now resides in Australia printed this article on the Rhinoceros horn debate then instructed all of his friends and family, university students and more to not sign the AVVAZ petition https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150614157465933&set=a.10150167025165933.306936.633775932&type=1&theater then consequently contacted the DEA and other agencies to pressure the South African government on legalising it. Maybe he simply doesn’t understand a simple thing of what actually happened to the Elephant species. - http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s3701680.htm
Most of the demand for rhino horn comes from China and Vietnam, where it is used to treat ailments ranging from headaches to cancer. The horn has no real curative powers, however–it is composed of keratin, the same material human fingernails are made of. Delegates to CoP16 in Bangkok, Thailand, congratulated the Department of Environmental Affairs for its initiatives to combat rhino poaching on the sidelines of the conference saying initiatives presently being undertaken in South Africa would enhance the global effort to fight all trans-boundary wildlife crimes.
The Department of Environmental Affairs then stated http://za.news.yahoo.com/south-africa-mulls-legal-rhino-horn-trade-123704593.html trade “has to spoke about of which SHE DID NOT state that the Rhinoceros trade WOULD be lifted. The DEA minster quoted;
“I must state categorically that there is no decision by South Africa on whether to apply to CITES at CoP17 to legalise the trade in rhino horn, or to permit the once-off sale of rhino horn stockpiles to fund conservation efforts, has been made.”
Edna Molewa 2013 March - Statement issued in the 8th March;
Update for Rhinoceros poaching 15th March 2013 is 158 Poached dead https://www.environment.gov.za/?q=content/stats_rhino_poaching_update
We were concerned about this statement though of which is going in favour of the hunting fraternity that see sustainable utilization as the only answer to control “species over population”. In our eyes there is no such thing as “animal species over population”. Our concepts are clear of which habitat destruction is the main number one issue that has to be tackled. The DEA minster quoted;
“South Africa’s position will be informed by, and based on, sustainable use principles with the long term conservation of species as the overall objective. Proposals that will ensure responsible utilization and conservation of the species concerned will be supported by South Africa”.
“Over 90 per cent of Africa’s white rhino and approximately 35% of Africa’s black rhino occur in South Africa. Rhino populations occur in formally proclaimed conservation areas as well as on private land, with the private sector contributing approximately 2.2 million hectares of land towards rhino conservation, with more than 4 000 rhino in private ownership. The populations occur throughout South Africa in all its provinces”.
“South Africa developed a Biodiversity Management Plan (BMP) for the Black rhino, aimed at ensuring the long-term survival in nature of the species, and is in the process of developing a BMP for white rhino. Key elements are the maintenance of existing ranges, the promotion of long term genetic viability and the establishment of new viable populations. South Africa shared information relating to the status of its rhino populations and interventions implemented and planned to secure its long term survival”.
South Africa has seen an increase in the illegal killing of its rhinoceros population, especially the white rhino population in the Kruger National Park where 425 animals have been poached for its horns in 2012.
While it is clear that rhino poaching has increased, so too has the focus and activities of the South African security forces in attempts to protect the rhino. South Africa has implemented various measures to counter the slaughtering of its rhino population, but 2012 saw the greatest number of rhinoceros killed in a single year, i.e. 668.
The side event at CITES CoP 16 was intended to show participants, attending the CoP, what South Africa has done in the fight against the illegal killing of rhino and illegal trade in rhino horn; and what additional measures are required to ensure the safety and security of our rhinoceros population.
The current annotation to the Appendix II listing of the white rhino populations of South Africa and Swaziland restricts trade to live specimens to appropriate and acceptable destinations and hunting trophies. A proposal to prohibit the export of hunting trophies until at least CoP 18 was submitted by a Party for consideration to the 16th CoP to CITES. This proposal was opposed by South Africa and Swaziland and it highlighted the need to have a discussion on the role of trade in the conservation of the species. During the side event presentations were made to elicit discussions relating to this important topic.
The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) is currently leading the development of the UNEP-GEF project ‘Strengthening Law Enforcement Capabilities to Combat Wildlife Crime for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Species in South Africa (target: Rhinoceros)’. The main aim of the GEF project is to improve the forensic and intelligence/information sharing capabilities of relevant groups to better control the recent upsurge in poaching of rhinoceros in South Africa’s protected area network, especially Kruger National Park. South Africa shared the information relating to the project with the CITES Parties and NGO community.
South Africa participated in the CITES and Livelihoods side event that reflected on the role international trade plays in terms of livelihoods of communities and the challenges and opportunities that it presents. The case study of the Tyhefu Traditional Council Aloe Project was presented by a community member of the project itself, Mr Mangwanandile Witness Mjoli.
Please read below the key components for your interest;
One must not yet look at everything in all doom and gloom, the facts have been clearly stipulated and proven above, we must now all work as an international TEAM to combat illegal poaching, reduce demand, and protect our species of which transnational law enforcement forces are now undertaking. We must also remember that the Rhinoceros horn trade HAS NOT been lifted and the Rhinoceros is still listed as near threatened and not vulnerable.
Focusing on these key important areas thus using every piece of technology, equipment, funding, team work and more must NOW be seen as critically important for the next meeting at CoP 17 to be held in South Africa.
Thank you for reading
International Animal Rescue Foundation
Youth Ambassadors China, Amazonia, America, Malaysia
http://www.grida.no/publications/rr/elephants/ (THE CRISIS CAN BE ADDRESSED)
There are 500,000 African Elephants left in the wild - Please download the most comprehensive and up to date research. Please watch the video above as it’s most important. There is also a 40Mb Pdf FILE that you can download. ELEPHANT range is now second to POACHING - Agriculture, supplying markets outside of Africa, land conversions from which South Africa ha now ceased all migrants from purchasing land so South Africa has known of this problem for some time. Habitual loss and human over population are KILLING the Elephants too. This now MUST be seen as MOST important that need’s tackling.. 60% decline is very worrying
RRAivory_draft7 Download Elephants in the Dust
25,000 left in the wild however hunting is declining in this with increased crime efforts to combat illegal trade and wildlife trade in vulnerable species.
One would believe that with all the recent destructive weather patterns and heavy rain fall in the United States that the rivers would be over flowing to almost flood level. Little did we know that this is not the case and should there not be an increase in rainfall soon to replenish the local state rivers and reservoirs to lakes in the centre state of the United States then we are going to be looking at quite a few problems on our hands with displaced biodiversity, botanical species vanishing, insects moving out of the area thus placing a strain on crops that depend on them, and aquatic species of river fish gone, to agricultural animals dead from severe dehydration.
From 2009-2011 the United States as documented last month was severely hit by a multitude of weather fronts bringing in flooding, typhoons, hurricanes, tropical storms, and heavy transpiration however in 2011 and then 2012 the summers where intense causing colossal crop and agricultural damage, lowering rivers and reservoirs, placing the nation in to now a water shortage crisis of which droughts have been declared over almost half of the United States. Alaska is fairly untouched by the droughts with only 1% of the Alaska actually affected of which the drought [water shortage] is expected to persist or intensify.
Hawaii has not been left untouched either and is like most parts of the United States under a drought “even in the winter”. Mainly on the west coast the droughts are likely to persist or intensify that’s causing some alarm now with agriculturists and cattle farmers, to home owners, river watch schemes, importers and exporters that use the lakes and rivers to move stock across.
Conservationists and climatologists from International Animal Rescue Foundation © have been monitoring the situation along with meteorologists and animal welfare of which the river levels have not changed in western America for the past 12 months and are unlikely to change until we see heavy but prolonged rainfall over a large time frame.
From the 7th February 2013 to the April 2013 the following areas that I have briefly listed below are on drought watch based on up to date accurate weather and river level recordings from the United States government, and local non-related conservation teams.
- Florida needs to now be on alert for droughts that are likely to occur with the entire state of Florida now on yellow watch. The very tip of Florida near Miami and the Everglades National Park has been noted that droughts in this region are likely to intensify and persist.
- Georgia and South Carolina are on red watch with droughts likely to persist and severely intensify, with no reports of real concern in North Carolina.
- Atlanta is on orange watch with droughts on-going although some are likely to [improve] over a set time it is still unclear when.
- Charlotte though is looking fairly clear and green with drought likely to improve with impacting damaging easing considerably even though it is next to a relatively drought hit area.
- Alabama is on orange watch with droughts on-going however there is likelihood of some improvement in the area.
- From the tip of Louisiana to the tip of New York the entire states between this safe-line are “fairly unaffected with only Florida now on severe drought watch [and that needs to be taken seriously]
- However moving west we see the real problems, with the entire west states of America stretching from Texas to New Mexico, Oklahoma and South Dakota all on major red watch with rivers running rapidly dry.
- Wisconsin and North Dakota are lush and green with droughts improving and impacting drought damage decreasing by the month. Lake Michigan is “satisfactory” although we would like to see more rain fall in this area, sadly we are not god and cannot make that happen.
- The Rio Grande is exceptionally worrying to us as like Florida as that is now on imminent drought watch with drought expected to hit at any time with no predictions of when or how long such drought will persist, International Animal Rescue Foundation advises all agriculturalists in this area to arrange other forms of transport and not use barges to transport goods, and to improve on land irrigation, mulching and water retention as and when it occurs.
- The entire state of New Mexico is classed now as a serious area of watch with droughts are likely to persist and/or intensify dramatically.
- Idaho – Washington and Montana are “fairly ok” although this area is not of concern we are monitoring San Francisco, California, Los Angeles, and San Diego that are now like Florida and Rio Grande on yellow watch with droughts likely to develop. We ask all agriculturist’s in these states to be prepared, seek alternative road transport and not river barge transport, monitor your local river levels and if you can rain fall too. Please ensure that irrigation is working and not blocked. We have now left these areas however we would like to view your readings for future predictions. Please email our international conservation investigation team here - email@example.com
State tension – Rivers on watch;
- CATAWBA RIVER – South Carolina vs. North Carolina river concerns are growing that North Carolina proposed hydropower plant on the Catawba River would reduce flow and harm water quality and wildlife. Neighbouring South Carolina objected to this. The US Supreme Court ruled in South Carolinas favour in 2009, blocking construction of the plant.
- LAKE MICHIGAN – States bordering the great lakes have drawn up a legal contract to share the water that feeds the lake. Now the city of Waukesha in Wisconsin wants to divert more water to its supply, citing drought. Should that application get the go ahead, and to many other cites follow suit tensions are likely to mount.
- RIO GRANDE – Texas and New Mexico are in dispute over their shares of water into the Rio Grande, governed by an agreement dating back from 1938. The Lone Star state, which is downstream from New Mexico, has asked the Supreme Court to intervene.
- Missouri and Mississippi Rivers – The shipping industry wants congress to order the release of more water from the Missouri river into the Mississippi, to keep to keep navigation channels open in the face of drought. That could trigger lawsuits from upstream states including North and South Dakota, which rely on high water levels in the Missouri for agriculture.
- RED RIVER- The Supreme Court from the Tarrant Regional Water District in Northern Texas, which wants Oklahoma to supply it with water from tributaries that flow into the Red River, on the border between the two states. Success for Texas could spark further law suits between neighbouring states.
- CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER – Atlanta’s ever increasing demands for water from the Chattahoochee river in Georgia have angered downstream Florida and Alabama, since 1990, there have been multiple lawsuits. Currently, the US Army Corps of Engineers is studying how best to allocate water among the three states.
Within the news recently it was reported that blizzards have hit the north east, however across much of the country the most widespread drought in more than half a century is still biting with the water ways being the most badly hit.
Lake Michigan and Huron hit their lowest levels on record, with the US Corps of Engineers dredging the Mississippi and blasting away rock formations on the river bed to maintain the three metre depth that barges need to ferry exports to the coast.
Growing urban water demands have long clashed with the needs of agricultural and navigation, and climate change is expected to increase the tension causing wilder swings between drought and flood even in regions that may not get drier overall. It’s predicted that water shortages are going to intensify unless climate change is dealt with on an erratic bur controlled basis and more people in the United States cut their carbon emissions down drastically and immediately.
How is this effecting wildlife though?
In a statement issued April 2012 by the Missouri State it quoted the following;
PLEASE NOTE INTERNATIONAL ANIMAL RESCUE FOUNDATION © DOES NOT SUPPORT CERTAIN VIEWS AND COMMENTS IN THIS REPORT THAT ARE NOT BASED ON UP TO DATE BIODIVERSITY SCIENCE AND WATER WAYS MANAGEMENT/CONTROL. THE VIEWS ARE BASED ON THE NARRATOR AND DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES REFLECT WHAT OUR OWN SCIENTISTS VIEW AND WORK ON DAILY.
Everything from trees to fish are feeling the pinch of heat and drought, and the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) is tracking the effects of extreme summer weather and doing what it can to help people and nature.
The period from January through June was the hottest on record nationally. June was the sixth-driest on record in Missouri. The Show-Me State’s last rainfall of state wide significance fell on May 7. Meanwhile, extreme heat, wind and unusually low humidity have sapped what little moisture once existed in the state’s soil.
One-hundred degree-plus temperatures began in June and lingered into August. In July alone, temperatures topped 100 degrees on 15 days in central Missouri.
As of July 24 2012, the National Climate Data showed the entire state of Missouri as being in at least severe drought. More than two-thirds of the state was in extreme drought, and the Bootheel and adjacent counties were in an exceptional drought, the most severe classification recognized by the National Climatic Data Centre.
The National Weather Service’s long-range forecast is for drought conditions to persist or intensify across Missouri. No significant increase in precipitation is anticipated before October.
Missouri forests were stressed by several factors even before the drought set in. Most of the state suffered a severe, late freeze in 2007, killing flower and leaf buds on many trees. Multiple ice storms that same year wrecked hundreds of thousands of trees over large swaths of Missouri, and a freak windstorm, known as a derecho, flattened trees across parts of the eastern Ozarks in 2009.
The period from 2008 to 2010 set records for rainfall. Then, in 2011, the weather abruptly turned hot and dry, a trend that has worsened this year. Forests in south eastern and south western Missouri are hardest hit by drought, but trees are suffering state wide.
As if weather challenges weren’t enough, Missouri witnessed the emergence of a brood of periodical cicadas that covered most of the state in 2011, followed by an outbreak of jumping oak gall wasps and defoliating insects.
Nick Kuhn quoted;
“All in all, it has been an extremely tough five years for Missouri forests,” says Forestry Field Programs Supervisor Nick Kuhn. “While it is still too early to know exactly how severe the effects will be, we expect to see some reduction in acorn and nut production. That could be a concern for animals that depend on acorns and other nuts for food, and for Missouri’s nut industry.”
Kuhn says many trees are dropping their leaves early to cope with the heat and drought. Shedding leaves reduces the amount of water trees lose through evaporation, helping them survive. However some trees will succumb to drought.
Kuhn says the drought will be hardest on old trees and those already weakened by disease or parasites. Trees growing on west- and south-facing slopes will face greater drought challenges, as will trees that are crowded or poorly adapted to the sites where they are growing. The drought underscores the importance of proper forest management and working with a professional forest to properly manage forests.
Drought’s in the U.S.A attributed to many cattle losing dying, pic from 2011
Gillespie Livestock Company in Fredericksburg
“Landowners can help their forests be more resilient to insect and drought stresses through proper management,” says MDC Forest Products Program Supervisor Jason Jensen. “Forests need management much the same as a garden or any other crop. When left unmanaged, forests become overcrowded. Trees all compete for water, nutrients and sunlight. When there are too many trees competing for these limited resources, the trees will become stressed and won’t be as healthy and productive as a managed forest. Trees in well-managed forests grow faster and provide better wildlife habitat.”
For landowners who are interested in managing their forest or are seeing trees that have died as a result of the drought, a timber sale may be in order. Landowners should seek the assistance of a professional forester when considering a timber sale. MDC has foresters available to assist landowners. To find a forester in your county go to http://www.mdc.mo.gov and select “Who’s My Local Contact.” Private consulting foresters are also available to assist landowners. To find a consulting forester in your area go to http://www.missouriforesters.com.
The on-going drought also has heightened wildfire danger. Unlike western states, Missouri’s primary wildfire season is late winter. Once trees leaf out, the shade they provide causes humidity levels on the forest floor to increase, reducing fire danger. This year is an exception. MDC saw a 150-percent increase in the number of reported fires from May through June. This does not include fires on the 1.5-million acre Mark Twain National Forest. Since Jan. 1, MDC has recorded 2,280 fires affecting 26,944 acres. Those fires destroyed 15 homes and l51 outbuildings and damaged 331 other structures.
Causes of these fires included:
- Debris Burning – 794 fires consuming 4,942 acres
- Equipment Use – 154 fires consuming 1,937 acres
- Arson – 117 fires consuming 4,470 acres
- Smoking – 49 fires consuming 189 acres
- Campfire – 34 fires consuming 82 acres
- Children – 34 fires consuming 83 acres
- Lightning – 23 fires consuming 75 acres
- Railroad – 7 fires consuming 38 acres
- Miscellaneous causes – 1,068 fires consuming 15,129 acres
Compared to a normal year, total burned acreage has tripled. MDC normally sends crews to help fight fires in the western United States, but this year the agency’s entire force of 754 fire fighters is at home, responding to calls for help from local fire departments.
A plane dumps fire retardant on a 30-acre grass fire in Leander on Monday, August 15, 2011.
The blaze destroyed 15 homes displacing many people and cattle.
MDC has mutual aid agreements with more than 800 fire departments and has assigned approximately $70 million in federal excess property equipment to these partners for wildfire suppression. MDC also provides training to volunteer firefighters and awards an average of $400,000 in cost-share grants annually to fire departments to purchase wild-land fire suppression equipment.
Burn bans across most of the state discourage trash burning or any other open fire. MDC has banned open fires on all conservation areas.
“Everyone needs to be extra careful when working or playing outside,” says Forestry Field Programs Supervisor Ben Webster. “It doesn’t take much to start a wildfire.”
At home and on the farm, barbecue grills should not be left unattended. Exercise extreme caution when using farm machinery, mowers or other equipment that could strike a spark or put hot engine parts in contact with dry vegetation. This includes driving vehicles off road. Smokers are urged to put cigarette butts in ashtrays rather than discarding them along roadways. Homeowners should visit http://www.mdc.mo.gov/node/5290 and use the Firewise checklist there to ensure that you can protect your property from wildfire.
Native wildlife is well-adapted to the range of conditions that can occur in Missouri. That does not mean, however, that weather does not affect animals, which may have to alter normal behaviour patterns to meet their needs for food, water and shelter.
An example of such behavioural changes came to light recently when Resource Scientist Jeff Beringer attached a video camera to the radio collar he placed on a black bear. When he retrieved the camera and watched the video, he discovered that the bear had spent pretty much all its time walking through the water in a small stream.
Resource Scientist Jeff Briggler’s primary area of expertise is reptiles and amphibians, but he offers a general observation about how current weather could affect human interaction with wildlife.
“Wild animals need water, which is extremely scarce right now,” says Briggler. “People have plenty of water, and watered lawns and gardens, birdbaths, even air-conditioners that drip water are very attractive to all kinds of wildlife.”
Briggler says people shouldn’t be surprised to find squirrels munching their tomatoes or box turtles and frogs around backyard water features. Similarly, cool basements may attract animals trying to escape the heat.
“If an animal can’t get far enough underground to get away from the heat and find moisture in their normal home area, they have to look for someplace they can,” says Briggler.
Deer are traveling farther than usual for this time of year and moving during times of day when they ordinarily would be inactive. Aquatic turtles must move or die when ponds or streams where they live dry up. On the other hand, smaller, less mobile animals, such as frogs, often take the opposite approach, hunkering down to wait out the heat.
Hummingbirds go where there is food, and this summer that means forests, especially around permanent bodies of water, where flowering plants remain available. As a result, fewer hummingbirds are visiting nectar feeders in dry upland areas, causing some people to wonder what has become of the little birds.
Wildlife Ecologist Brad Jacobs urges people to leave hummingbird feeders out well into the fall, however.
“The southern migration of hummingbirds has begun,” says Jacobs, “with increasing reports of adult and young birds at nectar feeders. Artificial feeders are a welcome supplement for migrating hummers. The ruby-throats will be mostly gone by October, but several other western hummingbird species pass through Missouri on up until early December, and they might just stop by a feeder if you leave one out for them.”
Jacobs says the current weather has the opposite effect on birds whose primary foods are seeds and insects. Shortages of these staple foods have meant capacity crowds at well-stocked feeding stations. Putting out black-oil sunflower seeds, seed mixes and suet blocks almost guarantees that mobs of birds will visit your feeder.
Likewise, people are reporting seeing more herons this year. Jacobs says the long-legged wading birds are not more numerous this year. They simply are more visible because they are concentrated around limited water. Shallow, shrunken pools present a bonanza for these predators of fish and amphibians.
Waterfowl hunters have been encouraged by news that near-record numbers of ducks will head south from nesting grounds in the northern United States and Canada this year. However, reduced availability of agricultural crops and natural food plants on wetland areas could prevent ducks from lingering in Missouri long enough to provide much hunting opportunity.
Keeping wetland areas wet enough for ducks could be a problem if the drought continues. Low water levels in streams and wells have raised concerns about the availability of water later in the fall at managed wetland areas, including Bob Brown, Nodaway Valley, Fountain Grove and Otter Slough.
On the other hand, low water levels allow maintenance work on boat ramps and other areas that normally are too wet. Lack of moisture also permits habitat work in areas where soil normally remains saturated throughout the summer and provides opportunities to control invasive plants.
For all these reasons, the quality of this year’s waterfowl hunting remains a question mark in spite of the abundance of ducks.
Resource Scientist Emily Flinn specializes in deer biology and management. She does not expect big changes in deer numbers on account of this year’s weather.
“Deer are resilient animals and have dealt with extreme conditions for millions of years,” she says. “Although fawn survival can be affected by drought, the mild winter and early spring green-up allowed the deer population to enter the summer in excellent body condition. So I doubt that fawn recruitment will be significantly affected statewide.”
Flinn says epizootic hemorrhagic disease and blue tongue (another hemorrhagic disease) always are concerns in drought years, because deer have more opportunity to transmit diseases when they are crowded around limited water supplies. She noted that hemorrhagic diseases are different and unrelated to chronic wasting disease, or CWD.
She has received some reports of dead deer around water, which is typical of hemorrhagic diseases, but she is awaiting test results to confirm the cause. Such outbreaks are difficult to document, since affected deer typically die quickly and are immediately consumed by scavengers. Citizens who see dead or sick deer can report the sightings to the nearest MDC office.
Flinn says she is receiving a larger-than-normal number of complaints about deer damaging crops. She attributes this to reduced availability of other natural foods. At this time of year, deer normally are browsing on plant leaves, buds and fruits.
MDC provides landowners considerable ability to manage deer by providing depredation permits to address localized crop damage and free or low-cost deer hunting permits during the hunting seasons. Flinn stresses that it is important for neighbors to work together to manage deer in their area.
MDC is working with landowners to encourage quality deer management at the community level. Several deer-management landowner cooperatives have started across the state where landowners are working together to better manage the local deer herd.
“Deer hunting is a rich tradition in Missouri and important to our economy,” says Flinn. “MDC wants neighbors talking to each other about how they can work together to better manage the local deer herd “and we’re here to help.”
MDC is hosting four deer-management workshops in August and September that will focus on managing deer on private land. For details, visit mdc.mo.gov/node/18243. For more information on deer landowner cooperatives, contact your county private land conservationist using the “Who’s My Local Contact” link at http://www.mdc.mo.gov.
Weather conditions do affect deer behavior, and Missourians might be seeing evidence of that as deer travel longer distances to find food and water. This could result in deer being active throughout the day, rather than just from dusk to dawn, as they normally are.
One thing that is unlikely to be affected by weather is the size of bucks’ antlers. Flinn notes that deer in Texas showed no change in antler growth last year after experiencing a record drought.
“Again,” says Flinn, “the mild winter and early spring allowed deer to store nutrients and enter the summer in great body condition. I don’t think hunters are going to see any effect on antler size related to the drought and heat.” For the same reason, Flinn said deer don’t need supplemental feeding.
“We do not need to provide supplemental food or water sources,” says Flinn. “This mainly increases the risk of disease spread, which could cause more harm than good.”
Resource Scientist Beth Emmerich says warm, dry weather early in the nesting season gave wild turkeys, quail, pheasant and other upland birds a much needed break from the wet, cold weather that has plagued them in recent years. She says quail should have no trouble finding food because grasshoppers – one of their staple foods – are abundant.
“Most people I’ve talked to are seeing and hearing more quail than they have in the last several years, when it was wetter,” says Emmerich. “It should be good for rabbits, pheasants and other upland wildlife, too. Quail can tolerate periods of dry weather well, as they get their water from dew and food. The mild winter, coupled with a dry summer should be good news for them. I have my hopes up for good survival of quail chicks this year.”
The most dramatic effects of the current drought on fish and other aquatic life are occurring in ponds, small lakes and streams. Fisheries biologists across the state report increased incidence of fish kills in small impoundments.
Although the number of fish kills is up, such events are normal occurrences in Missouri. In most cases, fish die because they can’t get enough oxygen. Warm water holds less oxygen than cool water, so hot weather is naturally more stressful. Fish usually can cope with this unless other factors come into play.
Warm, fertile water sometimes promotes excessive growth of tiny aquatic plants known as algae. That’s fine as long as the sun shines and the tiny plants are using sunlight to put oxygen in the water. But cloudy weather turns algae from oxygen producers into oxygen consumers, so a couple of overcast days can have disastrous results for fish.
This corn stalk is typical of the condition of hundreds of acres of corn that was destroyed by drought on this farm in Round Rock on Tuesday, July 12, 2020
Fish gulping air at the surface of a pond is an early warning of an impending kill. Sometimes pond owners can improve the situation by running an outboard boat motor with the propeller close enough to the surface to mix air and water, increasing dissolved oxygen. However, they must be sure not to stir up mud, as this can make things worse. They also must ensure that the motor’s cooling-water intake remains submerged to avoid overheating.
Fish in large lakes are not immune to drought and heat. Most of Missouri’s large reservoirs still have reasonably good water levels, but temperatures are climbing and dissolved-oxygen levels are declining. Fish grow sluggish as water warms and oxygen grows scarce, and this makes for poor fishing. Fish also are more susceptible to diseases and parasites in tepid lakes. The longer such conditions continue, the greater the likelihood that fish will die. At present, fisheries biologists worry about the possibility of isolated die-offs of large muskellunge at Pomme de Terre or the loss of walleyes and other prized game fish at other big lakes.
Fish in streams also feel the effects of heat and drought. Streams with healthy watersheds – including good soil-conservation practices, vegetated stream-side buffer zones and trees that provide shade – generally have good water quality and avoid fish kills. But even fish in healthy streams can experience stress in extreme droughts. Trout in the Current and Niangua rivers and small spring-fed streams currently are at risk because reduced flow from springs has raised their water temperatures.
Pools that serve as refuges for fish in small streams statewide are disappearing, leaving fish with nowhere to go. Even where pools remain, severe flow reductions can leave fish vulnerable to pond-like fish kills.
Anglers may find the water level in some streams so low that boat ramps are unusable. Until the drought breaks, it’s a good idea to inspect the bottom ends of boat ramps before launching to ensure the concrete apron extends far enough to support your boat trailer.
Four of MDC’s five cold-water fish hatcheries rely on natural springs to supply water for their operations. Some of those springs are down to less than half their normal flows. This has forced some hatcheries to transfer part of their fish to Shepherd of the Hills Hatchery, which has an abundant supply of cool water from Table Rock Lake. MDC’s four warm-water hatcheries are making do with reduced flows, but hatchery managers are watching conditions closely.
A catfish can barely move on the edge of a pond in that has dwindled to just a few inches deep on Thursday, July 14, 2011, in Old Dime Box in Lee County.
“Hatchery improvements completed the past couple years, such as dissolved oxygen systems, aerators, and renovated raceways have really helped us cope with the drought and low water levels,” says Hatchery Systems Manager James Civiello. “I’d hate to imagine where we would be in this drought without the hatchery improvements.”
Livestock forage is critically scarce this summer, and MDC supported a request by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Farm Services Agency to allow farmers to graze cattle on some land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program and permit haying on land enrolled in the Wetland Reserve Program.
MDC also offers cost share to landowners interested in establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production. Native grasses are more drought-tolerant than introduced cool-season grasses such as brome and tall fescue. During the drought, native grasses like big bluestem and switch grass are still growing and providing forage for livestock and cover for wildlife. For more information on native warm-season grasses contact your local private land conservationist or regional MDC office.
Private Land Field Programs Supervisor Rex Martensen reminds landowners that the Missouri Wildlife Code allows them to protect crops and property from deer, bears, raccoons, coyotes, beavers and other wildlife with MDC permission. A call to the nearest MDC office is all that is needed to get help from a wildlife damage biologist.
Good news related to the drought is scarce, but there are a few silver linings. One is that ticks and mosquitoes are not as troublesome this summer as they have been in recent years. Invasive zebra mussels can’t tolerate warm water well and apparently were devastated by high water temperatures at Lake of the Ozarks last year. This year’s more extreme conditions could help contain the destructive mussels.
While individual animals and local populations may suffer, MDC experts agree that forests, fish and wildlife overall will bounce back from the current drought and heat.
“The resiliency of wild animals and the stability of natural systems is truly remarkable,” says Briggler. “Trees and animals don’t fret over the present or the future. They just persevere.”
Impacts of drought via climate change;
Drought conditions can affect wildlife populations in many ways, from changing homeland ranges in an effort to find water to creating conditions that can impact health. High temperatures and low rainfall can contribute to outbreaks of Clostridium botulinum or avian botulism, which is a bacterium that typically resides dormant in the soil. Under the right conditions, these bacteria can replicate and produce toxins. These toxins are typically concentrated in maggots and other invertebrates that feed on decaying matter that is a good source of protein for the botulism bacteria. Birds like waterfowl then ingest the toxins through feeding on these organisms or drinking infected water. Species that are most impacted by a botulism outbreak are associated with wetland communities including ducks such as mallards, wood ducks, and teal and water birds such as yellow legs, pelicans or great blue herons.
As drought conditions increase, the impacts on plants can be readily observed, since plants simply reduce the number of stems they produce while others shrivel and die back. This reduction in plant growth results in less available hiding cover, which could increase predation rates for wildlife as well as produce fewer flowers for insects and, as a result, less available food. Species that could be impacted by this decreased habitat quality would be ground nesting birds such as turkeys and pheasants as well as ground dwelling mammals such as ground squirrels.
The timing of this year’s drought conditions is not likely to have a significant adverse impact on nesting wildlife, since most birds have fledged the nest and are no longer confined to a specific nesting site. The potential exists, however, that high temperatures and low moisture levels can result in bird losses.
Reduced food shortages;
Extremely dry conditions also reduce the available water sources that many insects are dependent upon for a portion of their life cycle, specifically mosquitoes. Although reduced insect levels can be a positive for people getting outside in the evenings, lower insect levels for bats can mean less food and as a result, lower fat reserves for migration and hibernation. In addition to potential mortality that reduced food sources may cause, wildlife in drought conditions may also need to travel greater distances to find available food. This extra effort also subjects them to increased predation rates themselves and an increased likelihood of accidents.
In the image above one can clearly view how drought is changing over the states of America [Please click image]
In addition to reduced insects for food, the production of other food sources - such as berries and mast, which include acorns or hickory nuts - could also be reduced. Similar to a reduction in insects, a reduction in the available berries and mast can impact wildlife by requiring additional travel to find adequate food sources, causing both mortality from increased predation or accidents as well as indirect mortality from reduced fat reserves needed for hibernation. These impacts can ultimately result in reduced number of young next year.
Another potential impact that residents in the drought areas may experience is an increase in the number of wildlife visiting yards and outbuildings searching for food and water sources. As food sources decrease in the wild, some wildlife species such as raccoons or bear may search out easier food sources such as pet food dishes, cattle troughs or gardens that are regularly watered and are producing a higher volume of berries.
As drought conditions increase, much wildlife will seek alternative habitat locations where habitat conditions are more favourable for them to raise young, seek shelter and provide a water source. Some species that would concentrate in these drought conditions would include a wide array of wildlife that would frequent the remaining watering holes to wetland dependent species such as waterfowl and amphibians, specifically frogs, toads and salamanders. While the concentration of wildlife may seem like a security issue to some, it also increases predation rates as the predators also home in on concentrations of their prey species.
Combatting drought - http://drought.unl.edu/DroughtforKids/HowCanWeProtectOurselves.aspx
Reducing water loss based on the most hottest sub Saharan climates – Zimbabwe an example;
Since 1991 Practical Action has been working with communities in the dry Chivi district of Zimbabwe developing and testing new approaches to overcoming the effects of droughts which affect them three years out of five.
The farmer’s main priorities from the programme were to improve crop yields and conserve water. A high level of community participation - over 1,800 people - ensured that the project reflected local priorities and built on local knowledge to conserve water, protect soil, control pests and maintain indigenous varieties of seeds.
One early successful outcome of the project was a water saving technique involving clay pipes made by the women of the community. The pipes were used to carry water underground for irrigation in order to reduce evaporation.
The results were dramatic. Crops only needed watering twice a week instead of four times and the volume of water required fell by a half.
Other methods of water conservation have also been successfully employed including ridges across furrows to trap water, infiltration pits to soak it up and mulching.
Practical solutions on reducing drought;
- Use water convenient items such as low water showers and 4 minute timers etc. You can also wash your car say once a fortnight instead of daily.
- Mulching with bark and other fibrous chippings to even manure will reduce fluid loss on an agricultural and domestic scale.
- Fixing leaking tapes and pipes and reporting ALL leakages to the water board. It’s estimated that internationally we lose over 56 billion litres of water a year just from “public broken pipes” if you see it REPORT IT.
- Use alternative fuels thus reducing increasing climate destruction that causes drought.
- Set up on your farm and home rain water catch channels that then contain “rain water in to barrels or vast under-ground tanks” that one can then use to water their farms. International Animal Rescue Foundation © recommends that you store these tanks under-ground to reduce [evaporation] and because of the ground being much cooler and cut off from direct sunlight.
- Sounds “dirty” but DON’T allow your shower or bath water to just filter down the plug holes, this water helps in two very important ways of which we use in one of 7 glass houses. 1) Collect all bath and shower water upon finish “even with the soap suds in”. 2) Await for this to water to cool then water your plants [it does not harm them] 3) because the water has a [now] concentrated soap in it that does not harm the plants or crop in anyway; it does actually act as an aphid control. [The soap within the water is slippery and once cooled and then watered onto plants / crops that are infested by bugs, the aphids cannot keep grip on the stems thus falling off. [We always recommend that you use biodegradable chemicals] please view here where you can purchase. http://www.charliesoap.com/kitchen_bath_cleaner.html http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/biodegradable-soap.html http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/biodegradable-house-cleaners-2264.html
- It’s important to use biodegradable soap & cleaning products when you are re-using your bathwater to water the garden, as normal soap takes a long time to break down from complex chemicals into more useful simple substances that plant life can absorb. So I thought I would write something on biodegrable soap…first of all, look out for vegetable based solid soap like Marseille soap or glycerin soap. Glycerin soap is usually translucent. Marseille soap uses olive oil as a base. If you prefer to use liquid soap or shower gel, rather than solid soap, you can make your own shower gel by:  grating solid soap into flakes  putting these into an old shower gel bottle with some hot water  Shake the bottle for a few minutes and leave it to stand for a day or too. This is then ready to use. This is also good for the environment because it stops you buying shower gel bottles which then have to be recycled or just thrown away, ending up in landfill. If you can’t be bothered with that, you could use solid soap in the shower, if you have somewhere to put it… you can put in on a string and hang it up above the bath. The best way to do this is to use a screwdriver to grind a hole by hand through the centre of the bar of soap and thread some thick cord through this. It’s best to hang the soap high up so it’s not in the water stream, this way it will last longer. As for biodegradable cleaning products to clean your bath, try using soda crystals or borax. You can buy these sorts of products in cardboard boxes (again less plastic waste) from Clean and Natural by DRI PAK. If you scrub this powder onto the surface of the bath with a bit of water and leave it for a while before washing it off again, it is pretty effortless -on a par with stronger household cleaning products but with less ecological impact. These products are easy and safe to use and odourless. Soda crystals are produced by a relatively simple chemical process which means it’s more easily broken down, unlike phosphates which are found in more modern cleaning products. for more information on this subject see this page on toxic water by Surfers Against Sewage (SAS)
- Take showers not baths
- SO you think that plants and trees only draw water in the daytime when photosynthesis a process used by plants and other organisms to convert the light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy is in operation? WRONG plant roots will not rot away if you water in the night time that is complete and utter nonsense. [Please water only in the night time and sunset] Also water in the very early hours of the morning and if you cannot be bothered to get out of bed then you can set up an irrigation pipe with timer. Here is where you can purchase that timer http://www.sprinklerwarehouse.com/Sprinkler-Timers-Controllers-s/23.htm al shapes and sizes and at all prices.
- NO Air conditioning – It’s a [luxury and not needed] use a hand fan or battery fan. Ask yourself WHY ARE YOU BOILING HOT IN YOUR HOME? Lack of ventilation? Air circulation? Or it is because you’re actually contributing to global climate temperature increase?
- Going camping? Forget the water supply that the camp sites charge you for! PORTABLE RAIN WATER PURIFICATIONS - http://www.travelpharm.com/index.cfm/malaria/Products.List/category_id/4&referer=adwords&keyword=portable_water_purification?gclid=CM_C88-pzrUCFeXLtAodqE0AjQ
If we continue to abuse the environment then we will continue to battle for water thus leaving other community areas short or having to run on limited supply. This will in turn harm our precious biodiversity which is already in a critical state. Please act responsible and don’t ruin our planet anymore. Water shortages in the modern world are also affecting the third world nations and agriculture. Please use water responsibility.
Dr J C Dimetri V.M.D, B.E.S, Ma, PhD, MEnvSc
Who would believe there was a drought with weather like this only 4 days ago;
IF WE CONTINUE TO ABUSE THIS PLANET THEN MOTHER NATURE WILL FIGHT BACK WITH DEADLY FORCE
I am becoming increasingly annoyed and frustrated at the recent and past energy price rises that has increased in the European Union by up to twenty five per cent in the last two years. International Animal Rescue Foundation © owns its own rescue in the United Kingdom and since our last yearly energy bill came in from N-Power Energy with I being the utility payer and rescue owner I was absolutely disgusted at the rates from which I was being charged.
Our energy consumption for one entire year is always estimated and for the past two years I have asked my staff to provide monthly meter readings as requested, plus I have continuously demanded that the energy readers travel to the farm and take monthly meter readings so that a complete 100% accurate usage of energy can be established thus charging me the owner of the rescue farm the correct amount in usage.
The bill yet again was exactly (wait for it) drum roll du du du du du £4,576 for one years of estimated usage, (even though I have asked trusted staff to take meter readings) and the utility meter readers have travelled to the farm and taken exact usage readings to the nearest decibel. I have read through all the paper work as requested by myself and sent to me by my staff and still N-Power have charged myself the Chief Executive Officer the best part of almost £5,000 English sterling.
The rescue farm has many energy saving modifications, all energy saving white goods, water meter’s and turbine, to solar powered energy and 3 small wind turbines too that generate and store energy. So in theory one would think with a moderate supply of free natural energy “although not a substantial amount” and environmentally friendly modifications that have since paid themselves off then the amount of kilowatts per hour of energy usage would be vastly reduced.
Unfortunately this is not the case and it’s going to become a lot worse with more peaks in energy “billing” for the entire nation of the United Kingdom and many other continents if not all due to obsessive over consumption that could be greatly decreased if we all took vital steps in reducing heat loss, increasing environmentally friendly modifications within the home and business sector to turning of energy when we don’t require it.
Even though I am not a resident or citizen of the United Kingdom I still have to pay for the usage, however I feel it unfair that I am being forced to pay “increases” because other people in the United Kingdom cannot be bothered to use energy wisely and efficiently to securing their homes from “energy loss” thus decreasing higher bills to using greener energy such as solar, wind, and water to recycled energy within the home, business and even automobile.
So in reality I have paid for all these modifications over a period of two years and yes ok “has been awarded star decreased energy billing” because I had electrical engineers fit the rescue with (alternative energy) saving technology. However because other British citizens that have yet to decrease their carbon output, to fitting alternative energy within their homes then I and others are still being “discriminated and singled out” due to their obsessive over energy consumption, which I believe is totally unfair and discriminative.
OK so let’s move away from my own expense and look at the average energy billing that I have listed below, and please note this is based on estimated sources that I could source and locate from energy suppliers around the world and not just in the United Kingdom.
Please note the readings below are based on the United Kingdom, the average size of the living space to the average weather readings for the past two years, I have only included electricity as this is the main source of energy that one uses.
- One person in a one bedroom apartment = 500 Kwh/year
- Two people in a two bedroom apartment = 2,500 Kwh/year
- Three people in a three bedroom house = 5,500 Kwh/year
- Family of four in a four bedroom house = 4800kwh/year to 15840kwh/year
The above readings are based on “usage” and not an exact figure as everyone uses energy differently and are not always at home. This is based on average moderately healthy person[s] but does not show an exact figure.
Below I have placed some of the averaged priced bills based upon what “type” of home the individual lives in. Please remember again this is “estimated” and does not represent a real accurate figure which would be practically impossible for one to document on.
Energy billing per type of property;
For a flat/apartment from one bedroom up to five the prices per energy consumption are listed below with the lowest priced billing figure being a (one bedroom) to the highest figure being a six bedroom.
Flat £675 £570 £743 £823 £575 £693
For a terraced from one bedroom up to five the prices per energy consumption are listed below with the lowest priced billing figure being a (one bedroom) to the highest figure being a six bedroom.
Terraced £774 £579 £710 £755 £1,085 £1,150
For a bungalow from one bedroom up to five the prices per energy consumption are listed below with the lowest priced billing figure being a (one bedroom) to the highest figure being a six bedroom.
Bungalow £804 £929 £836 £707 £1,031 £1,200
For a semidetached from one bedroom up to five the prices per energy consumption are listed below with the lowest priced billing figure being a (one bedroom) to the highest figure being a six bedroom.
Semi-Detached £805 £619 £666 £796 £1,059 £886
For a detached from one bedroom up to five the prices per energy consumption are listed below with the lowest priced billing figure being a (one bedroom) to the highest figure being a six bedroom.
Detached £924 £300 £917 £797 £991 £1,038
It’s quite peculiar to see such fluctuations of energy based on how many bedroom’s you have, for example a one bedroom flat will use per year on average £675 however move up to a (five bedroom and your consumption per year on average is £575) and the same applies for a detached, a one bedroom detached will see you at a rate of £924 per year however move up to a two bedroom then you’re paying £300??? (this is ludicrous)
But purchase a four bedroom and the usage on average is £797 BUT living in a six bedroom you’re paying just over the average of what you would for a one bedroom detached. Confusing? Yes rather confusing as energy companies are rather crafty in the United Kingdom.
The monthly meter reading man/woman will ONLY take an (estimate of your consumption) of which it’s up to YOU to provide most energy companies nowadays with your energy usage by providing them over the telephone the two click meter readings per month or quarter.
This is not only time consuming for yourselves (but have you actually been kept in a telephone waiting line for almost an hour listing to the verses of Mozart or Vivaldi before launching into a tyrant of abuse? I have many times now. It’s also costly on the telecommunications usage too.
If you feel that your being unfairly treated then one can complain or you can pay of your outstanding electricity bill at the end of the year and then run your usage by taking the meter readings yourselves then placing them through this simple search engine http://www.home-save.co.uk/energy/compare_cheap_gas_and_cheap_electricity_prices_online/cheap_gas_and_electricity/ of which you can “haggle as they say in Britain” with electricity companies and if you’re not sure on how to (haggle) then here’s how http://www.wikihow.com/Haggle trust me it works.
I use this technique many times when I am traveling from one continent to the other or just purchasing on markets. Be sure to make a (realistic) “quote” and if they refuse then explain to them you’re going to shop elsewhere as (another company has offered you a cheaper price and extra’s, remember though don’t exaggerate as they are actually trained in haggling too).
If they agree (to your haggling quote) then explain to the telephonist that you’re still not satisfied, give them your number and then explain you’ll shop about. Trust me your energy bill will drop substantially, then all you have you do is ensure you SIGN the dotted line and READ THE SMALL PRINT.
Whatever you do (never forget to read the small print) even if it’s in bible format and 10 pages long of which you need a magnifier glass to read (you must read it) because on the telephonists end (energy company) they will have the small print standing out on their computers at a rate the size of the Eifel tower.
However we are still not solving the problem here and the problem is obsessive over consumption and wastage of energy through many reasons such as poor construction, poor household maintenance, to inadequate loft and ceiling insulating or just failing to turn your electrics of at night time or when you vacate the property that can and does use more energy than having your electric’s turned on.
Fact your television uses about 80 to 400 watts, depending on usage however leave it on standby and it’s using 99W. A laptop is more energy-efficient than a desktop and monitor set-up.
Laptops, desktops and monitors are becoming increasingly energy-efficient, especially when you compare LCD or LED monitors with the old-style tube or CRT monitors. Newer machines also have reasonably good power options, so they switch on and power down fairly quickly, making it less tempting to just leave your computer on unnecessarily.
Computers effectively use similar power whether they are busy or idle. If you leave them doing nothing, they are using almost as much as if they are number crunching or accessing information, that’s why ‘sleep’ mode is so useful.
Use your power-saving setting: these are usually found in your computer preferences, and there are normally two options, either sleep or hibernate mode, both will turn off the monitor within a specified number of minutes of inactivity - with an old tube/CRT monitor energy usage may fall by half. Don’t forget to switch off your computer and any peripheral devices, such as your printer and scanner, overnight. Check your back-up settings and make sure it is set up to run as soon as your computer is switched on again (in case your computer is switched off at the designated time).
How much energy are you actually losing through poor home construction, shoddy maintenance, to poor insulation and even small cracks under the doors and window frames?
The average household will spend an average of about $960 each per year keeping warm and using various electrical items please note the figure above though is based on electric heating, gas heating, too using plug in heaters which the rate above is “WORLD ESTIMATE” to the nearest figure.
That’s three months of grocery money for a family, pumping heat into a leaky sieve that could actually have been built to require much less, or even no added heat, depending on the location and climate.
To understand heating, you must first know what you’re paying for. Heat is often measured in BTUs, British Thermal Units.
Then you must understand how you are losing your heat. The most important form of heat loss from your house is something called thermal transmittance, also known as U-factor. This is really just a number that means “how leaky is this material”, and it is based on the leakiness of a single pane of glass.
A single-pane glass window has a U-factor of 1. In English units, this means that each square foot of glass leaks out one BTU of heat per hour, for each degree Fahrenheit your house is warmer than the outside air.
So when you’re looking through a giant 10×10 foot window (100sqft), from a 70F room out into a 0F deadly-cold wintry blizzard, your window is leaking out 100 x 70 = 7,000 BTU per hour of heat into the night. That’s 7 cents/four UK pennies per hour or $50.40 per month of heat from that single window.
The “R-value” you have probably heard about is simply the inverse of the U factor. That means 1 divided by U equals R, and 1 divided by R equals U. You’ve heard of R-13 wall insulation, right? The U-factor of that is 1/13, or 0.08. (Are you still with me?)
With that knowledge, we can move up to understand the heat loss of an entire house. A 1000 square foot house probably has an outside surface area of about 2000 square feet including the roof. If it has standard R-13 wall insulation (and no windows for this example), and the temperature inside is 68F, it loses how much heat on a 32 degree day? 2000 square feet x 0.08 U-factor x 36 degree temperature difference = 5760 BTU per hour = $1.38 per day. (Times that by seven days = $9.66)
Imagine a household uses the same amount of electricity, about 299 kilowatt-hours per month, equivalent to 415 watts of average continuous use. How much heat does this electricity use add to the house? The answer is 1416 BTU per hour.
“What? You were just talking about home heating, and now you are talking about electricity. Aren’t they two different things?”
No, it turns out they are actually directly related. Almost all of the electricity you use in your house ends up being converted to heat, with 100% efficiency. Your light bulbs give off heat and light, and the light bounces around the room and eventually gets absorbed by the walls and turns into a tiny amount of heat as well. Likewise for your appliances, your computer, etc.
What this means is that any electricity you use in the heating season provides some of your heat, and reduces the amount your furnace needs to provide. The only exception to this rule is electric appliances that vent their waste heat outside. (Now are you paying attention?)
The glowing red and yellow sections on the left of this photograph indicate where the heat loss is via the use of thermal imagery
Getting down to the real deal here, and that is energy consumption wastage that’s not just costing you hundreds and leaking out thousands of dollars a year it’s also adding up to environmental global climate change and as explained on previous documentation if we don’t decrease and start slowing our wastage down then the planet’s surface temperature is regrettably going to heat up to another 4oc by 2100 and that is very concerning.
Of course our “winters will be warmer” however if winters are warmer what does that explain to you the home and business owner? Well it means more intense flooding and at higher levels destroying vast swathes of land, placing the world’s economy into jeopardy, agriculture will be effected considerably, corn, wheat and other cereal crops will be priced much higher due to importation from other nations (all because we couldn’t be bothered to turn the television, computers, lights, car engines, to mobile phones and much more.
Where are we losing our energy within the home?
- Lack of loft insulation or no loft/attic insulation
- Lack of or incorrect to no inner wall heat insulation
- Cracks in walls, ceiling’s, waste outlet/inlet pipes, air circulation vents, shoddy building construction, poor maintenance, poorly fitted doors and windows, underneath doors, unused chimney vents, chimney vents that are now used for decorative features, plug holes (yes believe it or not plug holes), over flow pipes, damaged exterior brick pointing and interior brick pointing to damaged plaster and render, key holes (did you know that a key hole can cool your house down in 1 hour?), broken tiles, poorly constructed A frame roofs to flat roofing.
- Electricals not being turned off at the wall and left on standby or (vampire power) use almost as more energy within the time that you’re away from the set “as they say” than you are watching. Example - if you watch television for 4 hours at night, then turn it on standby and sleep for the average of 7-8 hours (normal average sleep pattern) your television is consuming more energy, and it’s not to keep the red light on neither. Please read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leakage_(electronics)
- Other electronics such a coffee percolators, video game consoles, mobile phones left on at night, answering machines, stereos, and white goods from cookers, washing machines, microwaves, toasters, tumble dryers, (anything with an L.E.D display).
- Lights (a very big energy waster and environmental atmospheric warmer) It sounds almost too simple, but don’t forget that you can save a lot of energy, and therefore money, by making sure to turn off the lights when you leave a room. Lighting is responsible for about 11 per cent of a home’s energy bills, and those continue to march up across most of the country, at a time when home prices are falling and job growth is soft. It’s true that a compact fluorescent bulb uses about 75 per cent less electricity than an incandescent, but the most energy-saving bulb of all is one that’s turned off. So get in the habit of flipping those switches when you leave a room. Kids can easily get in on the action, and it’s an environmental value that will last a lifetime, and carry over into other areas.
Items in the home that consume the most energy;
- Fridges (use economy and make sure the fridge and freezer is full, ensure the fridge is in between 2-5oc not above the food spoil danger zone of 5oc) – ensuring the fridge and freezer is full uses less energy and reduces “energy wastage” make sure that when you open your fridge and freezer door that you close the door immediately. A simple drop in temperature will start the thermostat = more energy because you was too lazy to shut the door
- Gas or electric boilers / central heating (use when needed or at a constant 15oc)
- Cookers (turn of at the wall if you have a L.E.D
- Air conditioning uses masses amount of energy (use a battery fan)
- Computers (turn to energy efficient setting)
- High grade television and DVD players (larger the screen = more energy usage) (do you really need a 50” television screen? If so think of an up to date eye examination
- Stereos (turn of at the wall when not in use)
- Plasma heating units / mobile electric heaters (fancy heaters? We don’t need them)
- Video game consoles (uses masses of energy due to high grade technology) (turn of at the wall and exercise more) – we are spending too much time as couched potatoes EXERCISE and your brain will thank you http://www.helpguide.org/life/improving_memory.htm
- Fax machines – (really?)
- Cell phones, (the newer the phone and the bigger the pixel on the camera = more charge time, video player, MP3 player, and more) (make sure you use all the power in your cell phone then recharge, turn of at night and rely on a non-electric landline)
- Plug in air fresheners (purchase natural fragrance or clean more please DON’T use CFC’s)
- Security lights, CCTV, intruder alarms (set them on timers and at the correct height)
- Clocks (use battery)
- Coffee and tea makers (use a kettle)
- Electric land line telephones (use non-electric)
- Light bulbs (turn of when not in the room or purchase energy efficient)
- Electric storage heaters (these are massive energy consumers if not used correctly) (read the manual and make sure your generating and storing it, then releasing it on a timer and not generating it and releasing at the same time)
- Gadgets (do you really need them on at night) (do you really need them)
- Children’s rechargeable toys (BOOKS please READ – we are using more electric toys than reading books FACT)
- Electric wheel chairs (buy a non-electric and apply for a career) This link is for the UK https://www.gov.uk/carers-allowance/overview and USA http://www.ssa.gov/disability/
- Intercom systems (door bells or knockers with a spy hole)
- Electric smoke alarms (purchase battery)
- Skype headsets (these use masses of battery power) (use PC built in microphone)
- Spotlights (just the same as a 50 WAT halogen we don’t need them, purchase energy saving)
- Fish tanks and basic animal tanks (animals belong in the wild not the home)
- Water coolers (make ice in the freezer with an array of herbs and spices)
- Air ventilation systems (use a handmade fan)
- Electric automobiles (use bio fuel) (don’t use palm oil)
- Water lime scale removers (purchase a non-battery/non-electric lime remover) http://www.brita.com/intl/
- Washing machines (use when you have a heavy load not just for a single shirt)
- Tumble dryers (ever heard of wind)
- Electronic rotary air drying lines (we have natural wind for this)
This is thirty three objects that we are using in the modern house today that are not being used wisely with most of them used too much, too little, to using at the wrong times of the day. We don’t even need half of these goods listed above within our homes and sadly it’s a well-known fact of life that the average human is spending more time in their homes then they are out as recorded in recent 2010, 2011, 2012 market surveys. http://www.smh.com.au/business/cutting-peak-energy-demand-could-ease-pressure-on-rising-electricity-costs-20110717-1hk75.html On and off peak times for Great Britain https://customerservices.npower.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/179/~/what-are-the-economy-7-peak-and-off-peak-periods%3F
The biggest issue here though is (WHAT DO ALL OF THESE PRODUTS PRODUCE) and that is heat, even the simple house light bulb as explained above gives of heat and if you have all of these products in your home your home then you home is producing an eye watering loss of heat that can actually be seen on thermal imagery cameras and by the ISS (International Space Station).
How can I cut down my energy consumption?
By reducing your energy consumption you’re helping to reduce your carbon foot print which will slow but sadly no longer cease global climate change. There are many alternative energy options that you can purchase that are at this stage “still fairly expensive” however once they are installed and they have been running for at least a six months to one year you will see a considerable energy decrease billing amount on your monthly, quarterly to yearly utility bill. Please also remember that before and “if” you purchase that we do as an experienced animal and environmental agency strongly recommend, that you read through all the contracts and small print.
If you’re a home owner and you have had alternative energy saving options introduced and then come to sell your home it “could” place the home at a decreased value market price if the other buyer doesn’t want to live in an adapted property.
Should you purchase adaptions of an energy supplier then again this could also affect your property value of which “you would not be entitled to ownership” until a set amount of years which is in between 15-25 years.
Most suppliers of “solar blinds/panels” will state that they will fit however they will not legally be yours to own until after a set amount of years. Please do read all the contracts and don’t just sign out of excitement or laziness.
International Animal Rescue Foundation © recommends that your shop about and “purchase to fitting” your own energy saving adaption technology because then if you do decide to sell and move you can uninstall the adaptions and take them with you. You haven’t lost out then, and can continue to use the adaptions in your new home.
Alternative energy saving adaptions;
Yes you can have wind power turbines fitted to your home of which I have fitted to my rescue farm and 3 fitted to my 7 bedroom cottage of which they do generate a substantial amount of green energy. Please read below.
Wind is free, so once you’ve paid for the initial installation your electricity costs will be reduced.
Through Feed-in-Tariffs, you get paid for the electricity you generate even if you use it. What you don’t use, you can export to the local grid - and get paid for that too.
Wind electricity is green, renewable energy and doesn’t release any harmful carbon dioxide or other pollutants.
If your home isn’t connected to the national grid you can store excess electricity in batteries and use it when there is no wind.
The cost of a system will depend on the size and the mounting method, building-mounted turbines cost less to install than pole-mounted ones. For equipment and installation, with VAT at 5%: a roof-mounted 1kW micro-wind system costs around £2,000 a 2.5kW pole-mounted system costs around £15,000 a 6kW pole-mounted system costs around £22,500. Maintenance (A simple 3-4 bedroom home will need only 1 £2,000 1kW micro wind systems. Think about the price though, (Your average bill per month is around in the United Kingdom to America £80 $100 per year that’s almost paid it’s self of then after three years (your free from robbing electrical companies)
Maintenance checks are necessary every few years, and will generally cost around £100 to £200 per year depending on turbine size (this I am sure you can save up for with the amount you’re saving from you’re normal utility bill). A well-maintained turbine should last more than 20 years, but you may need to replace the inverter at some stage during this time, at a cost of £1,000 to £2,000 for a large system.
For off-grid systems, batteries will also need replacing, typically every six to ten years. The cost of replacing batteries varies depending on the design and scale of the system. Any back-up generator will also have its own fuel and maintenance costs.
Building-mounted turbines tend to produce less electricity per kW than pole-mounted ones. A well-sited 6kW turbine can generate around 10,000kWh and the equivalent of around 5.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year. (That is a lot)
Visit an online tariff saving generator and that will work out for you your weekly to monthly and yearly savings.
How do wind turbines work?
Wind turbines use large blades to catch the wind. When the wind blows, the blades are forced round, driving a turbine which generates electricity. The stronger the wind, the more electricity produced.
There are two types of domestic-sized wind turbine:
Pole mounted: these are free standing and are erected in a suitably exposed position, often around 5kW to 6kW
Building mounted: these are smaller than mast mounted systems and can be installed on the roof of a home where there is a suitable wind resource. Often these are around 1kW to 2kW in size.
Depending on the location and design of your system, the typical home installation ranges from 3 to 7 kilowatts and costs, between $18,000 to $40,000 to purchase this is considerably cheaper in British sterling I do believe.
Equipment Costs ~ 45%
Solar panels: About a third of the cost of a residential photovoltaic system comes from the cost of solar panels, which can cost around $4,500-$12,000.
Power inverter: The inverter, which converts DC to AC so you can connect to the grid, will cost $1,000-$3,000.
Mounting hardware: Depending on your home, you may need standoffs, rails, clips, etc., which cost around $800-$2,000.
Wiring: Wires and wiring boxes, disconnects, conduit, and other electrical components can total to around $1,000-$2,000.
Advantages of solar energy;
Solar cells provide cost effective solutions to energy problems in places where there is no mains electricity. Solar cells are also totally silent and non-polluting. As they have no moving parts they require little maintenance and have a long lifetime. Compared to other renewable sources they also possess many advantages; wind and water power rely on turbines which are noisy, expensive and liable to breaking down.
Rooftop power is a good way of supplying energy to a growing community. More cells can be added to homes and businesses as the community grows so that energy generation is in line with demand.
Many large scale systems currently end up over generating to ensure that everyone has enough. Solar cells can also be installed in a distributed fashion, i.e. they don’t need large scale installations. Solar cells can easily be installed on roofs which mean no new space is needed and each user can quietly generate their own energy.
Very unheard of in the modern world however we believe there is no such word as can’t and what can be achieved through water turbine energy is absolutely amazing. OK this is not so good for the modern housing estate that has no streams to even a water supply, however you do have the heavens above, and with a turbine fitted that can be modified so that water flow from rain is directed to the turbine this then = momentum = generated power thus stored energy for you to use = free energy.
This is of course on a small scale in the modern or old housing estate, fortunately cottages and farms that reside next to a vast rivers can benefit from this greatly thus reducing large electricity bills = lowered bills and again free electricity.
Hydropower is arguably the most reliable and sustainable source of renewable energy. It does not require the sun to shine or the wind to blow. The rivers in this country have been running for thousands of years and will continue to do so. The utilisation factor for hydropower should be in excess of 85%. Waterpower has a history it has been used in Britain for over 1,800 years to provide power for mills. Water was initially used to power the industrial revolution of the 18th century helping to put the great into Great Britain. http://www.ewaterpower.com/files/service-rates.pdf http://www.ewaterpower.com/files/how-long-will-this-take.pdf http://www.ewaterpower.com/power-basics.php
If your stream or pond has sufficient head (vertical drop) and flow, a microhydro-electric system can be a cost-effective and reliable choice to provide renewable electricity for your home. To tap the power in falling water effectively, you need to understand basic physics, how each component works, and how to select and install the appropriate turbine and balance-of-system components for your site.
Head & Flow, Energy & Power
Hydropower results from the marriage of two forces—gravity and the flow of water—both used to determine how much power and energy can be had. Gravity is what creates the pressure between the inlet and outlet of the turbine. For every 2.31 feet of vertical drop in the pipe, 1 pound of pressure per square inch (psi) is gained. This vertical drop is also called “head”—the vertical distance between where water is taken out of a stream and where it leaves your turbine. The horizontal distance between the source and turbine is also important because of pipe cost and friction losses in the pipe—but it does not affect the basic head measurement.
Flowing water, whether measured in gallons per minute, cubic feet per second, or some other measure, is the other key factor in the hydropower equation. A continuous flow of falling water is needed to make electricity. Measuring this flow accurately is crucial to hydro site assessment and system design.
Once you have these two measurements, you can make at least a rough estimation of the power available. Multiplying the gross head (in feet) by the flow (in gallons per minute) and dividing by a specific factor will give you the potential output wattage. The factor, which is derived from real-world experience with hydro systems, will vary from 9 for larger AC systems to 13 or more for smaller battery-based systems.
Once you have figured power (watts), it’s easy to calculate energy (watt-hours): Just multiply by 24 hours in a day to arrive at daily watt-hours, since hydro turbines run around the clock. The relationship of power production with water flow and head is linear, meaning that a site with 1 unit of water flow times 2 units of elevation difference will give roughly the same power production as a site that experiences 2 units of water flow times 1 unit of elevation difference, if all other things are equal. For example: If your stream has 120 feet of head and 45 gallons per minute of flow, you might expect to generate about 11 kilowatt-hours per day.
120 ft. head x 45 gpm ÷ 12 factor x 24 hrs./day =
Basic System Components
A hydro-electric system, like any renewable electricity system, is a collection of components. Buying only the turbine will get you nowhere. Hydro systems typically contain these basic components, listed here with their basic purpose:
Intake structure and screen: Direct clean water into the pipe
Penstock (pipeline): Carries water to the turbine
Diversion or weir (used in some systems): Diverts or backs up water to be delivered into the penstock and/or turbine
- Turbine: Converts falling water to electricity
- Controls: Manage turbine and electrical components
- Dump or diversion load: Removes excess energy
- Battery bank (not used in some systems): Stores energy and provides surge capability
- Metering: Monitors system performance
Disconnects and overcurrent protection: Provide a way to shut the electrical system down and to protect wires from too much current
Hydro system design is not simple, nor is it recommended for those with little experience with electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic systems. Because good hydro sites are few and far between, it is sometimes difficult to find expertise. Many systems are also deep in the back woods and not on public display, so you may need to do some research and networking to find the right people to help you.
Hydro systems come in four primary configurations, with other variations and permutations. Which type you choose depends on your site, goals, budget, and energy needs.
Battery-based off-grid systems are appropriate for smaller systems far from the utility lines, where the peak load exceeds the peak generation on a regular basis. If your hydro system produces 800 W, you’ll generate about 19 kWh per day, which is substantial. But without a battery bank and higher-powered inverter, you could not run many appliances or electronics simultaneously, and many loads, such as a 1,100 W microwave, would be impossible to power.
Battery less off-grid systems are appropriate when the generating capacity is 2 kW or more. As household loads decrease and increase, load-control governors constantly adjust the amount of energy to the diversion load to maintain a constant voltage and frequency. Because the system cannot store energy, considerable amounts of power are typically diverted to the diversion load. For this reason, it’s worth considering how to use it most effectively. One of the most common ways to use the excess energy is for heating water for domestic use.
Battery-based on-grid systems are very similar to their off-grid counterparts. The first of two primary differences is that excess energy can be sold to the grid for payment or credit. The other is that the grid can be used for backup if the hydro system doesn’t provide enough energy.
Battery less on-grid systems use the grid as the “dump load,” sending excess energy back to the utility’s grid for their customers to use. These systems still may require a controller and dump load which only come into play in the event of a utility outage. Battery less grid-tied systems are perhaps the simplest and most reliable systems because they incorporate no batteries but have the grid available. Their drawback is the lack of backup for any utility outages.
All hydro-electric turbine generators, like electric motors, work on the principle of electrons moving through wire as a result of wires passing through magnetic fields (the electromagnetic effect). Hydro-electric turbines use the moving water to turn a wheel and provide the rotational movement necessary to cause the electromagnetic effect in their generators.
Micro hydro turbines are generally classified in the range of 100 W to 100 kW, though most turbines used by homeowners are less than 25 kW. Another classification is based on the “head” (water pressure) that drives the turbine.
Low-head turbines are used in systems with 3 to 20 feet of head. Medium-head turbines are for 20 to 60 feet of head, and high-head turbines can use 60 to 1,000 feet (or more) of head.
Low-head turbines are typically “reaction” turbines, in which the turbine blades are submerged and produce electricity as an integral reaction with the water pressure. Because they work with low head, these turbines normally require a significant amount of water to produce useful power. For instance, the Energy Systems and Design LH-1000 low-head propeller turbine requires 1,000 gpm of water operating at 10 feet of head to produce 1,000 W.
Medium-head turbines are often reaction turbines. A Francis turbine is a common type. Medium-head turbines often have adjustable flow-control devices to deal with variable water flow under the same head conditions.
Another type of reaction turbine is a pump that runs in reverse as water flows through its centrifugal works (see the “Pumps as Turbines” sidebar). These can be a simple and cost-effective solution in the right situations.
High-head turbines are the most common micro hydro turbines installed in residential systems and are known as impulse or impact turbines. Water is passed through nozzles, converting pressure into velocity and sending a jet of water that “impacts” buckets or vanes attached to a rotating wheel, making it turn.
Electricity produced by most micro-hydro turbines is unregulated and is normally converted from “wild” (unregulated voltage and frequency) AC to DC using a rectifier. DC is then used to charge batteries from which an inverter can provide true 60 Hz AC electricity.
Larger (2 to 100 kW) micro hydro turbines can produce 60 Hz electricity directly through regulation using an electronic load governor, which maintains a constant load on the generator through dump loads when electricity is not needed.
Off-grid micro hydro turbines require the means to “dump” excess energy when batteries are full or AC loads are reduced. Generally it is best to have redundant (duplicate) diversion loads and/or an overvoltage trip device for protection in the event that a dump load or charge controller fails.
Model is dependent on each manufacturer. Each manufacturer should be contacted to verify a turbine will suit a particular site.
The generator type associated with micro hydro power is normally a permanent magnet, a wound-field, or induction. Smaller turbines use permanent magnet generators, some of which have adjustable gaps between the magnets and the windings for tuning the output. Stand-alone synchronous generators have a wound-field that produces its own magnetic excitation, and induction generators receive their magnetic excitation from the stator, either via capacitors or the grid.
Maximum power is determined by the watts produced by the turbine at maximum water flow and net head. This number is used to calculate the size of charge controllers and dump loads necessary to protect turbines and battery banks, adding a safety factor. Voltage of the type of generator used. Alternating current (AC) generators are used for either standard 60 Hz electricity or to produce “wild” unregulated voltage and frequency electricity, which is rectified to DC to charge batteries. “Wild” indicates that the turbine is not producing steady 60 Hz AC, and the frequency and voltage may vary. High-voltage generation (hundreds of volts instead of dozens of volts) can be useful in overcoming line losses.
AC/DC stands for alternating current and direct current. Most smaller (100 to 1,000 W; less than 2 kW; 48 kWh/day) hydro-electric turbines use permanent-magnet, “wild” AC generators. Larger micro hydro systems (2 to 100 kW) use either an induction or synchronous AC generators. Virtually all spinning generators make AC natively, and how it is transferred and conditioned is based on the application. Battery charging turbines end up producing DC. The grid and your home loads are AC systems, so turbines designed to directly interface with them produce AC in the end.
Grid connection is possible with certain makes and models. The grid connection for a smaller (less than 2 kW) hydro system commonly uses a grid-tied inverter, as for PV systems. Larger systems (2 to 100 kW) are connected through switchgear and inductive generators or synchronous generators and governors.
Runner type identifies the turbine wheel used to convert water power to rotational power, and is determined by the head and flow available. Through testing, manufacturers have determined the best runner types for various head and flow conditions. Common types are the Pelton wheel, the turgo, the cross flow, and the propeller. Your turbine supplier and contractor can give good advice about the choices.
Runner Material - Runners for micro hydro applications are commonly made of an alloy, since these materials resist corrosion and are easily cast and machined into shape. Stainless is most common in larger systems. Stainless steel and various bronze alloys are common, long-lasting materials. Plastics are used for smaller, less expensive runners.
Runner diameter selection is associated with the velocity of water impacting the runner, which is directly related to available head. The higher the head, the smaller the runner diameter for a given/constant shaft speed. Under ideal conditions, the runner velocity is approximately half the water jet velocity. For practicality, runners for smaller turbines are usually limited to just a few. The runner’s speed is adjusted by means of the generator field in relation to battery voltage, or using belt pulley ratios in relation to the output frequency of direct AC systems again, your suppliers are your best resources for helping make this choice.
Number of nozzles is a choice dependent on the range of water flow available to the turbine. Nozzles are opened or closed (manually for most small turbines, and occasionally automatically for larger turbines) to maintain maximum pressure in the turbine pipeline while taking advantage of available flow. Having multiple nozzles is especially important where stream flow varies widely over the year, so you have the option of using more or less water.
Nozzle size options are associated with available water flow. Smaller-diameter nozzle sizes are used for lower-flow situations. Nozzles are sized by manufacturers based on potential range of flow. Generally, these parts are removable and replaceable. Larger systems sometimes have adjustable “needle nozzles” or “spear valves.”
Head range is associated with types of turbine runners that can be used. Higher-head turbines use impact runners, which are generally Pelton or turgo designs. Mid-range turbines (suitable for 20 to 60 feet of head) use reaction runners, which are submerged fully or partially, and include Francis and propeller runners. Low-head turbines (3 to 20 feet) may also use propeller reaction turbines.
Flow range will vary for every project site. The table shows the actual flow used in the turbine, which may be 10% to 50% of the stream flow.
Controls and over-speed control are necessary for stand-alone AC turbines to maintain 60 cycles per second output under varying load conditions. Electronic load governors usually provide this control for AC units, shunting energy to resistive loads. Control is also necessary for grid-tied systems when utility outages occur. Without the load of the utility grid, a hydro turbine will over-speed, possibly resulting in mechanical and electrical failure.
Controls, dump load, and metering included describes what comes with a turbine and what must be purchased separately.
Turbine selection usually begins with determining the site’s available head and flow, including variation in seasonal flows. Selection is also based on whether your system will be grid-tied or off-grid, and with or without batteries. Most turbine manufactures provide online questionnaires to assist in turbine selection.
Most turbine manufacturers publish test results for their turbines at various heads and flows, and with various turbine runners. Charts are prepared and compiled for various nozzle sizes and will be used by the manufacturer to recommend a specific turbine.
The intended use of energy will further determine turbine sizing. There is no point in generating more energy than can be used. Unlike PV systems, hydro-electric turbines generate electricity 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Unused energy must be shunted through to the grid, or to diversion loads—typically water or air heaters—to protect the generator. Inverters and battery banks for hydro-electric systems are normally sized to meet peak load, and store excess energy for these loads and motor-starting surges.
The location of a turbine relative to its interconnected battery bank or loads normally dictates turbine generation voltage. A distance of 100 feet or less may permit use of a low-voltage DC generation turbine. Transmission wire size and voltage drop beyond 100 feet may be excessive at low voltage and will often dictate the selection of an unregulated high-volta
Please note I have included both “small scale and large scale water turbine energy” that can be used in all homes and businesses.
There are also two other types of alternative energy that can reduce your energy bill considerably and cut down on carbon output greatly. Although not all that I have mentioned in great detail may be suited to you some alternatives such as wind and solar are used every day in many homes and businesses which are saving a lot on the “energy usage & reduction in greenhouse gas emissions”
The process involves trapping heat underground, then building energy that rises near the surface in the form of heat. When this heat naturally creates hot water or steam, it is harnessed and then used to turn a steam turbine to generate electricity. The Italians were the first to use geothermal energy for commercial purposes in the early 1900s.
Biomass is a very versatile form of renewable energy biomass power plants burn biomass fuel in boilers to heat water and turn a steam turbine to create electricity. Biomass fuel is everything from wood to landfill trash, which is currently being used to convert into methane for the production of dry natural gas. Agricultural research is seeing unique results, including dairy farms in Texas converting cow manure into energy.
International Animal Rescue Foundation © work towards a greener and brighter future not a polluted and toxic environmental ending, it’s our duty to help and make aware the endless possibilities that you and we can work towards in helping to preserve not just our future, our children’s and our natural environment atmospheric conditions but also for the lifelong protection of our fauna and flora.
The possibilities are endless – The future is becoming greener.
Thank you for reading and please do act upon this and share to your friends, neighbours, business colleagues, and more.
Dr J C Dimetri
For more information on what we do, how we work, to whom we are please email
How clean do you believe the oceans are? Well I would be lying if I actually said they are indeed crystal clean and even the deep crystal blue waters of the pacific, Indian and Mediterranean oceans that are teaming with thousands of aquatic life are polluted with many toxins and organisms that you cannot even see that are harmful to you, other aquatic marine life and to animals to botanical species on land from which the oceans often invade from coastal flooding and Tsunamis to ocean oil spills.
Just because the flags are up to on the beaches indicating that water toxicology tests have proven it’s safe to swim, these tests are only basic and are not necessarily all the time carried out by toxicologists to marine biologists.
One doesn’t have to be a conservationist to even a scientist to work out that the more earth’s population grows the more sewage and waste from our homes are produced and it’s now concerning many conservationists including ourselves International Animal Rescue Foundation © that have seen a vast impact of marine life wiped out just from what we call “liquid toxin” pollution.
Toxins from sewage plants are just the least of the oceans worries too, with super fuel tankers crossing sensitive areas of sensitive ocean biodiversity, along with floating drilling platforms and nuclear power plants emitting radioactive water to human sewage and debris waste, which is now reaching critical concern levels which one must act to prevent a large scale catastrophe such as the 2010 BP PLC Deep Sea Horizon leak that saw billions of dollar;s of damages caused to land, and thousands of fish, to avian life washed up dead on the oceans. BP PLC now has to pay in compensation $7.8bn to resolve economic and medical claims from more than 100,000 businesses and individuals hurt by the nation’s worst offshore oil spill. The settlement has no cap and the company could end up paying more or less.
In the early 1950’s to 1960’s ocean cleanliness was fairly top grade with pollution being low key to a degree, although still present and high in nations of which were mainly third world nations, and large industrial continents from America to Asia, pollution levels where not that high to what we are seeing today. As a conservationist too and I have to be truthful I wouldn’t allow my children to swim in half of “shoreline” oceans to date because I am more than aware of what lurks beneath and on top.
Taking a look at China the total sewage discharge per billion tons has not really changed at all, and from census we could find they all measure up to exactly the same with only the year of 1996 missing.
China’s total sewage per billion tons of discharge I have recorded below, I have picked China as this nation is the top polluter with India and America second although America is trying to halve it’s pollution its a slow laborious process.
- 1990 350 billion tons of sewage discharged into the ocean
- 1991 320 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1992 360 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1993 340 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1994 370 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1995 368 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1996 ——————-NO RECORD———————————
- 1997 415 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1998 400 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 1999 404 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 2000 403 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
- 2001 409 billion tons of sewage discharged in to the ocean
In 2001, more than 173 000 km2 of the Chinese coastal waters were of a quality less than Class I of the Sea Water Quality Standard of China (SWQS, GB3097-1997) (17–26). Very heavily polluted areas, worse than Class IV of SWQS, cover about 32 000 km2, and are mainly close to medium and large cities and estuaries with high population densities.
Very heavy pollution areas increased by 4000 km2 compared to the year 2000. Contamination from land runoff is the most significant contributor to coastal environmental pollution at present. The dominating pollutants are inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, oil hydrocarbons, organic matter, and heavy metals.
Although the volume of runoff from industrial effluent into coastal waters has been decreasing slightly since 1999, municipal sewage and other runoff from land show an increasing trend. In 2000, red tide events occurred 28 times involving an area of 10 000 km2, and 77 times in 2001 affecting 15 000 km2. If pollution from inorganic nitrogen is classified as slight, moderate, or very heavy, the 2001 figures for coastal ocean areas are about 25 000 km2, 14 490 km2, and 32 490 km2,respectively.
Red tide events are not though just occurring in China anymore, in 2012 Australia and Hungry saw red tide events that the media marked down as “a phenomena” just to keep the public satisfied that the waters where indeed OK (that’s misleading and also very dangerous) reporting of which the truth should have been told which I have added below.
“There are no really historical records of the volume and type of material that was spilled in the oceans before the establishment of an anti-dumping law. However, it is estimated that in 1968, 38 million tons of excavated material, 4.5 million tons of industrial waste, 4.5 million sewage sludge, 100 million tons of petroleum-based product (plastic), 2 to 4 tonnes of chemical waste, more than 1 million tons of heavy metals were released into the ocean. The U.S. archive shows that between 1946 and 1970 over 55,000 containers of radioactive waste were disposed in 3 sites of dumping of the Pacific Ocean. In addition, 34,000 tons of radioactive wastes were disposed in 3 sites of dumping of the U.S. east coast between 1951 and 1962. No law on dumping radioactive waste has been put into force before 1972.” - Source : Epa : united states environnemental agency
The total amount of industrial sewage from 11 provinces along the coast of China was 10.02 billion tonnes (t) in 1999, of which 3.67 billion t were directly discharged into the sea. Sewage quantities into Chinese seas were 0.56 billion t in Bohai, 0.71 billion t in the Yellow Sea, 1.48 billion t in ECS, and 0.92 billion t in the South China Sea. The ECS received 40.3% of total industrial effluent and as such was the largest recipient of industrial effluent in China.
Factual data taken from (Report of the state of the Environment for China 1990)
Reports for 2012 have quoted the following for the state of China and basic pollution performance which is listed below;
- Underground water in 57 per cent of monitoring sites across Chinese cities have been found polluted or extremely polluted, the Economic Information Daily, a newspaper run by Xinhua News Agency, reported on Monday, quoting figures from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP). (please note this is for underground sources)
- 2012 - In the first half of last year, of the seven main water systems in China, only the Yangtze and Pearl rivers had good water quality, and the Haihe River in north China was heavily polluted, with the others all moderately polluted, according to the MEP. This is what caused most “red tides” to occur that I shall explain more briefly on.
- China has quoted “China recently unveiled the 2011-2015 guidelines on fighting water pollution in which it stated the goal that 60 per cent of the country’s major rivers and lakes should be clean enough to be sources of drinking water supply by the end of 2015. This International Animal Rescue Foundation finds very difficult to understand as of the colossal rise in air, land and sea pollutants that have risen from 2010-2012 making China the number one top polluter with India the second and the United States of America the third which we do find annoying considering America is within the one of the world renowned nations for high class technology, that can easily bring these levels down, the Obama administration though has failed drearily so far.
- China also likes to “hide their problems” on a classified report [unnamed] in 2012 the Chinese government demanded that the United States ceases all publication of air, land and sea pollutants which is more than worrying. Please view the statement “Last month, Chinese officials issued a general warning to foreign embassies, (but really aimed at the U.S.) to stop publishing reports about their country’s air, and sea quality.
- According to the Environmental Performance Index, a bi-annual report put out by Yale University and Columbia University that ranks countries based on a number of environmental factors, India ranked last out of 132 countries. Yet, China wasn’t far off, coming in at 128. Its overall index rank, which, along with air quality, included factors such as water, agriculture, and climate change, was 116. (India came in at 125).
- Government statistics from 2009 reveal that nearly 20 per cent of the length of China’s monitored rivers and lakes had pollution worse than Grade 5, making the water officially unfit for even irrigating crops, Reuters reported.
Why doesn’t China like a certain Twitter account reporting on this? Please view below
“Part of the reason the Chinese government is so irked at the U.S. reporting pollution data is that their pollution standards are more stringent which means pollution levels considered unhealthy in the U.S. are often classified as good by China”. (Do you really wish to visit China?)
Moving to Australia which to be honest is a fairly densely populated island being the second largest in the world with Greenland being the first at 840,000 square miles (2,175,590 km2).
The main problems that effect Australia’s coasts are poor water and sediment quality, land pollution is the main problem here within Australia that effects ecology, health and basic overall enjoyment of the Australian oceans to date. Action must be taken now to prevent land-based sources of sediment, nutrient and pesticide pollution from further damaging in-shore reefs, aquatic life and tourism enjoyment.
Oil spills and vessel discharges cause around 12% of coastal problems with relation to the entire island of Australia, and according to a study by the US National Research Council, 36% of oil comes down drains and rivers as waste and run-off from cities and industry so in reality most of the oceans problems with regards to coastal pollution are due to land based problems that need addressing or we are going to see a global ocean soon with nothing a living aquatic species within it.
However in many parts of the world, sewage flows untreated, or under-treated into the ocean. For example, 80% of urban sewage discharged into the Mediterranean Sea is untreated. Although this is less common in Australia, treated sewage is discharged into coastal and marine environments and, when sewage infrastructure fails, raw sewage can flow untreated into our marine environments.
Australia’s waters are not as clean as one thinks they are even if the flags are up and the waters are crystal clear and this is because of governmental legislation that is seeing sea waste dumped in the oceans rather than landfills “on average” Australia currently regulates the deliberate loading, dumping and incineration of waste at sea under the Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act 1981 and the Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Amendment Act 1986. The waters surrounding Australia’s coastline are increasingly threatened by pollution from wastes dumped at sea. To reduce this threat, there are Australian Government laws that control dumping at sea, however these are not always being followed.
Permits from the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities are required for all sea dumping operations. Currently, about 30 permits are issued in Australia per year, mainly for the dumping of uncontaminated dredge spoil. Applications can be obtained from the Department or the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (if the dumping is to take place within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park). In our eyes there should be “NO” dumping at sea even if the waste is incinerated or non-toxic. We are trying to work to protect our aquatic biodiversity and although this incinerated waste breaks down by far much more quickly, it is still aiding to the pollution of our marine biodiversity.
International Animal Rescue Foundation © can fully understand the reasons “why” dumping at sea is undertaken, however to keep one’s land clear and green by dumping at sea is not solving the problem of “WASTE” and by simply following the three R’s (reduce, reuse, and recycle) there would be minimal dumping. Dumping incinerated waste of the coast line has it’s perks but we’ve noticed that the permit prices to carry out such waste removal have skyrocketed, and this can only mean one thing which is “the government are now concerned at the toxic levels of waste, harm to the great barrier reef’s and PH levels that are increasing alarmingly.
Within India though where nearly 250 million people live within 50 km of India’s 8,000 km coastline, eighty-seven cities and towns located in these coastal areas together dump 5.5 billion litres of waste water into the sea every day. Less than a tenth of this water is treated, making the scale of pollution of our coastal ecosystems daunting and horrifyingly concerning with regards to protected aquatic species, and living reef beds.
Most of India’s 8,000-km-long coastal regions are low-lying and densely populated, with nearly 250 million people living within 50 km of the coast, many of them in the 130 cities and towns that together form the engine of India’s economy, including Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Goa, Surat, and Thiruvananthapuram. Between 20-60% of the population in these individual settlement zones live in slums where they pursue their livelihood, and this section is automatically located in areas most vulnerable to natural disasters areas that are already subject to periodic flooding.
At the same time, they are surrounded by a web of infrastructure that is becoming denser and more valuable every year transport and freight networks, road and rail corridors, industrial zones and parks, maritime and port facilities, petroleum industries and refineries, import-based industrial and commercial domains all located in coastal areas and competing for land and water with villages that have long depended on coastal resources for survival. That survival has always been relatively easy since coastal regions are home to a rich and varied biodiversity, they have had abundant rain-fed and groundwater resources, and they depended commercially on old trading centres. As the settlement mix changed, and as land use did too, India’s coastal talukas, tehsils and blocks either merged with a creeping mantle of urbanisation or warred with it. Either way, complex coastal ecosystems suffered.
Can you name this reptilian? it took me 5-6 attempts after removing with my eyes the debris pollution.
Municipal waste water constitutes the largest single source of coastal marine pollution. The Central Pollution Control Board estimates that 87 cities and towns located in India’s coastal areas in nine states together emit more than 5.5 billion litres of waste water per day, which is almost 80% of their total water supply (the estimate in million litres per day, or MLD, which is the measure that water resource and pollution control authorities use, is 5,560.99 MLD). This is a staggering volume of fluid, equivalent to a third of the total quantity of waste water generated by 644 Class I cities and Class II towns in the entire country.
It is also 2.5 times the volume of waste water (about 2.2 billion litres/day) that the same 87 cities generated two decades ago. Of the 5.5 billion litres/day — less than a tenth (521.51 MLD) — is treated to any level before being released into coastal waters. The three states of Maharashtra (45%), West Bengal (26%) and Tamil Nadu (9%) account for the bulk of waste water flushed into our coastal seas, while about 3.22 billion litres/day of waste water flow into the Arabian Sea and about 2.33 billion litres/day flow into the Bay of Bengal.
Toxins have risen within the sea from the 1960’s to date which is primarily due to “over population” and until this is properly conveyed across the globe to all humans then we will see more pollutants enter the ocean as of demand for agricultural and factory processed products to fossil fuels, and chemical radioactive energy.
Toxins that are located in today’s oceans are listed below.
- Plastic pollution
- Agricultural pollution such as phosphorus, nitrogen, mercury, lead, and carbon plus more.
- Oil, petroleum, methane, paint, radioactive poisons
- Human excrement
- Chemical weapons (Yes they are present in today’s oceans)
- Debris pollution
- Fishing pollution
- Thermal pollution, and eutrophication
These eight pollutants are found most commonly within the oceans to date and are causing massive biodiversity damage plus are harming ourselves that eat fish stock to.
Plankton, which is the tiny animals at the bottom of the food chain in the oceans, absorbs the chemicals as they feed. They do not break down easily, so the chemicals accumulate in these organisms, becoming more concentrated in their bodies than the surrounding water or soil. Plankton is eaten by small animals, and the contaminants become even more concentrated. It goes on as smaller animals are in turn eaten by larger animals, each link up the food chain becoming more heavily contaminated than the last.
Seals, for example can have contamination levels millions of times higher than the water in which they live. Polar bears, which feed on seals, can have contamination levels up to 3 billion times higher than their environment.
Fishermen themselves see this contamination first hand. Fish with horrible tumors are becoming the normal catch of the day, so to speak. How do you want your mercury today? Broiled, fried, poached or grilled. ‘Would you like fries with your gamma fish?’
Food chain contamination;
Humans become contaminated directly from chemical household products, eating heavily processed food laced with chemical preservatives or eating contaminated seafood and animal fats. Even those “Highly Touted” health foods such as Krill, Plankton, Seaweed, and Sea Salt have varying degrees of contamination. The FDA discovered that the famous “Coral Calcium” was heavily contaminated with lead, as well as other heavy metals, and only had an absorption rate of 8 - 10%.
Contrary to what you have been told, the evidence is mounting that many man-made chemicals can and will cause serious health problems. These problems include cancer, damage to the immune system, behavioural problems, and reduced fertility, just to name a few.
The bottom line is that you should stay away from anything that is produced from the ocean. Isn’t it bad enough that we get these contaminants first-hand on land, without absorbing even more chemicals and dangerous pollutants from food from the ocean?
Thermal pollution, and eutrophication;
Thermal pollution: Electrical generating plants along the ocean coastlines use the marine waters for cooling purposes which leads to heated water expelled into the marine environment. Few studies have been done on the effects of thermal pollution on the marine environment. Thermal pollution seems to only affect the communities immediately adjacent to the discharge. Thermal discharge is most noted in the tropical areas, where organisms are near their thermal maximum. For example, mangrove trees in a thermal heated bay no longer reproduce and no new seedlings can be found in the lagoon.
Eutrophication: The release of excess nutrients into coastal waters. Fertilizers used on land are washed into the ocean via rivers and streams. High nutrient concentrations cause phytoplankton blooms such as, red tides, various yellow and green foams, slimes, and slicks. Although algal blooms are natural, a higher frequency of their occurrence in the past twenty years indicates an unhealthy ecosystem. The toxicity of recent blooms is increasing, which can have a direct effect on the organisms that feed on them. Also, phytoplankton naturally contains DMS (dimethyl sulfide) which is released from dead phytoplankton into the atmosphere and can be changed to sulfuric acid to eventually contribute to acid rain.
Radioactive waste (plutonium and fries anyone?)
Radioactive waste: The world’s oceans have been a sink for radioactive waste from the production of nuclear weapons and electric power since 1944. Radioactive waste enters the ocean from nuclear weapon testing, the releasing or dumping of wastes from nuclear fuel cycle systems, and nuclear accidents. Dumping of high-level radioactive waste is no longer permitted in the ocean, but dumping of low-level wastes is still permitted. Low-level waste contains fewer radioactivities per gram than high-level waste. High-level wastes usually have longer half-lives. For example, one common high-level waste that is produced by spent nuclear fuel has a half-life of 24,100 years! It has been suggested that contained nuclear waste should be disposed in the deep sea, so little is known about the deep sea environment or the consequences of containment leakage and failure, that the effects could be devastating.
Recently though we have been viewing red seas or rivers that the media have named as “natural phenomena” it’s not a natural phenomenon at all what it is, is high pollution levels and if your living in an area where this has happened on my advice I really wouldn’t bother eating any “fish or crustaceans” from these areas at all.
Red tides (I) & (II)
Red tides or the red sea as it is better known is a mixture of some million cubic meters of corrosive sludge, there really is not much known about how it forms other than a change of climate patterns and algae formations to the dumping of toxic chemicals in the waters that have then accumulated through climatic interference into the a red type sea.
One such incident occurred in 2010 in near Ajka, Hungary that saw a dam filled with toxic chemicals burst its banks then flowing onto neighboring land. The tide once receded appeared to some as if the bottoms of the trees had been painted red. In fact it was the sludge of toxic chemicals that had formed and stuck to the trees causing not just botanical and agricultural damage but also much damage to the surrounding lands from which people in the area cannot plant on no more.
The toxic chemicals that were being held by the dam in Ajka held a mixture of bauxite ore that was the chemical properties that made up aluminium oxide or alumina, iron oxide was also present hence the reason why the “stain to the water was evident” as this is the colour of iron oxide, however it also contained a more dangerous chemical better known as alkaline sodium hydroxide used to dissolve aluminium oxide. These metals are used in everyday factory processing and to know that they have breached the clean water supplied to us and also entered into the marine world then this is highly concerning, and it’s happening more frequently around the world that many people are still unaware of. Other chemical that are entering are gypsum plaster, and as explained chemical fertilisers and these can all cause cancer.
When the red tide appears its fairly “unsafe in the water to humans” I use the word unsafe as it’s very toxic to aquatic life and stays embedded in the sea or river bead that can kill if ingested. However should there be flooding, tsunami, to high tide and it reaches land such as Hungary once it dries then it release a “toxic powder in to the air”. Everyone within the vicinity then has to be re-homed due to the dangers that it can cause to human health.
We must as a responsible human race now take responsibility for our oceans, rivers and lakes, if not then we are not just killing the species within, but those that wish to consume fish and shell fish are exposing themselves to highly dangerous chemicals that can and will kill.
Red Tides (Natural) (II)
Red tide is a common name for a phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms) when it is caused by a few species of dinoflagellates and the bloom takes on a red or brown color. Red tides are events in which estuarine, marine, or fresh water algae accumulate rapidly in the water column, resulting in coloration of the surface water. It is usually found in coastal areas.
(Please though don’t always listen to the press and media as they mostly obtain their scientific data incorrectly)
Dr J C Dimetri V.M.D, B.E.S, Ma, PhD, MEnvSc
PLEASE DONATE BELOW - URGENT RHINOCEROS APPEAL POACHING NOW AT 2-3 A DAY FEBRUARY 2013 = 57 DEAD
WHY ARE THEY DYING? THE DEATHS ARE STILL ONGOING BAFFLING US ALL
Hungary 2010 TOTAL WIPE-OUT (Toxic red sludge)