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Cassowary – World’s Most Dangerous Bird

Cassowary 14 The magnificent Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) is a large, flightless bird that lives in the Australian rainforest. As the Bruce Lee of birds, it can kick with deadly force and possesses incredible speed and power. If you can see them that means you are too close and should take immediate protection. If you turn your back and run the bird will take that as a sign of weakness and will come after you at 50km ph (30 mph), which is faster than any human can run.

The Guinness Book Of Records lists the Cassowary as the most dangerous bird in the world. Seriously threatened with extinction in the wild, there were reportedly less than 1,500 of them left in 2011.

Cassowary kicking a shield.

Cassowary kicking a shield.

Cassowaries are territorial and each one will guard about a 7km2 patch of rainforest. They will fight each other to protect their ground. With 5-inch-talon middle claws, they can split you open in seconds. Females are much bigger than males, standing 2 metres (6 feet) tall. Its protruding head-horn is made of keratin (same as rhino horn), which they use to slash through heavy rainforest scrub.

Evidently a family was picnicking on the beach when some Cassowaries came to investigate their food. The people jumped straight into their car and the Cassowary attacked it, ripping a six-inch gash through the door of the four-wheel drive vehicle with its centre claw, which the bird uses for slashing and disemboweling.

Cassowaries Have A Soft Side, Too

Cassowary father and his chic.

Cassowary father and his chic.

As tough as Cassowaries are, they also have a gentler side. Notoriously shy, they are herbivores that eat mainly berries and fruit.

Every day is Father’s Day for male Cassowaries. After courting the female with a very impressive visual display and sound show, she accepts his advances and then lays a clutch of large green eggs in a scrape in the ground that is lined with plant material. She then packs up and leaves while the male takes sole responsibility for the eggs, incubating them for approximately 50 days, during which time he hardly eats.

Every day is Father’s Day for male Cassowaries. After courting the female with a very impressive visual display and sound show, she accepts his advances and then lays a clutch of large green eggs in a scrape in the ground that is lined with plant material. She then packs up and leaves while the male takes sole responsibility for the eggs, incubating them for approximately 50 days, during which time he hardly eats

Cassowary father and eggs.

Cassowary father and eggs.

After hatching, he rears the chicks, taking care of them for nine months and often up to 18 months if he doesn’t mate in the following season. They are the perfect stay-at-home dad, protective of their eggs and chicks and capable of becoming very aggressive in their defense.

Female Cassowaries may mate with more than one male during each season and are sometimes seen hanging out with family groups.

The Southern Cassowary normally feeds alone. If two males meet, they may have a stand off in which both birds stand tall, fluff up their feathers and rumble at each other until one retreats. If a male and female meet, the male will move away, as the female is dominant.

The burden of preventing Cassowaries from disappearing from the wild is mainly being carried by Rainforest Rescue. This organisation is flanked by the Australian government and selected zoos, such as The Australian Zoo, home of the late Steve Irwin and now operated by his wife Terri and their two children, Bindi and Robert. This zoo has a specialised captive Cassorwary breeding campaign, imperative as wild Cassowary numbers dwindle dramatically.

At Mission Beach, Queensland, a Cassowary identification and tracking project remains underway, in which all members of the community are invited to take part. “The Tracking Of Judith” is one example of this project, in which a Mission Beach resident photographed and recorded the growth of Judith, a wild Cassowary, from chick to an adult.

The dense rainforest habitat combined with the Cassowary’s secretive nature make individual birds difficult to see. Although not a main cause of Cassowary deaths, hand-feeding alters the birds’ natural behaviour and disorients them, rendering them dependent on humans. Many threats endanger the Southern Cassowary, mostly due to increasing human presence in its habitat.


Loss Of Habitat

Loss of rainforest habitat is the primary threat to the Cassowaries of the Wet Tropics. Rainforest vegetation has been extensively cleared, particularly in lowland areas. By 1997, 81 percent of native vegetation had been cleared and remaining rainforest habitat was substantially fragmented, according to Rainforest Rescue.

While the clearing rate in the Wet Tropics has slowed considerably since 1997, land clearing for housing development still continues and threatens local populations of Cassowaries already subsisting in degraded or fragmented habitats outside of protected areas. An increase in human population brings more cars and dogs to a locality, which increases the risk to Cassowaries.

Cassowary which has been struck by a car.

Cassowary which has been struck by a car.

Habitat fragmentation due to clearing disrupts Cassowary movement patterns and can separate parts of an individual bird’s territory, such as the habitat associated with feeding and breeding activities. Habitat fragmentation can also separate birds from each other, resulting in genetic isolation and local extinctions.

Habitat degradation caused by selective logging, changed fire regimes and invasion of weed species also affects Cassowaries by reducing the quality of habitat and food sources.

Roads and vehicle strikes

Cassowary which has been struck by a car.

Cassowary which has been struck by a car.

Roads are a major cause of direct Cassowary mortality due to vehicle strikes. According to data from The Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Threatened Species Unit and Garners Beach Cassowary Rehabilitation Centre, there were 104 Cassowary deaths from vehicle strikes between 1992 and January 2014. Attacks on Cassowaries by feral and free-ranging domestic dogs are also a major cause of mortality and injury, especially around developed areas such as Mission Beach.


Southern Cassowaries can also fall prey to diseases such as avian tuberculosis, which is caused by the bacterium mycobacterium avium. It can affect wild and domestic birds around the world and is spread by ingestion or inhalation of the bacterium, which can survive in the environment for many years. It causes chronic wasting in infected birds and there is no known treatment.
Stressed birds may be more susceptible to disease and pressures such as food shortages, habitat loss and the presence of predators may make Cassowaries more susceptible to disease.

CyclonesSevere cyclones are a natural part of living in the Wet Tropics and they can have a huge impact, not just on local residents and infrastructure, but also on the rain-forests and wildlife, including the Cassowary. Cyclones can result in major losses of Cassowary food sources and habitats. Not only are the birds in danger from falling trees and rising waters during storms, they must travel further to find food, increasing their exposure to risks such as road crossings.

Cassowary 12

Cassowary in the rainforest.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry crossed the tropical North Queensland coast near Innisfail during the morning of 20 March 2006 and is regarded as the most powerful cyclone to affect Queensland in almost a century. In the wake of this cyclone, one third of the cassowary population died as a result of the loss of their natural food sources, dog attacks and vehicle strikes as they left the fragmented and destroyed habitat in search of food.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi was a very powerful and destructive tropical cyclone that made landfall in northern Queensland, Australia on 3 February, 2011. Cyclone Yasi made landfall in Mission Beach with wind gusts estimated to have reached 290km/h, leaving behind significant damage.

A storm surge estimated to have reached 7m (23ft) destroyed several structures along the coast and pushed up to 300 m inland. Most of the beach had lost its sand and every structure was damaged to some degree. The worst affected areas were around Tully, Tully Heads, Silkwood, Mission Beach, Innisfail and Cardwell. In the wake of Cyclone Yasi, Rainforest Rescue came to the rescue to help fund the feeding of the Cassowaries.

Poo That Grows Trees


Rainforest Rescue best describes the importance of the Cassowary’s place in rainforest hierarchy: “the Cassowary is the rainforest gardener, a ‘keystone species’ that maintains the balance and diversity of its rainforest home through its role as a seed disperser. The digested seeds help prevent fruit fly infestation.

The Southern Cassowary’s main food is rainforest fruits, and the gentle treatment of the fruits through the Cassowary’s primitive digestive system means the seeds are passed unharmed and ready for germination in their own “compost heap” of dung!”

Cassowary fruit and habitat layout.

Cassowary fruit and habitat layout.

Cassowaries are known to eat the fruit of at least 180 species (52 families, 102 genera) of which 149 are woody trees. Forty-five of these plants have large fruit that are mostly dispersed by the Southern Cassowary over long distances.

In Queensland’s rainforests, Southern Cassowaries are the only native animal capable of dispersing the seeds of large-fruited plants and trees over long distances, ensuring the continued balance and biodiversity of the rainforest plant community.

Conserving Cassowaries has flow-on effects for other threatened rainforest species such as the mahogany glider and northern quoll, for which the fruit also provides a major food source.


Cassowary 15

Southern Cassowaries live primarily in lowland tropical rainforest, but they also use other types of forest such as eucalypt, mangrove, and tea tree. They are also seen on beaches adjacent to these habitats. Like most animals, Cassowaries need access to fresh clean water for drinking, and bathing.

Each adult Cassowary maintains a home range or territory of about 100Ha. The home ranges of males may overlap with each other’s and with those of females. The loss of Cassowary habitat due to farming and residential development in Northern Queensland is affecting the number of Southern Cassowaries the environment can support.

Cassowary feet.

Cassowary feet with talon claws.

The loss of good quality habitat development (degradation) and purchasing of small parcels of land for homes (fragmentation) is also affecting the Cassowary. Birds living in areas of degraded or fragmented, low-quality habitat need larger home ranges and so the environment cannot support as many birds.

The Importance Of Corridors

A wildlife corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging). Due to habitat fragmentation, local populations can become dispersed, resulting in reduced genetic diversity and in-breeding that often occurs within isolated populations.

Wildlife corridor layout.

Wildlife corridor layout.

Creating corridors allows for the reconnection of fragmented habitats and facilitates the re-establishment of populations that have been affected by fragmentation or eliminated due to random events such as fires or cyclones.

The image above highlights key habitat values including feeding, breeding and resting habitat, water availability and movement corridors. Feeding areas change with fruiting seasons, and traditional food supplies can fail due to events such as cyclones. Cassowary habitat also supports at least 106 plant and 37 animal species identified as threatened under state and federal legislation.

Fast Facts



*  Cassowaries have pointed beaks and do not have tongues.
*  They must pick up and toss food to the back of their throats.
*  One of the Southern Cassowary’s most defining features is its casque, the helmet-like structure on its head.
*  Duck-billed dinosaurs that roamed the earth 65 million years ago (e.g. corythosaurus and parasaurolophus) had similar ‘wedged’ heads.
*  Each casque is unique. The casque begins growing in juveniles when their plumage changes from striped to brown.
*  Casques are thought to be used in communication as an amplifier or receiver of the birds’ low-  frequency infrasound vocalisations.




Cassowaries communicate with each other through a range of hissing, rumbling, coughing and booming noises. The low-frequency, booming calls of the Southern Cassowary are at the bottom end of human hearing. At 32 Hertz, they are the lowest known vocalisations of all birds and have been described as ‘strange’ and ‘unsettling’ by people who have heard them.

These low frequency sounds, known as ‘infrasound,’ are thought to travel over long distances, even through dense rainforest foliage. Elephants and emus also communicate via infrasound.

During acts of aggression, Cassowaries are known to make a booming gurgle and hiss noise.

Breeding and Raising Young

Adult Cassowaries live alone and are territorial, except during breeding, which typically takes place during the dry season (May-Oct). The females are usually dominant but are tolerant of males during this time. The female selects a mate with whom she may spend days or even weeks, during which time the male will ‘court’ his partner through dance, display and vocalising.

From Chick to Chic

Cassowary chic.

Cassowary chic.

Cassowary chicks hatch with brown and cream striped plumage, perfect camouflage for their sun-dappled habitat. Chicks do not yet have a casque and their wattles are very small and cream coloured. Chicks are totally dependent on their father for food and protection.

At 4-5 months of age chicks begin to lose their stripes, which are replaced by longer brown feathers, similar to the black plumage of adult birds. In juvenile birds, the wattle begins to grow slowly and turn a pale pink colour, and the casque begins to grow.


Juvenile birds are still in Dad’s care but begin to forage and explore independently or with their siblings. They are considered sub-adult when they become independent of their father, which normally occurs when they are about 9 months old (if the father does not find a mate the following year, the chicks may remain with up to 18 months). During this stage, the plumage begins to darken, the distinctive blue head and neck colouration emerges, and the casque and wattles continue to grow and darken.

Cassowaries attain sexual maturity between about 3- 4 years of age. Adult birds have distinctive glossy black hair-like plumage, a tall casque, a brightly coloured bare head and neck and dangling red wattles.

What’s Underneath? Cassowary Dissection:

What You Can Do

Please consider helping the Cassowary, a bird that plays such an important part in rainforest ecology. Losing wild Cassowaries would be catastrophic to all inhabitants living in the Queensland tropics.

One way to help Cassowaries is to donate to SaveTheCassowary.org.au, an organization that is doing so much to help these birds, including playing the role as first responders to injured Cassowaries. They need all the help they can get.

Rainforest Rescue

Rainforest Rescue

The importance of the Cassowary and the significant role it plays in rainforest ecology needs to shouted from the rooftops. Education and awareness needs to be dramatically lifted if the wild Southern Cassowary is to be saved from extinction. One they are gone, they are gone forever.

Thank you for reading,

Michele Brown


Snake Wine – Bizarre Sex Aid

SW 1

“Sexual stamina during sexual intercourse can increase the size of a man’s penis,” according to the owner of a Chinese Beer store, Li, who says snake rice-wine is one of his best sellers. He claims Chinese snake rice-wine is an aphrodisiac which increases a man’s sexual stamina and his penis.  What a sales pitch!

“Lookout for fake wines which are made with methanol. Real snake wine is made with authentic traditional rice liquor.” Since some snakes are not endangered, trade is not banned and sales of wine are legal.

Snake wine has now become the latest gimmick for many western and European men, plus a few women, as a bizarre sex aid for men suffering performance problems in the bedroom and it’s being shipped around the world, after being ordered online.


Snake wine – drunk as a sex aid for men looking to enhance their libido.

Mixed with roots and herbs, snake rice-wine is preserved for several years before being taken in one gulp from a shot glass. According to WNV: “The drink which is 55% alcohol leaves your skin tingling, your stomach burning and your mouth salivating. You might even tear up a bit, or maybe that’s just me.”

Snake wine is made by fermenting rice for five days and then boiled and distilled, removing any impurities. The liquid from the steam is captured in a container with other herbs, roots and bulbs. Then the special ingredient is added. Normally the Chinese prefer poisonous snakes, like different species of cobra, but many different animals are often added, including seahorses, baby deer, geckos, chicken feet and so on.

Two Kinds Of Snake Wine

There are two kinds of snake wine: steeped and blended. Steeped snake wine is made using a whole ‘live’ snake which is drowned in rice wine, to ferment it for several months. Blended requires dissecting the snake before combining with the rice wine. Blended snake wine emphasizes the use of the snake’s gallbladder and heart in the tonic.

Live snake having it's gall bladder cut out for snake wine.

Live snake having it’s gall bladder cut out for snake wine.

Blended wine has a pinkish hue from the blood and innards, while steeped snake wine is a more golden colour.

* Steeped: a large venomous snake can be placed into a glass jar of rice wine, often with many smaller snakes, turtles, insects, or birds, and left to steep for many months. The wine is drunk as a restorative in small shots or cups.
* Blended: Body fluids of a LIVE SNAKE are mixed into wine and consumed immediately in the form of a shot. Snake blood wine is prepared by SLICING A LIVE SNAKE ALONG IT’S BELLY and draining its blood into a mixing vat with rice wine or grain alcohol. Snake bile wine is done through a similar method by using the contents of the LIVE snake’s gall bladder.

Because of the medicinal herbs that are mixed in, the Chinese drink it for good health and long levity. Li (falsely) says it takes away flu and helps build up your immune system.

The so-called medicinal mixture stays in its container for many years, even when the rice-wine has run out, more wine is simply added. Li says that rice wine is usually clear in colour but once it is mixed into the container it turns a yellow/red colour. “That’s when you know it is good to drink,” (WNV.)

Gall bladder which was just cut out of the live snake, for snake wine.

Gall bladder which was just cut out of the live snake, for snake wine.

Snake Wine As Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

Snakes are recorded in Chinese prescriptions dating back 2,000 years, in the first text of traditional Chinese medicine, where they were used for virility. Many TCM practitioners recommend a daily dose of 30 to 60 grams of yellow wine, huang jiu (黄酒), for healthy adults. In TCM, wine is considered a “guiding” drug, which enhances and reinforces other drugs.

Chinese snake wine.

Chinese snake wine.

TCM holds that you are what you eat (bone is good for bone, heart for heart, penis for penis, and so on). Snake wine tonic, loaded with yang energy, is a legendary sex tonic for men and though Western medicine does not endorse it at all. TCM recommends women to sip a little to snake wine to treat rheumatism.

Ancient and modern Chinese and people throughout Southeast Asia soak snakes in spirit, especially venomous snakes. The alcohol denatures the venom and breaks down the proteins in the poison, but the invigorating “essence” of the venom remains.

Snake wine, some made with different kinds of snakes, bats and herbs, is said to nourish the kidneys, generate blood, dispel cold and damp (excessive yin energy), treat rheumatism, alleviate coughs and treat bronchitis, among other uses (KCC.)

Chinese snake wine.

Chinese snake wine.

Snake’s blood, bone, bile, venom and skin are all valued as medicine, especially the venom. Wine that is six months to a year old is considered extremely potent in treatment of rheumatism.

To make snake wine, LIVE SNAKES ARE FIRST KEPT FOR A MONTH WITHOUT FOOD OR WATER, so its intestines are emptied. It is then washed and placed live into a strong container of alcohol (50 percent or higher), which is then sealed for at least two months.

Japanese Snake Wine – Habushu

Habushu (ハブ酒?) is an awamori-based liqueur made in Okinawa, Japan. Other common names include Habu Sake or Okinawan Snake Wine. Habushu is aptly named after the habu snake (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) which belongs to the Pit Viper family and is closely related to the American rattler or copperheads.

Japanese Snake Wine - Habushu

Japanese Snake Wine – Habushu

Habu snakes are venomous and a bite from a habu snake can cause nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and possibly death. There also have been cases where victims report the loss of motor function in hands and legs following treatment.

There are two methods of inserting the snake into the alcohol. The maker may choose to simply submerge the snake in the alcohol and seal the bottle, thus drowning the snake.

Japanese Snake Wine - Habushu.

Japanese Snake Wine – Habushu.

Alternatively, the snake may be put on ice until it passes out, at which point it is then gutted, bled and sewed up. When the VIPER IS THAWED AND AWAKENS it will quickly die in an aggressive striking manner, which is what most producers look for.

The manufacturer will then put the habu in an ethanol bath for a month to preserve it. To continue the process, the habu is put in a 59% alcohol mix for 40 days and finally put in a 35% awamori mix to prepare for consumption. Removing the intestines of the snake, as in the second method, is thought to decrease the drink’s particularly unpleasant smell.

Japanese Snake Wine - Habushu.

Japanese Snake Wine – Habushu.

A main distributor of habushu uses around 5,000 habu snakes per year and is a very popular item amongst Americans in the military stationed in Japan. The distillery uses crushed rice and Koji mold to produce the awamori that goes into the habushu. It is a typical practice to age the awamori for a longer period of time. The alcohol helps the venom to dissolve and become non poisonous.

A habu snake can go on without eating anything for as long as a year and still have immense energy. Another desired trait that is thought to be passed on is the positive effect on the male libido.

Westerner looking for answers from the so-called male libido-enhancing snake wine?

Westerner looking for answers from Japanese Habushu – the so-called male libido-enhancing snake wine?

A habu snake is able to mate for as long as 26 hours at a time, which causes some to believe that a drink of habushu may help sexual dysfunction in men. It is thought that these strengths get passed on to those who drink habushu.

Snake Wine Throughout Asia

A favourite snake to use for snake wine is the King Cobra (ohiophagus hannah), the longest venomous snake in the world. Cobras are the only snake that can spit its venom and it’s bite can inject enough venom to kill an elephant. When working with Cobras, they bind it’s mouth tightly shut so it cannot spit.

The beliefs of snakes’ healing abilities are derived from snake characteristics like agility, skin shedding, and speed. The flexibility of snakes is believed to be a good treatment for stiffness and arthritis. Their ability to shed their skin translates into a regenerative quality for skin ailments, such as acne or itching skin. Another healing property snakes are know for is their speed. Its speed represents how quickly the healing occurs and moves fast throughout the body (NF.)http://kayay.livejournal.com/164490.html

Happy travellers with their purchase of snake wine.

Happy travellers with their purchase of snake wine.

Medicinal wines have remained a favourite drink for many Chinese and Vietnamese men in their own country but also all over the world.

“I drink different kinds of medicinal wines, especially snake wine, to help improve my health,” said Nguyen Van Vuong, 48, of a village near Ha Noi Snake village, and like most snake wine drinkers he doesn’t think that there’s any harm drinking medicinal wines.

All famous herbalists questioned about Snake wine and others medicinal wines said that these wines could cause problems if taken in excessive amounts, but fortunately not health threatening problems. The effectiveness and quality of the wines also depend on the quality of ingredients and the liquor.

Snake wine at a Chinese traditional medicine store.

Snake wine at a traditional Chinese medicine store.

Oriental medicinal wines have long been believed to help promote blood circulation, with the alcohol helping the body absorb the medicinal content. Some recipes help prolong human life or improve men’s sexual stamina, but all these wines must be used properly, and nobody should abuse drinking them, or the effects could be worst than the illness or condition for which they are used.

The following account is from a tourist who travelled through China:

In southern China I visited the Snake King & Completely Restaurant in Guangzhou When I visited there were 75 different snake dishes on the menu and seventeen different wine drinks that had snake as one of the ingredients. These included something labeled “Magnificant Packing Three Snake Gall Bladder Wine” and, mysteriously, “Toad and Snake’s Seminal Vesicle.”

Snake wine.

Snake wine.

The waitress watched as I sipped it and applauded as I then emptied the tiny glass in a gulp. It burned going down as a straight shot of tequila—which it resembled in colour, and left a residual warm feeling from my esophagus to my gut. Which is what it was supposed to do. Snake is categorized as a yang food, representing the positive, bright and masculine half of the Chinese yin/yang philosophy (yin being negative, dark, and feminine). Its consumption is especially recommended during the winter months, when it is believed it will warm the blood.

“Ganbei!” —the traditional Chinese toast is Ganbei! meaning “empty glass”— the man called loudly. The sediment wasn’t so thick as to involve any chewing and the wine went down without the fiery glow I’d experienced earlier.

“Lovely,” I said as I examined the bottle, surprised to find on the label some English text. The first thing that caught my attention was the fact that what I’d swallowed was Five Testes & Penises Wine (KLJ.)

Besides pure rice wine,  I was assured the common ingredient in virtually every exotic wine sold in Asia is the genitals of snake, sheep, ox, deer, and dog.

Snake wine.

Snake wine.

Sold In Many Places

In the Imperial Herbal Restaurant in Singapore, a few steps from the Raffles Hotel, a resident Chinese herbalist diagnosed customer ills and imbalances, prescribing certain dishes or drinks on the menu as being helpful. The choice of wines included one with deer penis, starting at US$12 a glass, with a two-liter bottle costing $450!

At a sidewalk cafe in Sapa, Vietnam, in the mountains near the Chinese border and also in Vietnam, at the Hanoi airport, where I found a bottle of wine containing a gecko the size of a small kitten, priced at $2, next to a bottle that contained a coiled cobra for $80.

In the lobby bar of the five-star Baan Boran Hotel in northern Thailand overlooking the Golden Triangle, the bartender poured a shot from a bottle of amber liquid that contained a single scorpion. Like the cobra, also ready to strike, though well past any ability to do so.

Snake wine.

Snake wine.

In Conclusion

Throughout the ages people have used many forms of stimulants to enhance their sexual performance and boost their health, in the quest for longevity of life. Some remedies are more bizarre than others and many have been and still are downright cruel to the animals used.

Other formulas that people have used throughout the centuries to boost their sexual interest are less well known: powdered lizard in white wine; dried black ants mixed with olive oil; snake blood; jackal bile or ass’s milk (rubbed on the male and female genitals prior to intercourse); fermented leeches (poured over the penis); melted fat from a camel’s hump; the king eider duck’s billknob (ingested); skin of the toad Bufo Bufo gargarizans (known as Chan Su, a topical preparation that can be deadly when ingested); and the flesh of the lion-tailed macaque (ingested).

Snake wine.

Snake wine.

Snakes are cruelly abused to be made into snake wine; being starved of food and water for a month, being sliced open along the belly – while still alive, to being drowned in wine, while posed in their once most proud stance.

There is no scientific evidence that snake wine cures medical illnesses. There is no scientific evidence snake wine does anything for a man’s libido or his erection or his staying power. Seek professional medical help from a Sex Therapist, but do not expect it from drinking snakes in a bottle.

If you are considering ordering snake wine online, before ordering please consider the suffering each snake endures for the sake of snake wine.

Thank you for reading,

Michele Brown.

To read more about animals eaten to increase the male libido, please read the following article:

The Dog Meat trade: Sex, Lies and Brutality.

Animal Planet – Mother Natures Finest

Mother Nature hides many secrets that we as humans are still fully unaware of. Below is a quick run down of Mother Natures finest specimens of animals that International Animal Rescue Foundation has picked for your information.

In at number one is the smallest deer in the world.

Pudus Deer;


The pudús are the world’s smallest deer, with the southern pudú being slightly larger than the northern pudú. It has a stocky frame supported by four short and slender legs. It is 32 to 44 cm (13 to 17 in) high at the shoulder and up to 85 cm (33 in) in length. Pudús normally weigh up to 12 kg (26 lb), but the highest recorded weight of a pudú is 13.4 kg (30 lb). Pudús have small, black eyes, black noses, and rounded ears with lengths of 7.5 to 8 cm (3.0 to 3.1 in). Sexual dimorphism in the species includes an absence of antlers in females. Males have short, spiked antlers that are not forked, as seen in most species of deer. The antlers, which are shed annually, can extend from 6.5 to 7.5 cm (2.6 to 3.0 in) in length and protrude from between the ears. Also on the head are large preorbital glands. Pudús have small hooves, dewclaws, and short tails about 4.0 to 4.5 cm (1.6 to 1.8 in) in length when measured without hair. Coat coloration varies with season, gender, and individual genes. The fur is long and stiff, typically pressed close to the body, with a reddish-brown to dark-brown hue. The neck and shoulders of an aged pudú turn a dark gray-brown in the winter.


In at number two is the loudest animal on the planet the Blue Whale;


The blue whale is the loudest animal on the face of the earth. However not far off from the this mega beast is the second loudest animal on the planet being that the Howler Monkey.

The call of the blue whale reaches levels up to 188 decibels. This extraordinarily loud whistle can be heard for hundreds of miles underwater. Theoretical calculations by Roger Payne and Douglas Webb (from the 1970’s) predicted that the loudest whale sounds might be transmitted across an entire ocean. The blue whale is much louder than a jet, which reaches only 140 decibels! Human shouting is 70 decibels; sounds over 120 decibels are painful to human ears. The second-loudest animal on Earth is the howler monkey (Alouatta) from the jungles of Central and South America.


In at number three is the Honduran White Bat;

The only white bat on the face of the planet of which is just that “white” and not albino. Whats so special about the Honduran White Bat though other than its white? Well its the only bat that doesn’t actually live within caves, more rather under heliconia leaves.

Near threatened

The Honduran white bat cuts the side veins extending out from the midrib of the large leave of the Heliconia plant causing them to fold down to form a ‘tent’. They cling to the roof of this tent in small colonies of up to half a dozen individuals, consisting of one male and a harem of females. The tent protects them from rain and predators. Most tent-making bats take flight at even slight disturbances, but researchers in Costa Rica have reported that Honduran white bats take flight only when the main stem of their tent is disturbed, possibly because they are well camouflaged. Although their tents are typically low to the ground (about six feet), sunlight filters through the leaf which gives their white fur a greenish cast. This almost completely conceals them if they remain still. It has been suggested a colony may have a number of tents scattered within the forest. It is one of 15 species of Latin American bats that roost in tents. In the Old World, 3 species of bat from India and Southeast Asia are known to roost in tents.


In at number four is the angriest looking animal on the planet, the Angler Fish;

IUCN Red List – Unknown

In the darkest depths of the ocean where the water is freezing cold, the pressure is enormous and food is scarce lives the angry-looking deep sea anglerfish. This fascinating fish is not only an incredible example of how organisms manage to survive in the most inhospitable environments, it has one of the most bizarre ways of reproducing in the animal kingdom.  The deep sea anglerfish is one of the deep ocean’s most fascinating residents. Living at the extreme depths between 1.5 and 2.5 km, their most peculiar appearance is a modified fin that acts as a lure, hanging above their huge mouths containing needle-like teeth. The tip of this “fishing rod” on top of their head is bioluminescent (glowing in the dark) because of bacteria living inside it and attracts prey in a similar way like moths to a lightbulb. By wiggling the glowing outgrowth, it lures prey close enough to devour them whole. Because of thin, soft bones and jelly-like skin, these scary looking fish can expand their jaws and stomach to such an extent that they are even able to actually swallow prey up to twice their own size. In the deep sea where food is very scarce, being able to eat large quantities at once is a great adaptation. Now that’s pretty awesome but weird yet wonderful too..


In an number five is the worlds most camouflaged animal the Common Baron Caterpillar;

IUCN Red List – Unknown

Just take a closer look at the image below. Do you see anything besides a leaf? If you look closer you can catch a glimpse of a tiny little fellow called, the common baron caterpillar. Feeding mostly on mango and cashew nut trees during its larvae stage; they remarkably camouflage themselves and seemingly disappear into foliage. We are sympathizing for the birds which don’t get a chance to swoop on them. However, as soon as they evolve from larvae to butterfly stage, they lose their camouflaging ability. The common baron caterpillars are native to India and Southeast Asia. The males are brown with slight tinges of olive, whereas the females are of paler shades. Their camouflage of course boosts their chances survival. When the common baron caterpillar goes through all stages of life they eventually metamorphose into a butterfly called the common Baron, which is a medium-sized the ‘nymphalid butterfly’. Now this is one species of animal the armed forces need to take a leaf out of “its” book. And no the photograph is not edited.


In at number six the slowest (mammal) on the planet, the Three Toed Sloth;

Near threatened

The three-toed sloth is the slowest mammal on Earth, due to its lack of muscle tissue.It is so sedentary that algae grows on its furry coat. All sloths are built for life in the treetops. The three-toed sloths are tree-living mammals from South and Central America. They are the only members of the genus Bradypus and the family Bradypodidae. The four living species of three-toed sloths are the brown-throated sloth, the maned sloth, the pale-throated sloth, and the pygmy three-toed sloth.. And just to give you a brief glimpse into the sheer speed of the three toed sloth – they travel at a distance of 0.15 kilometers per hour.

Brown-Throated Three-Toed Sloth, Panama

In at number seven is the worlds strongest insect, stand aside Mr leaf cutting ant as your title has been beaten. Meet the Rhinoceros Beetle;

IUCN Red List – Unknown

Rhinoceros Beetles can lift 850 times their own weight. To put this into perspective, if a human had the strength of the rhinoceros beetle, it would be able to lift a 65 ton object. If the mighty elephant had equal strength to the rhinoceros beetle it would be able to carry 850 elephants on its back.

The Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules) is the most famous and the largest of the rhinoceros beetles. It is native to the rainforests of Central America, South America, and the Lesser Antilles. The beetle has also been observed as far north as Southern Veracruz in Mexico. Their title is well deserved, with some able to lift more than 850 times (up to 8 kg lifted) their own weight and some males, rarely, reaching 17 cm (6.75 inches) in length. It is the largest of the six species in the Dynastes genus, and one of the largest beetles known, being exceeded in length by only two other beetles in the family Cerambycidae, Macrodontia cervicornis (specimens of 17–17.5 cm are known) and Titanus giganteus (also up to 17–17.5 cm; several 18+ cm specimens are reputed/alleged to exist). However, if the horns are excluded, both M. cervicornis and D. hercules drop considerably farther down in the size rankings, leaving T. giganteus on top. One reason for this is that the development of the horns is allometric, as well as sexually dimorphic, and thus not strictly correlated to actual body size; it is possible for a female to be much longer, measured from eyes to abdomen, than a male, yet be considered “smaller” simply due to the absence of horns. Worlds strongest man – step aside the title is lost. Picture – This is the moment a red-eyed Costa Rican tree frog hitched a lift on a giant Hercules beetle.


In at number eight the worlds fastest marine mammal the Sailfish;

IUCN Red List – Unknown

Sailfish are the fastest fish in the ocean and have been clocked leaping out of the water at more than 68 mi (110 km) per hour. Size relative to a 6-ft (2-m) man: The two main subspecies of sailfish, Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, range throughout the warm and temperate parts of the world’s oceans.

Sailfish are two species of fishes in the genus Istiophorus, living in warmer sections of all the oceans of the world. They are blue to grey in color and have a characteristic erectile dorsal fin known as a sail, which often stretches the entire length of the back. Another notable characteristic is the elongated bill, resembling that of the swordfish and other marlins. They are therefore described as billfish in sport fishing circles. Both species of sailfishes grow quickly, reaching 1.2-1.5 m (4-5 ft) in length in a single year, and feed on the surface or at mid-depths on smaller pelagic forage fish and squid. Individuals have been clocked at speeds of up to 110 km/h (70 mph), which is the highest speed reliably reported in a fish. Generally, sailfish do not grow to more than 3 m (10 ft) in length and rarely weigh over 90 kg (200 lb), although larger specimens have been seen off the shores of Costa Rica.


In at number nine is the worlds smallest tortoise;

Near Threatened

Speckled Padloper Tortoise: the smallest tortoise in the world is found in South Africa. The itty bitty tortoises grow up to 8-10cm in length. The speckled tortoise (Homopus signatus), known locally as the speckled padloper, and also known internationally as the speckled cape tortoise, is the world’s smallest tortoise. A member of the genus Homopus, it is endemic to South Africa and Southern Namibia. Small but cute, please do not remove them from the wild. These species of tortoise are near threatened.


In at number ten – Killer Siafu Ants;

IUCN Red List – Non-Concern

The legends are well known to people across the world; swarms of destructive ants which consume any creature slow or daring enough to remain within their range, even humans. They overcome their prey, stinging and biting from all sides. In the case of sufficiently large prey, they enter the nasal passages and mouth of the victim and kill it through asphyxiation. The corpse is sliced up into manageable pieces by the powerful mandibles of the insects and carried back to their nest. The stories depict infants and old people as the victims of these ants. The insects invade at night, when most people are asleep, and attack their victims. By the time the prey wakes up, they are completely engulfed by the ants and under attack via bites and stings. The end results are commonly tragic and unsightly. Of course this is somewhat little exaggerated, however not as exaggerated as you may think.

These tales tend to be exaggerated and used as inspirations for grisly scenes in science fiction films. However, unlike urban legends, these stories possess a frightening level of reality. There are indeed cases of humans being killed and consumed by ants. The thought of such a death is too much for most to imagine as it would be a very slow and torturous death. These cases, however, are rare. There are not too many reported deaths of such a magnitude, and even general human kills of any sort are low in number compared to other animal attacks. However, a human must not be killed by these insects in order to understand their hunting prowess. Dangerous ants demand respect due to the fact that they can become a threat to nearly any other creature in their environment. These interesting and social animals deserve more positive attention than they sometimes receive. The surprising level of teamwork found in their colonies and their ability to become powerful enough to kill anything in their path certainly set them aside from most other creatures except for perhaps man. Certain species have caught man’s eye as being particularly dangerous. Among them will be the species discussed;

Siafu ants (Genus Dorylus) are some of the most well known ants in the world. They are considered a menace due to their combination of an aggressive nature and massive colonies. Their range extends from central Africa to portions of Asia. They are known for living in colonies of up to 20,000,000 or so ants and are commonly documented taking part in great marches in search of food or a new settlement location. Soldiers exist among the species, possessing both stingers and powerful mandibles which rarely let go once they grab onto prey or an enemy. In fact, African tribes have used the ants as sutures; they grab an individual ant and press its mandibles to a small gash in such a way that the ant’s jaws clamp onto both sides of the wound and close it. The ant’s body is then crushed off and only the head remains, still holding the wound area together. Although painful, it is surprisingly effective and has become a useful method of wound treatment for the tribes. This makes the ants useful for some people. The ants also function as pest regulators, killing of some of the local pest population during their common raids. However, the ants and humans don’t always share such a pleasant relationship. It is the Siafu ants that have also become well known for being man eaters. This occurs when the ants march too closely to villages or settlements of any sort. Sleeping prey, human or animal, sometimes awaken to a barrage of stings and painful bites. The end result can easily become a terribly painful death. These deaths, as unfortunate and gruesome as they are, are simply the side effects of living in the Siafu’s range.

These ants can take down almost any creature that is unable to escape their path in time. Snakes, turtles, various insects, and many small mammals commonly fall prey to the Siafu. Also, as mentioned before, larger animals and people can also become food items for the insect army. Once brought down, the prey is sliced up into portable chunks which are carried back to the nest and stored for later consummation. These marches are nearly unstoppable, and most animals would do well to step aside and stay far away from these troops.

However, there is more to the Siafu than killing and death. They are misunderstood, much like many other predatory animals. The ants must protect their colony at all costs. This is especially true in times of travel, where the ants are most vulnerable. They must take whatever prey is made available to them, for the sake of their colony’s nourishment as well as the legacy of their family. When one studies their behavior, a surprising level of care and detail is found. For example, in order to protect the smaller ants during travel, soldier Siafu form “highways” which cover and surround the weaker ants as they march onwards.  The soldiers wave their jaws around from the outer side of this protective covering so as to intimidate any passing animals.



Enjoy your weekend

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa

International Animal Rescue Foundation



Mali, Africa: Dog Meat And Now Ebola


Ebola has now arrived in the country of Mali, West Africa, sparking further panic as the deadly virus creeps across the continent. The patient is a 2-year-old girl who was brought from neighbouring Guinea after her mother died of Ebola.

The girl showed symptoms, including a bleeding nose, while travelling on a public bus through several towns, as she travelled more than 1,000 km (600 miles) from Guinea through the capital, Bamako, to Kayes.

Bamako is a densely-packed city of 2.3 million people.

People in Mali are now being checked for Ebola symptoms.

People in Mali are now being checked for Ebola symptoms.

The girl’s blood sample tested positive in Fousseyni Daou hospital in the western town of Kayes,, where a further 43 people are being quarantined, including 10 health workers. Mali is now the sixth West African country to be fighting Ebola. The World Health Organisation says the disease has infected nearly 10,000 people and killed from half to 70 percent of them.

Dog Meat and Ebola

Dog meat is eaten in Mali and served at many “chop shops.” There is a link between Ebola and dog meat.

Dogs do not show any signs if infected with Ebola and dogs do NOT die from Ebola infections.

African dog butcher brutally slaughtering a dog for dog meat; the dog was in agony and fully conscious for several minutes.

African dog butcher brutally slaughtering a dog for dog meat; the dog was in agony and fully conscious for several minutes.

Saynotodogmeat.Net Director Dr. Josa Depre advises that people refrain from eating dogs within Ebola infected zones. “Consuming dogs within an infected zone and knowing both dog can carry and show no signs is no different to playing Russian Roulette with one’s life,” says Dr. Depre.

Dogs in Africa are typically kept as pets to assist with hunting and are not “fed,” and therefore forced to scavenge food for themselves. In places like Liberia for example, dogs eat the carcass of Ebola infected animals and those same dogs are then captured by dog snatchers and sold for human consumption.

African dog butcher slowly slaughtering a dog, using a panga. Fully conscious, the dog was alive and in great agony for several minutes.

African dog butcher slowly slaughtering a dog, using a panga. Fully conscious, the dog was alive and in great agony for several minutes.

To date there have been no documented infections in felines, meaning that our domestic cats are probably safe from it.

Although dogs are susceptible to Ebola, the CDC concluded that “infected dogs are asymptomatic”, meaning that they do not develop symptoms.

During the early phase of their infection, however, they can spread the disease to humans and other animals through licking, biting, urine, and feces. However, the good news is that once the virus is cleared from the dog it is no longer contagious.”

Chop Shops In Mali

4o4 is code for a "chop shop" dog meat restaurant.

4o4 is code for a “chop shop” dog meat restaurants in Nigeria.

In San, Mali, there’s a restaurant in the old Bamabus terminal at the intersection turning south from the center of town. San is part of the Bobo ethnic area where dog meat is regularly served and eaten “as beef.” Restaurant reviews in Mali suggest that if you do not want to eat dog meat then you should stay away from ALL beef dishes, especially “chop shops” in certain areas, as a lot of the so-called beef is dog meat.

Guinea, which hasn’t closed any of its frontiers with six other nations, shares more than 800km of border with landlocked Mali to the east.

Map of Mali, Africa.

Map of Mali, Africa.


Vaccines are not available until the first half of 2015, which is cold comfort for those who need vaccines immediately. Media statements such as “committed to ramping up production” by pharmaceutical companies are hollow words until the vaccines are actually produced and in use.

Ebola victims lay on the road, waiting to be treated, in Liberia.

Ebola victims lay on the road, waiting to be treated, in Liberia.

In America a New York doctor, Dr Craig Spencer who returned from Guinea on October 17th, has tested positive for Ebola, sparking terror amongst Americans after it was announced that the doctor had been travelling on the subway, possibly infecting other people. He is the first Ebola case diagnosed in New York, and the fourth in the US. On Tuesday he began to feel tired and developed a fever and diarrhoea on Thursday (BBC.)

The Ebola fatality rate can reach 90% – but current outbreak has mortality rate of about 70%. Incubation period is two to 21 days and there is no proven vaccine or cure. The current outbreak is the deadliest since Ebola was discovered in 1976.

An international team of scientists has been set up to determine the effectiveness of using the blood of Ebola survivors as a treatment. It is hoped the antibodies used by the immune system to fight Ebola can be transferred from a survivor to a patient.

How Ebola virus spreads.

How Ebola virus spreads.

How Not To Catch Ebola:

* Avoid direct contact with sick patients as the virus is spread through contaminated body fluids
* Wear protective cover for eyes
* Clothing and clinical waste should be incinerated and any medical equipment that needs to be kept should be decontaminated.
* People who recover from Ebola should abstain from sex or use condoms for three months

As with all the other Ebola infected areas, people in Mali are being urged to use soap when washing their hands. It is not customary to do this in Mali, but the World Health Organisation are stressing the importance of it.

Ebola key messages.

Ebola key messages.

All the African countries affected by Ebola are dog eating countries. There is a link between Ebola and dog meat.


Thank you for reading,

Michele Brown.


Saturday April 4th, 2015 Saynotodogmeat.Net is hosting a Global March for dogs and cats in the live meat trade. Please march with us, in your country. It will be an orderly and peaceful march but we need more ‘demonstration leaders.’ If you can help us, PLEASE EMAIL: CONTACT@SAYNOTODOGMEAT.INFO

Bring your family, children, pets and banners; we need as many people as possible, worldwide. Please mark your calendar and join our march. If you haven’t already done so, please click the box to let us know you are coming: https://www.facebook.com/events/294347744053559/


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Child Abuse?

Meet Max Arredondo pictured below he’s aged from which he shot this Zebra with quite a heavy firearm within the Eastern Cape of Southern Africa. Aged just six its quite hard to actually take on board that there are parents out there teaching their children to kill animals. Unfortunately Max Arredondo is not the only child that is being taught to kill animals on the continent of Africa. Data reviewed by International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has revealed more and more parents are now taking their children on safaris thus teaching them to kill.


This species of Zebra is not endangered, nor threatened.

Below is a comparison showing the legal ages to hunt and own firearms to that of the legal ages to watch films, play games

Speak up for the Voiceless.org has documented quite heavily on child hunters. Our partners International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa are now lobbying the Department of Environmental Affairs – Hon Edna Molewa head minister to introduce laws that will hopefully ban children from hunting. While its quite impossible to actually ban hunting in general, it is our duty of responsibility to now call for more tougher laws that “protect both children and animals”. Protecting children from adult violent activities and protecting animals from uneducated and inexperienced hunters that can inflict more pain and suffering to an animal. While Max may be an “educated” hunter it quite concerning to know that at such a young age his brain has been exposed to such violent activities.

In reality a mother or father teaching their child to kill an animal legally or illegally with a high powered weapon is no different to that of a parent placing their child in front of a (adult rated) television program that contains swearing, death, animal killing and more. Take a look at the following video below from YouTube like many hundreds online is classed as “age-restricted based on our Community Guidelines”. Its not just YouTube either that place these restrictions of which you require a Gmail account too log into.

YouTube state; 

Age-restricted content

In some cases, real, dramatized or fake violence may not be suitable for all ages. “Similar to movie or television ratings”, our age-restrictions help viewers avoid watching content that they may not feel is acceptable for themselves or for their children.

YouTube goes on to state;

What we consider to be agree restricted

  1. Whether the video shows scenes containing physical attacks where the injury sustained is bloody or gory.
  2. Whether the video shows the graphic aftermath of a violent act.
  3. Whether the shots of violence or gore are the focal point of the video.
  4. Whether the violence contained in the video is realistic when posted in a dramatic context.

In South Africa, a temporary firearms and ammunition importation permit will only be issued at the port of entry if the applicant is twenty one (21) years of age or older. Does this law apply to native citizens too? Of course it does. The minimum age for gun ownership in South Africa is 21 years, with some exceptions that may include the fact that the applicant conducts a business, is gainfully employed, a dedicated hunter, a dedicated sports person or a private collector. Max pictured above is not anywhere near the minimum – he is six however doesn’t own this rifle. Laws state that you have to be 16 or older to hunt within South Africa, in some provinces the laws state that you have to be 14 years of age. The hunt above was most likely on a farm of which “no laws apply” to this activity. Had it been in the wild the chances are father and mother would be in a spot of bother.

In South Africa film are classified by the Film and Publication Board.[74] All broadcasters, cinemas and distributors of DVD/video and computer games must comply with the following:

  • A: Suitable for all.
  • PG: Parental Guidance
  • 7–9PG: Not suitable for children under the age of 7. Children aged 7–9 years old may not be admitted unless accompanied by an adult.
  • 10: Not suitable for children under the age of 10.
  • 10–12PG: Not suitable for children under the age of 10. Children aged 10–12 years old may not be admitted unless accompanied by an adult.
  • 13: Not suitable for children under the age of 13.
  • 16: Not suitable for persons under the age of 16.
  • 18: Not suitable for persons under the age of 18.
  • X18: No One Under 18 Admitted; restricted to licensed adult premises.
  • XX: Must not be distributed or exhibited in public.

Films that contain violence, death or “adult” content under South African law with regards to (PG) – 7–9PG: Not suitable for children under the age of 7. Children aged 7–9 years old may not be admitted unless accompanied by an adult. 

As one can clearly see laws within South Africa are somewhat odd. Its “just reasonably” OK-ish to place a firearm within your child’s hands at the age of six and allow him or her to hunt an animal of which this is classified as “a violent and abusive act” but not reasonable to allow your child to view a “violent act[s] or abuse[s]” under the age of seven. Max in this case is 6. How does a violent video or game differ from that of a child taking a shot at a Zebra? It doesn’t of which this is in all due respects child abuse.

Exposing Children to Violence or Violent Acts

FACT – In 2011, nearly 60 percent of children (ages 17 and younger) were exposed to violence within the past year, either directly (as victims) or indirectly (as witnesses). Detailed documentation related mainly to domestic abuse, bullying, murder, animal abuse, rape, other. Regardless of what the type abuse children were exposed too, abuse is abuse no matter how much you try to sugar coat it, make it sound legal or necessary. Placing a gun in a the hands of a child at the age of six while the brain is still developing from 0-21 years of age is “exposing a vulnerable person” to abuse that can later on enact these same type of abuses out from which they see as “normal practice”.


Children are more likely to be exposed to violence and crime than adults are. An experience of violence can lead to lasting physical, mental, and emotional harm, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Children who are exposed to violence are more likely to suffer from attachment problems, regressive behavior, anxiety, and depression, and to have aggression and conduct problems. Other health-related problems, as well as academic and cognitive problems, delinquency, and involvement in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are also associated with experiences of violence. Even community violence that children do not directly witness has been shown to affect negatively children’s attentional abilities and cognitive performance.

One mechanism through which early, chronic exposure to violence affects children is by disrupting the developing brain. Specific brain structures (amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex) are adversely affected by stress. Executive functions (such as planning, memory, focusing attention, impulse control, and using new information to make decisions) can become impaired. Moreover, children who have had chronic exposure to real or perceived threats may become conditioned to react with fear and anxiety to a broad range of circumstances. Their diminished capacity to differentiate between genuine threats and objectively safe or neutral situations can impair their ability to learn and interact with others, and may lead to serious anxiety disorders. Unfortunately, while fear learning happens early in life, with emotional memories that are powerful and persistent, unlearning fears depends upon brain maturation that happens only later, and requires active work and evidence-based treatment.

Children exposed to violence are more likely than those not experiencing violence to become victims or perpetrators of further violence.

In conclusion exposing children to violence does impair their own understanding of violence in itself. If a child has been taught a violent act and is educated on inflicting violence then what’s to say that child will not then inflict that violence onto another person or animal. We see this form of child abuse as one of the worst simply because the child has been in one way or the other “educated”. They know how to use a rifle, their fear of death and wrongdoings is decreased, empathy and care although still present is somewhat pushed aside. A child not exposed to violence but love will show more compassion and emotion at seeing a dead, injured of suffering being than that of a child exposed and educated of violence acts. The video below depicts how Green Mile Safari had their hunting licences revoked after many breaches of hunting activities. Children hunting, running over dead animals in cars, hunting animals from a moving vehicle and more. Believe it or not there are many more cases such as these on South African farms from which many tourists and their families visit.

Thank you for reading. To stay up to date on African wildlife affairs please visit our Facebook page here.

You can also sign petitions below.




Chinese Beggar Gang Severe Camel’s Legs

Camel 5  3

Amputating limbs on small children is no longer attracting attention so Chinese beggar bosses have begun mutilating animals as a new gimmick to make sure their beggars bring home plenty of cash.

 Some camels have the lower part of all four legs forcibly amputated, leaving them unable to even stand. Most have had their four hooves brutally severed from their feet.

Camel 12

Camel has all four of it’s lower legs amputated. See the beggars also laying on the safer part of the road, with a chain attached to the mutilated camel. Note the appalling condition of the poor camel.

The latest appalling craze is to amputate body parts from live camels, deliberately mutilating them so they can use the crippled camels to force people to donate to their beggars, out of sympathy.

Notice the broken front leg.

Notice the broken front leg.

Some beggars have their camel laying prostrate on the road, taking up a lane of traffic! The poor camel, which cannot even stand, must be in horrific pain laying on the remainder of it’s legs, all day and night.  As the camel dies, it is replaced with another one, equally as mutilated as the previous one.

It is reported that when people don’t donate money, or even as much money as the beggar wants, beggars will beat the severely injured camels mercilessly. Chinese beggars are now extortionists who use emotional blackmail to extract cash money from people, by inflicting gross animal cruelty on the spot, thereby guilting people into giving them money.

Camel 10

Notice the front leg amputation.

Wild Camel Critically Endangered

The wild camel is the eighth most endangered large mammal on the planet. It is critically endangered.

There are approximately 600 in the Gobi desert in north-west China and 800 in the desert in Mongolia.

Healthy wild camel in it's natural environment.

Healthy wild camel in it’s natural environment.

Camels are migratory and they are diurnal, sleeping at night in open spaces and foraging for food during the day. Shrubs and grass form the bulk of the diet, with the animals being well adapted to feed on thorns, dry vegetation and salty plants, which other herbivores avoid.

Excess fat is stored in the humps and used as a reserve when food is scarce. AUTHOR NOTE: notice the state of the humps on the beggar’s camels. 

The wild camel (Camelus ferus),  was listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 2002 as critically endangered.

Healthy wild camel mother and calf.

Healthy wild camel mother and calf.

Many believe that the wild camel can yield up secrets, which will be of great benefit to man. Read more: Wild Camel Protection Foundation.

Beggars use all types of camels. Some authorities, notably the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), use the binomial name Camelus ferus for the wild Bactrian camel and reserve Camelus bactrianus for the domesticated Bactrian camel. Their name comes from the ancient historical region of Bactria.

Beggar Camels

Camels are suffering horrific mutilations with forced amputations such as cutting the animal’s front and  hind legs off below the knees, leaving them with stumps so they cannot walk or even stand. At this stage it is unknown how beggar gangs move the stricken camels from one location to another, sometimes great distances, but they do it somehow – which would be expensive and take money to do. Beggar gangs use camels along roadsides or in shopping areas so that both the camel and beggars can block walkways or shop entrances until their paid money to move.

Some beggars are in need of help, but some are professional beggars, who can earn more than a white collar worker in a month. In Guangzhou, professional beggars can earn in excess of RMB 1,000 per day – which is in excess of US163.00 per day. Beggar gang bosses take most of the money.

Camel 4  3

All four lower legs have been amputated on this camel.

 A week ago two men were seen with a mutilated camel, panhandling alongside a sidewalk near Daping road in Fuzhou, Fujian province, according to ECNS. Local residents said “The injured camel is a cruel ploy to create sympathy among passersby.”
Police arrived at the spot soon after receiving reports from local residents who were concerned about the animal. Crouching down on all fours, the camel had no hooves and the wounds on its legs appeared to have been inflicted on purpose.The two beggars refused to respond to police, who said they will continue investigating.
Camel 3
 A pair of beggars can reportedly make hundreds of yuan in just two or three hours.

In Fuzhou, the camel found by the roadside was taken to a zoo to be looked after, but several days later the owner claimed it back.

Reports said beggars were escaping punishment because it was difficult to find hard evidence they were responsible for the camels’ injuries.

Camels 1
Beggars in Foshan have been photographed in Guangdong, prostrating on the street alongside their severely mutilated camel. A nearby shopkeeper told reporters “Camels eat at least 20 buns, revenue within two begging twenty-three hours there a few hundred (US)dollars.”
The camels attract a lot of attention and passers-by stop and take their photograph and leave them money, which encourages them to keep mutilating more animals.
Along Jiefang Road, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, a disheveled man with a camel went begging from door to door,  shop to shop, along the road. If shop owners would not give him money he would kneel in the doorway of their shop, with his camel blocking the entrance/exit,  until they paid him
Another problem for shop owners is that camels keep relieving them-self along the walkways in-front of the shop entrances, which is also off-putting for customers to have walk through camel urine or camel manure.
Camels are supposed to be a first class protected species in China. Chinese web users are asking how such a big animal as the camel – with severed limbs and unable to walk – can be transported to city streets and up and down the country without questions being asked?
Chinese citizen’s responses to the photographs have unanimously been of disgust and outrage, both at the beggars and at the government for so blatantly failing to protect the supposedly protected animal.
Beggar and his ca,el deliberately blocking the shop entrance/exit of a fast-food restaurant.

Beggar and his ca,el deliberately blocking the shop entrance/exit of a fast-food restaurant.

 Guangzhou is a hub for international tourists, flying in and out of China, but in Guangzhou a story in a local newspaper reported that as people walked past the entrance of Huimin Primary School, located at 182 Zhongshan Road, they were confronted with the unusual site of a camel. Fastened to a nearby lamppost, the camel was accompanied by a homeless man begging for money.
According to the man’s sign, he suffers from epilepsy, a brain tumour and needs money to care for his crippled mother. Speaking to a local hawker, the reporter was told that the man often makes an excess of RMB 1,000 per day.Beggar and shop keeper seeing who can last the longest before one of them gives in.

Beggar and shop keeper seeing who can last the longest before one of them gives in.

 Some passersby noted that they encountered the man a few days before in Baiyun District. Apparently, the man has a habit of striking the camel when no one will give him money; but it remains unclear whether this strategy is successful in obtaining donations.There’s no word on where the man keeps his camel or how exactly the poor beast found its way to downtown Guangzhou (YED.)
Local news sources say they have thousands of backed statements saying that “giving money only encourages this shameless behaviour,” “these pieces of garbage don’t deserve a shred of sympathy” and they should “cut off these people’s legs, too.”
In Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, the most prosperous Jiefang, two disheveled beggars brought the one camel, kneeling on the sidewalk road begging passers-by to throw them sympathy money. Some passersby bought noodles for them to eat; the two children do not speak, just keep kowtow.
Camel 11

Passerby gave the beggars noodles to eat rather than paying them cash.

The disgusting camel mutilation has been done simply so the beggar gang bosses, who are the owners of the helpless camels, can play on people’s emotions and demand more donations. This is not an isolated incident.

Child Beggars

It has been documented for some time that a number of Chinese children are deliberately mutilated by beggar gang bosses to allow them to get more pity on them from the public and the media, as they beg.
People used to donate to pathetic looking battered and bruised children, especially if they had limbs missing. Then people became accustomed to the sight of mutilated children and found it easier to turn away – which meant they were not donating.
Beggar gang bosses had to get inventive to get the money rolling back in and along the way one of them  thought up mutilating camels, as an emotional ploy. Reports of mutilated camels have been filtering in since April, this year. More and more camels are appearing on the Chinese beggar circuit.
 Behind many beggars is a story of cruelty, which has been inflicted upon them by others and/or they too are inflicting further cruelty upon others, including mutilating animals just to get their hands on your money.
While it is true that some beggars suffer a terrible existence; especially those with horrific amputations or disfigurements, it is equally true that not all beggars are in desperate need.
An example of this was recorded in China when a journalists followed a group of beggars and filmed them eating in five star restaurants and shopping at department stores.
The moral of this is to be aware and take a closer look at what is really going on in-front of you. There are genuine cases where people genuinely need help, but their are also plenty of scams.
Another form of begging in Shanghai, China is the mobile phone scam. If you travel, you might find the following video interesting, about being scammed by a pretty girl who appears to need help.

In Conclusion:

The wild camel is the eighth most endangered large mammal on the planet and critically endangered. It is supposed to be strictly protected by the Chinese government, however it doesn’t take long to find these wretched animals being used as mutilated beggars on busy streets, where they are constantly brutalised at the hands of cruel captors.

If you see a camel beggar do NOT give them money as this only encourages them to keep mutilating innocent animals who are unable to defend themselves, forcing them to live a life of misery and pain until their slow death eventually arrives, where they are left abandoned to die alone and forgotten.

To help critically endangered wild camels, please read more at the Wild Camel Protection Foundation.

Thank you for reading,

Michele Brown.

Related article on this website: China: Beating People’s Pet Dogs To Death

Restriction of Lion and Rhinoceros trophy imports into the the European Union.



President José Manuel Barroso
European Commission
Berlaymont, Rue de la Loi, 200
1049 Bruxelles

Date: 17th October 2014 

Re: European Legislation on Restriction of Lion and Rhinoceros trophy imports into the the European Union. 

Brief summary; 

We “International Animal Rescue Foundation” call for European Legislation to restrict the importation of sport hunted Lion and Rhino trophies (only) from “any country” into all European Countries within the European Union. We the named herein only support imports of Lion and Rhino parts or carcasses for veterinary science and museum artifacts for educative purposes only. 

Dear President José Manuel Barroso; 

Your Honorable José Manuel Barroso We International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa ask for your support to implement law[s] to restrict the import/export of Lion and Rhino sport hunted trophies into the European Union from (any country or continent). As set out under the European Union Legislation / Environmentalism and Preservation procedure stated hereto; http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1413671152558&uri=URISERV:l11023 it is the European Union and Commissions responsibility to protect the biodiversity and natural habitats of both Fauna and Flora. As we see it (now) the European Union/Commission and Parliament is failing within its duties under Protocol one of the Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade either live or dead of Lion and Rhino trophies and/or parts.

We International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa call on the European Commission to now regulate trade of both sport “hunted” Lions and Rhinos under the Act of Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade for the reasons as set out herein for your information. 

Restrictions on sport hunted Lions and parts under Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating/restricting trade; 

  1. Since the early 1980’s we have lost countless individual Lions and Rhinos to sport hunters and poachers within Africa. While sport hunting may not be seen as a overall major threat to both species of Lion and Rhino it is having a detrimental effect on the now shrinking populations of Lions in Africa. And with regards to “poaching” of Rhinos something now has to give. The Rhino cannot any longer compete with the vast number of poaching incidents occurring daily of which has placed the Rhino now at tipping point. All in all your excellency should the candle continue to burn at both ends we will lose both ionic species of mammalian in under two decades. Poaching is raging out of control within Africa threatening many species alike. With South Africa being the largest country hit by poachers and visited by thousands of European and American tourist hunters a year, time must now come that we as a European Union must take evasive action to slow down and/or halt (extinction). The reasons are set out below for your information.
  2. A century ago there were some 200,000 Lions roaming all over the African continent. Now there are no fewer than a mere 30,000 if that with the lowest estimated figure pointing to a possible 15,000. Within the Lions existing ranges there are no more than 1,000 Lions within each of its African habituated countries of which there are more Lions within canned hunting farms and ranches than in some wild populated areas. Those Lions within canned hunting farms and ranches pose a disease and genetic risk to other species of fauna and wild Lion populations that live around these facilities.
  3. Over the last ten years a staggering two thirds of all Lions hunted for sport were imported from Africa into the United States of America Between 2000 and 2008, some 4,250 wild lions were exported as trophies most of which into the European Union although America was the largest importer and still is to date.
  4. African Lions have vanished from a whopping 80% of their range of which hunting, habitat fragmentation, human species conflict and unsustainable agriculture are primary causes for Lion depletion.
  5. Lions have become extinct in 26 countries. Only seven countries – Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe – are believed to contain more than 1,000 lions each. Panthera leo is bordering endangerment. Should restrictions not be implemented and or bans put in place then it is a sad fact of life we will lose a further 1/4 of all mature individuals thus seeing more Lions pushed from extant into “regional” extinction.
  6. Although the single biggest threat by far to the animals survival is humans, though not necessarily western hunters. It is just the very, very widespread killing of Lions, mostly in a conflict situation, by anyone who is trying to farm livestock in Africa and finds it very difficult to co-exist with Lions. Hunting of Lions though is still playing a great role in reducing further species of which is seeing many Lions wild and captured depleted. Furthermore the black market trade in Lion bone wine threatens our Lion species greatly. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has already this year seen further evidence of European’s involved within the black market trade of Lion bones generating hundreds of thousands “in all”.. While this evidence is within the public domain and has been for some years why are we still not taking the relevant steps to secure the species future?
  7. Between 1999 and 2008, 64% of the 5,663 Lions that were killed in the African wild for sport ended up being shipped to America, it must also be noted numbers had risen sharply in those 10 years, with more than twice as many Lions taken as trophies by US hunters in 2008 than in 1999. Should US hunters continue their rampage followed up with EU hunters least forgetting habitat destruction then its quite likely we’ll begin to see more loclised (regional extinctions) within the next five years. In addition to personal trophies, Americans are also the world’s biggest buyers of Lion carcasses and body parts, including claws, skulls, bones and penises, Asians the second largest and Europeans the third largest buyer. In the same years, the US imported 63% of the 2,715 Lion specimens put up for sale. While the United States, Asia and Europe hunters buy and sell the demand for Lion parts continues thus seeing the species threatened furthermore.
  8. From 1996 – 2008 species populations of Panthera leo has not increased but decreased furthermore seeing few localised extinctions. The African Lion is still listed as vulnerable on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species. Listed as Endangered is the next step – then we will most certainly see the Lion species in danger furthermore.
  9. Demand from the Far East is also driving profits for Lions breeders. In 2001, two Lions were exported as “trophies” to China, Laos and Vietnam; in 2011, 70 Lion trophies were exported to those nations. While the trade in Tiger parts is now illegal, demand for Lion parts for traditional Asian medicine is soaring. In 2009, five Lion skeletons were exported from South Africa to Laos; in 2011, it was 496. The legal export of Lion bones and whole carcasses has also soared. While Tiger populations decrease so will Lions too.
  10. Lastly Eastern European countries such as Russia not aligned with the Cites convention nor the “European Union” are actively selling Lion skins into the market to produce rugs, upholstery, and furniture. This is a threat in its own and with all factors above combined with the trade in Eastern Europe we must now protect our Lion populations more than ever.

Restrictions on sport hunted Rhinoceros and parts under Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating/restricting trade;

  1. In the early 1950s, when Mao Zedong promoted so-called traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a tool for unifying the country he had recently come to lead. Even though Chairman Mao himself did not believe in TCM, he called for its use over Western medicine. Among the many “cures” touted by China’s “New Medicine” was powdered Rhino horn, which was said to cure everything from fevers to cancer. Since Mao made this public Rhinos have been decimated at staggering proportions mostly by poachers. However now as the demand the Rhino horn has increased rapidly within Asia of which the horn can fetch on the market between $50,000 and $70,000kg hunters have been caught in many stings peddling Rhino horns from their “legally” obtained trophies to supply the (TCM) market. Since the year 2000 we have lost over 3,000 Rhinos just in South Africa alone.
  2. Between 1960 and 1995 an astonishing 98 percent of black Rhinos were killed by poachers, either to feed the new and voracious demand for TCM or, to a lesser extent, for horns to be used as ceremonial knife handles in the Middle East. From 2000 onwards both White and Black Rhino populations are now being hit hard by poachers, every day we lose a further 3-4 Rhinos in South Africa alone custodian to the worlds largest remaining Rhino crashes. Evidence. All rhinos suffered; the western black Rhino, already weakened by decades of overhunting, was the hardest hit. The white Rhino is now at “tipping point”.
  3. Back in 2012 the Department of Environmental Affairs (South Africa) banned Vietnamese hunting permits due to the popularity of pseudo hunting and the then past arrests of the Gronwald poaching gang and Chumlong Lemtongthai whom hired pseudo (hunters) from Thailand and possibly other fake hunters from Vietnam. Although banned – Vietnamese hunters this hasn’t stopped foreign citizens from joining in the hunting/poaching trend. It was stated by Hon Edna Molewa and Cites that Eastern European hunting applications had shot up from 2012 by some 1000% of which its now known that Polish, Russian and Czech Republic hunters are mostly pseudo hunters cashing in on the Rhino horn demand thus supplying the Asian market in Vietnam, Laos and China with Rhino horn. Whilst this is clearly evident and “legitimate” hunting practices still ongoing this is placing more pressure on the Rhino species decreasing their populations even more of which this “fake and legitimate hunting” plus poaching has led to the Rhino populations decreasing furthermore.
  4. Trophy hunting does not rake in revenue – A study on the economic benefit behind Lion hunting for example in Africa concluded, “The suggestion that trophy hunting plays a significant role in African economic development is misguided…Revenues constitute only a fraction of a percent of GDP and almost none of that ever reaches rural communities.” Dr. Naomi Rose agrees as stated on the HSUS blog, “Regarding the statement that trophy hunters do a lot for conservation, it’s true that some portion of some hunters’ fees goes to conservation in some countries, but it’s rarely the major source of conservation funding. Usually middlemen—commercial outfitters—take the lion’s share of sport hunting proceeds and local communities and conservation and management agencies get the dregs.” And its quite evident that trophy hunting is not generating revenue – if it was then why is this “alleged $200 million” not seen poaching tackled. It would be quite fare to say that $200 million x 4 years = $800 million is quite enough to sustain species welfare. Yet it hasn’t which is why we call for an immediate ban of LION and RHINO trophies into Europe.
  5. White Rhino is currently listed on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List as (near threatened) Whilst we are aware that evidence has shown an “increase” of White Rhino populations poaching from either African “poachers” legal hunters and others caught (illegally poaching) has since pushed the species of White and Black Rhino to tipping point. Both Rhino species are normally gestate no longer than 15-16 months. One Rhino cow regardless of the species produces a new born every two to three years. However we are losing species of both Black and White Rhino at 3-4 every day. International Union for the Conservation of Nature has placed the number of White Rhinoceros populations at 20,160 (2010). Since 1990 and including the recent poaching figures for (October 2014) we have lost a total of 3,803 Rhinoceros. Most of these deaths have occurred in South Africa that holds a total of 93.2% of the worlds largest Rhino populations. 3,803 is not including “collateral damage” such as unborn fetus nor natural deaths. If we took unborn fetes and natural deaths into account with that of the 1990-2014 poaching figures its quite likely that the current population trend of White and Black Rhinos is nowhere near the 2010 figures of 20,160. As of 2012 International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa communicated to Hon Edna Molewa. In writing Molewa basically quoted from the IUCN the population of Rhino has increased “ten fold” mostly helped by hunters. Yet there is no evidence of such increases by even a “five fold” and if such hunting practices had increased the White and Black Rhino population then why is the Rhino populations within Africa now “threatened and still endangered” of which are standing at “tipping point”? The answer is quite simple. Our “wild Rhino” populations are decreasing rapidly. What Hon Edna Molewa most likely meant was that Rhino populations had increased ten fold on “hunting reserves” while the remainder of the wild populations the government nor Non-Profits know little about. No official census of the wild populations have been seen since the early millennium either. This gives us reason to now ask that all Rhino trophies and parts acquired via trophy hunting are banned from export/import into Europe unless for scientific and/or museum purposes. Why did Molewe not answer International Animal Rescue Foundation’s questions in full? Rather than simply copy and paste a number from the IUCN website? We believe this is because the South African government know little about their own populations of Rhino and what the real figure of wild populations of both black and white stand at. Moving back to the Census – A group of Rhino Activists did lobby the South African government (early 2012) asking for census within their (9 point plan) to be conducted supported by over 29,000 people.
  6. Rhinos still under threat no matter what the South African Government try to do to stem the poaching crisis – 2012 Vietnamese hunting permits were banned due to pseudo hunting. Department of Environmental Affairs believed this would someway “reduce the poaching crisis”. October 2014 though saw yet another Rhino poaching kingpin and accomplices being vets, pilots, even “HAWKS” police, arrested along with the leader himself Hugo Ras a South African hunter and attorney. Ras was known the police with regards to “poaching crimes”. The group is alleged to have contributed to the brutal slaughter and mutilation of 24 Rhinos in state and privately owned game reserves, resulting in 48 horns poached. Only two of the 24 Rhinos that had been attacked, survived, but they were de-horned after they had been darted. Twenty two of the Rhinos were darted with the veterinary drug M99, the other two were shot. An additional 36 horns were either stolen or obtained through other illegal means. The killings took place between 2008 and 2012, during which period the syndicate illegally obtained 84 Rhino horns and killed 22 Rhinos valued at nearly R22 million. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and International Animal Rescue Foundation Europe call for an immediate ban of all Rhino parts and trophies into Europe because there is more than likely more Rhino poaching syndicates operating of which Europe is being used as a transit route to peddle legally Rhino “trophies” through onto Asia. By cutting one of the main transit routes out we help to disrupt trade and demand furthermore.
  7. The rate of Rhino deaths has surpassed the rate of births. Rhino poaching has accelerated to a dangerous level. With deaths outweighing births, it puts their species just a few short years away from extinction. 1990 = 14 deaths, 1994 = 27 deaths, 2002 = 25 deaths, 2006 = 36 deaths, 2008 = 83 deaths, 2009 = 122 deaths, 2010 = 333 deaths, 2011 = 448 deaths, 2012 = 668 deaths, 2013 = 1004 deaths and to date October 2014 we stand almost at 900 deaths. While the majority of these deaths have been caused by African poachers killing Rhino to supply the Asian black market hunters, game wardens, farmers, veterinary officers and more are also contributing to deaths that we are still fully unaware of. While SAPS and HAWKS are flushing out corrupt hunters, wardens and vets poaching and corrupt hunting continues. What seems legitimate trophies being exported out off Africa in Europe could well be more sinister. Hence the reasons we call for a trophy hunting ban of Rhino into Europe from Africa based on the level of illegal poaching and that of pseudo poaching that has already been shown to be supplying the black market within Asia.

Since publishing our main petition aimed at Hon Gianni Pittella EPP, Hon Manfred Weber S&D, Hon Martin Schulz President of the European Parliament, Hon Herman Van Rompuy President of the European Council, Hon Jean Lambert MEP and Hon Keith Taylor MEP including yourself your Excellency we have amassed a total count nearing nine hundred signatures that call for a restriction of sport hunted Rhinos and Lions into all European member countries. Australia has already banned the importation/exportation of sport hunted Rhinoceros with a further ban expected of sport hunted Lions.

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa lobbied with many other Non-Profits the United States too as of last year that has since prompted Director Daniel Ashe United States Fish and Wildlife Service to now look into banning/restricting sport hunted Lion trophies into the USA. Australia and the United States are taking leading steps here and setting positive and professional examples. However as yet Europe is still dragging its heals. While we continue to drag our heals both Lions and Rhinoceros continue to edge closer and closer to extinction. The time for the healing of the wounds has come your excellency.

Sincerely yours 

Board of Directors 

Josa C. Depre 

Jon E. Williamson 

Helen S. Farthing 

Rosalyn Simon

J. C. Dimetri

Muhammad A. Muller

Sonya T. Franklin

Johan N. Strauss   


Please sign the petition here


The Emu: A Gentle Bird Cruelly Farmed For Body Parts



The Emu is an Australian native bird which is huge in size and personality and can run at 40 m.p.h. Their naturally inquisitive and down right “sticky beaks” who don’t take no for an answer, especially if treats are involved. In 1929 Emu’s survived government machine-gun eradication but are now farmed in India for body parts or abandoned to starve.

Emu baby 1

The Emu’s comical appearance is copied by artists who manage to capture their cute side. Emu skin is used for high end fashion shoes and handbags. Artisans treasure the large Emu eggs to paint and decorate.

Emus Also Like To Dance: (turn the volume up)

EMU dancing

Comedian Ross Noble Describes Emus As “A Bush With A Face”

Emu Fast Facts

Emus are gentle, friendly birds with a strong family life.
The father plays an active role in nest-building and in the 8 week incubation and rearing of the chicks.
They can run up to 40 miles an hour, covering 9 feet in a single stride.
Long, powerful legs and camel-like feet adapted for speed.
Excellent periscopic vision enable them to survey the land for miles in all directions at once.
Emus grow to be 2 metres tall (around 6 foot.)
Weigh around 150 pounds.
Can live up to 60 years old.

emu running

If they appear awkward in captivity, it is because these fleet birds are meant for wide open spaces, where their grace and intelligence can be exercised. They are nomads, designed to roam over vast tracks of land.

They belong to the oldest living family of birds on earth, the ratites or flightless fowl. They range widely into Australia’s interior thriving on shoots, seeds, fruits and insects. When food is abundant they store a thick layer of fat beneath the skin as a reserve for hard times.


Both parents help the chicks to hatch by pecking at the shell after 6 weeks of incubation. The family stays together for 10 months or more as the young birds learn to fend for themselves. The normally peaceful emu will kick ferociously with their legs and bite with their beaks to protect eggs and young from enemies (Wildlife Protection Council.)

Emu Hatching From It’s Egg

Watch with amazement as a young Emu is hatched:

 Emu Migration

“The southward movement of tens of thousands of emus in certain seasons is one of Australia’s greatest examples of wildlife migration. Their routes are influenced by climate. As they can find more food in humid regions the birds wander always to places were rain was falling down recently. It’s not yet clear how Emus orientate themselves and can detect rain from several hundred kilometers away.

Researchers believe this is a combination of sighting distant rain cloud formations, smelling rain, and hearing the far-off sound of thunder from distances the human ear cannot. Major Emu migrations occur one year in seven.

Emus migrating along the "dingo fence."

Emus migrating along the “dingo fence.”

Plans to extend Western Australia’s ‘rabbit-proof-fence’ [aka Dingo Fence], have been described as cruel and clumsy by environmental groups, who say native wildlife will be the victim.

The dingo fence is now being used to minimise Emu impact on cropping area. But major environmental groups say that vulnerable native species are caught in the fence and meet painful deaths. The Wilderness Society, Gondwana Link and Pew Environment Group say that migrating emus have a history of massing in their thousands along the fence, and then dying of starvation or having to be shot.



Extending the barrier fence is a major disruption to ecosystems. Dingo expert Dr Euan Ritchie, from Deakin University in Melbourne, argues that excluding predators such as dingoes can be counterproductive, leading to more kangaroos and rabbits where those predators are absent.

Environmental studies will ensure that all wildlife impacts are taken into account before a final alignment of the route for the new fence is made in the near future.

Cute Craft Emus

Cute crotched Emu chicks. Click the here for more assorted crotched Emus by Crochetroo.

Cute craft Emus

Cute craft Emus

Emu Egg Clock. Martha Stewart endorses Emu Egg artwork.

Emu Egg Clock. Martha Stewart endorses Emu Egg artwork.

Do Emus Make Good Pets?

No, Emus do ‘not’ make good pets. Sussex Family man Iain Newby raised his pet Emu “Beaky” from a shell-hatchling. Beaky is now over six foot tall and pecks and breaks everything in the house. She eats 14lb of corn a week and about five pounds of her favourite fruit and vegetables, particularly broccoli, peas and cauliflower.

‘She’s just like a dustbin and will literally eat anything the children toss in her mouth. In fact she’ll eat just about anything if allowed to – keys, drill bits, sponges.’

Hand reared Emu "Beaky."

Hand reared Emu “Beaky.”

But Beaky has now been banished to a summerhouse in the garden because she is too messy and troublesome to be allowed the run of the family home anymore. One of her more annoying habits was a tendency to peck and break household items. Mr and Mrs Newby also run a Dangerous Wild Animal Rescue Facility on the site.

Mr Newby said he ‘would NOT recommend’ raising an emu to the average family. ‘They live 60 years, grow up very strong and not all of them are as friendly as our special Beaky,’ he added. Beaky has an 80 metre pen to stretch her legs in.

Typical Emu fencing needed for pet Emus.

Typical Emu fencing needed for pet Emus.

Pet Emus Are Very Expensive To Keep

Do Emus belong on a farm or in your backyard?

When it comes to pets, emus are a classic example of bigger is NOT better. They have powerful jaw muscles, which make their peck pretty excruciating on your skin, and they also have sharp claws which can hurt people badly. Keeping emus as pets can be expensive in many respects: shelter, food, veterinary needs, time commitment, etc.

Emus will not survive in a small enclosure let alone kept inside a barn or roost all year round. They need wide open space to run, kick, sun bathe, and wallow in the dust. Although the emus are flightless, they can jump over a fence that’s shorter than 7 feet. And the fence should be nothing less than ordinary wood because a single kick from the emu is enough to send a wood plank flying over few meters.


Emus need a roof over their head and walls to protect them during cold season. A pair of emus can be sheltered in 16 feet by 16 feet housing with roof high enough for good ventilation and walls that are good to protect the birds from wind chills. There should be hay or straw to provide cushion and bedding for the emus.

Emus make a pile of mess which should be cleaned every day to keep their shelter from smelling bad. You can’t skip a day without cleaning the shelter if you want clean, healthy emus.

Emus need specialized ratite feeds you can buy from farm supply stores or order online. If you live far from emu or ostrich farms, chances are you can only get ratite feeds by ordering them online. An adult emu can consume 1-2 pounds of ratite feeds a day, so it can be expensive.

Emus love water!

Emus on an Australian beach – they love water!

For variety and balanced diet, you also need to feed emus with feeder insects, small invertebrates, seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables, etc. Emus even eat macaroni salad, old bread, potato salad, and egg dishes. Besides these alternative foods, you must always keep clean water available to the birds (CHP.)

If you’re planning to keep emus as pets, it’s always recommended to get them as yearlings. Bottom line: do your research BEFORE deciding just by looking at them online. Research, research, research! 

A VERY INFORMATIVE SITE FOR INFORMATION ON PET EMUS is BackyardChickens.com. They have ongoing forums to answer Emu owner’s questions. Many of the questions have serious consequences.

Idiotic Cruel Behaviour Against Tame Bird

Sadly, there is always an element of people who can only think of their own wants and needs and find their own cruel acts against animals to be funny. Riding on the back of a juvenile Emu is NOT funny! This idiot person could easily have broken the birds back. If you see behaviour like this, please report it to authorities immediately.

Behaviour like this should be reported to authorities immediately.

Behaviour like this should be reported to authorities immediately.

Commercial Emu Farming

The centre toes of emus are amputated (often without anaesthesia) because their nails can easily cause fatal injuries when they attack in self defence – they have known to rip open humans. Subjecting emus with their long thin necks and legs, and large fragile eyes, to transport is cruel and inhumane.

Emu feet - Indian Emu farms usually amputate the centre toe, without anesthetic.

Emu feet – Indian Emu farms usually amputate the centre toe, without anesthetic.

Feather Removal

Pulling feathers from the body of a living bird is cruel and painful. A feather is firmly held in a follicle, the wall of which is richly supplied with sensory fibres and nerves. Even clipping the feathers above the nerve endings pulls on the sensitive skin and muscle tissue to which the feathers are attached. Removing a feather from a bird requires a hard steady pull. Feather removal is a barbaric act.
It takes about five minutes for a blindfolded and cruelly restrained bird to be plucked. The bird is released into a holding pen, joining a growing number of others, all plucked, covered in bumps where the feathers were ripped out, streaming blood and waiting…




Slaughter bound birds and mammals are typically starved for hours and even days before they are killed. Hauled in all kinds of weather, they are forced to endure truck vibrations, heat, stress, cold, damp, thirst and terror. They are then shot with a captive bolt, like cattle or, like poultry, they are electrically shocked (not stunned) and then hung upside down to have their throats cut, being kept alive when their blood drains. They are slaughtered at 12-15 months of age

Commercial Uses For Emu Body Parts

Shoes made out of Emu leather.

Shoes made out of Emu leather.

Emu feathers are cheaper than those of ostrich and used in the fashion, art and craft industries, such as for making of feather dusters, pads, fans, boas, apparel, accessories, masks and for finishing metals prior to painting. The feathers are some times dyed and the plain looking natural ones are used as fillings for pillows and mattresses. General Motors uses the feathers to polish the wheels of Cadillac cars.

Emu leg skin is made into inserts for pockets, watch-straps and belts. Toe nails are used in jewellery settings and worn as lucky charms and trinkets.

Emu leg skin leather.

Emu leg skin leather.

Emu Oil – Cosmetic Or Cruel?

Emus have a thick fat padding on their backs; this camel-like adaptation helps them to survive periods of famine in the wild. Emu oil manufacturers extract the unrefined product from this concentrated source of natural oil. While some manufacturers discard the remaining portion of the emu’s body, others market emu leather and meat as a novelty item or health food. By-products like feet, nerve tissue and feathers may be discarded, incinerated or sold to pet food manufacturers.

Emu Oil.

Emu Oil.

Manufacturers refine emu oil using a combination of mechanical, chemical and thermal techniques. Heat and refrigeration can help to isolate the most saturated portions of emu oil, and mechanical filters can eliminate impurities and inorganic contaminants. Some companies may also use lipophilic compounds or enzymes to isolate the fatty acids found in emu oil. Most forms of emu oil have an unpleasant odor, so emu oil manufacturers may add artificial fragrances to improve the product’s commercial appeal.

Emu Farms In India – Emus Cruelly Treated and Left To Starve To Death

India’s Emu population peaked at about two million Emus in 2012, where their bred to be killed for meat and oil. Emu farming has been rife with monetary scams and the sufferers have been the emus. The farms were marketed as the perfect money making solutions but by 2013 Emu farming was no longer a favoured “get rich quick” scheme.

There were no takers for the birds – live or dead – or their eggs as thousands of birds continued to be abandoned in different parts of the country. Farmers with as little as 10,000 sq feet to spare were being wooed because the area could accommodate 70 to 100 birds.



It was also reported the country’s first Emu processing unit called Vileena Emu Processing Pvt Ltd would begin slaughtering in April 2012. Spread over 22 acres, the unit’s processing capacity is 300 birds per day.  In August 2012, there was a total collapse of the majority of emu farms in Tamil Nadu. People were getting duped, were unable to repay loans and had gone underground after abandoning the birds.

It is estimated there are about 10,000 unwanted birds. Trying to sell them off on false promises of high returns has backfired time and again. The hype is no longer working and there are no more takers for eggs or emus. It later came to light that most districts have no municipal abattoirs (mandatory place for animal slaughter) so the killing of emus on farms in these areas turns out to be illegal.

Kalpataru Emu Management & Products has claimed to be the sole supplier of emu products in India. The main income is said to be derived from selling EMU OIL (15 litres from one killed bird but according to an officer of the Maharashtra State Animal Husbandry NO ONE KNOWS HOW TO EXTRACT IT!)

Emu mother and chick.

Emu mother and chick.

96% of the emu carcass is sold including feathers, bones, skin, nails, and egg-shells. Emu meat is not as popular as projected. The Emu situation in India was closely resembling the Ponzi rackets of the past,  of “tripling your money in five years.”

As soon as the investment fraud came to light, in August 2012, most Emu promoters abandoned thousands of birds and went underground. The birds began dying of starvation – surprisingly a district collector came to the rescue of Erode’s 8,000 abandoned emus by commissioning food supplies for them.

The financial contagion fast spilled over to neighbouring districts with 40,000 birds involved. The Animal Husbandry Department and the Namakkal Veterinary College were asked to look after emu chicks for three months after which they should be sold.



Meat of these emus suddenly begun showing up in city restaurants across India even though most chefs complained that the more it is cooked the more it toughens and the only way they can easily serve it is minced. Some animal welfare persons suggested that the abandoned emus be euthanised, but that was not approved.

The fraudulent industry intensified in the North with the birds being moved to other states. In Punjab as many as 1,500,000 birds were sold in six months. In Uttarkhand farms began materialising daily. No license for slaughtering them was given anywhere which made slaughter illegal.

The following video is a sales pitch to entice Indians to buy into Emu farming:

March 2014 the Government of India empowered the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) to take action against such get-rich-quick fraudulent Ponzi schemes that promise unreasonable high returns. BWC immediately appraised the Chairman, SEBI that 80% of Emu farms  had closed and thousands of emus had been abandoned. We requested that SEBI take appropriate and swift action against all emu farms in India.

In 2013 an article published in The Indian Express said that unwanted emus were being abandoned in jungles.
In February 2014, the Times of India reported that in Visakhapatnam (Orissa) 2,000 emus were left to suffer, starve and die by a factory which went bankrupt.

The Great Emu War: Shocking History

In 1932 a shocking attempt at exterminating Emus in Western Australia took place, under the guise of a “nuisance wildlife management operation,” USING MACHINE GUNS! The then Western Australian government employed soldiers armed with machine guns, which the media referred to as the “Emu War.”



After World War 1, large numbers of ex-soldiers from Australia, along with a number of British veterans, took up farming within Western Australia. With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, these farmers were encouraged to increase their wheat crops. Wheat prices continued to fall, and by October 1932 matters desperate.

The difficulties facing farmers were increased when 20,000 emus arrived, following their regular migration after their breeding season. The emus found the cultivated lands were good habitat, and they began to foray into farm territory. The emus ate the crops and left large gaps in fences where rabbits could enter and cause further problems.

Ex-soldiers were sent to meet with the Minister of Defence, Sir George Pearce. Having served in WWI, the soldier-settlers were well aware of the effectiveness of machine guns, and they requested their deployment. Pearce supported the deployment on the grounds that the birds would make good target practice.

Emu and chicks in their natural environment.

Emu and chicks in their natural environment.

The “war” was conducted under the command of Major G.P.W. Meredith of the Seventh Heavy Battery of the Royal Australian Artillery, with Meredith commanding a pair of soldiers armed with two Lewis Automatic Machine Guns and 10,000 rounds of ammunition. Troops were deployed and according to a newspaper account, to collect 100 emu skins so that their feathers could be used to make hats for light horsemen.

The first attempt

2 November some 50 emus were sighted.  As the birds were out of range of the guns, the local settlers attempted to herd the Emus into an ambush, but the birds split into small groups and ran so that they were difficult to target. Later the same day a small flock was encountered, and “perhaps a dozen” birds were killed.

4 November. Meredith established an ambush near a local dam and over 1,000 emus were spotted. This time the gunners waited until the birds were at point blank range before opening fire. The gun jammed after only twelve birds were killed, however, and the remainder scattered before more could be killed.

Emus love swimming.

Emus love swimming.

At one stage Meredith even went so far as to mount one of the guns on a truck: a move that proved to be ineffective, as the truck was both unable to gain on the birds and the ride was so rough that the gunner was unable to fire any shots. By 8 November, six days after the first engagement, 2,500 rounds of ammunition had been fired. The number of birds killed is uncertain: one account claims just 50 birds.

Summarizing the culls, ornithologist Dominic Serventy commented: “The machine-gunners’ dreams of point blank fire into serried masses of Emus were soon dissipated. The Emu command had evidently ordered guerrilla tactics, and its unwieldy army soon split up into innumerable small units that made use of the military equipment uneconomic. A crestfallen field force therefore withdrew from the combat area after about a month. ”

Mother Emu and her chick.

Mother Emu and her chick.

After the withdrawal, Major Meredith compared the emus to Zulus, and commented on the striking maneuverability of the emus, even while badly wounded.

The second attempt

After the withdrawal of the military, the emu attacks on crops continued. Farmers again asked for support. James Mitchell, the Premier of Western Australia lent his strong support to renewal of the military assistance. Minister of Defence approved the military party to resume their efforts.

13 November 1932, the military found a degree of success over the first two days, with approximately 40 emus killed.  2 December the guns were accounting for approximately 100 emus per week. Meredith was recalled on 10 December, and in his report he claimed 986 kills with 9,860 rounds. In addition, Meredith claimed 2,500 wounded birds had died as a result of the injuries that they had sustained.

The Western Australian government installed a bounty system in 1923 and in 1934, in a month period six months  57,034 Emu bounties were claimed. Shocking!

Australian Coat Of Arms: Kangaroo and Emu.

Australian Coat Of Arms: Kangaroo and Emu.

 In Conclusion

Within India, the organisation Beauty Without Cruelty – India is doing all they can to help Emus in India. If you see cruelty toward Emus, or any other animal, please immediately report it to your local authorities. Emus are a majestic, gentle bird who should be treated with respect for the position they hold on the Australian Coat Of Arms.

Thank you for reading,

Michele Brown.


Tree Kangaroos Facing Extinction.



The Tree-kangaroos are a genus of Macropodidae marsupials of the genus Dendrolagus adapted for arboreal locomotion. They inhabit the tropical rainforests of New Guinea, far northeastern Queensland and some of the islands in the region. Most Tree-Kangaroos are considered threatened due to hunting and habitat destruction. The Tree-Kangaroo is the only true arboreal member of the Kangaroo family. Hunting and habitat fragmentation poses the highest risk to all fourteen species of Tree Kangaroo. Lumber companies also pose a danger to these adorable marsupials of which they hunt either for their alleged succulent meat or fur trade which is quite limited.


Tree Kangaroos are one of Australia’s most threatened macropodidae marsupials of the genus dendrolagus. There are some fourteen species of Tree Kangaroo and most are classified as endangered or vulnerable while other species of Tree Kangaroo slowly edging closer to threatened status.

Bennett’s Tree Kangaroo is listed as endangered, Doria’s Tree Kangaroo vulnerable, Goodfellow’s Tree Kangaroo is listed as endangered, Grizzled Tree Kangaroo vulnerable, Lumholtz’s Tree Kangaroo is known as least concern, Huon Tree Kangaroo endangered
Wondiwoi Tree-kangaroo critically endangered, Dingiso  listed as endangered a species of Indonesian native tree kangaroo, Ifola tree-kangaroo endangered native to papa new guinea. The Golden-mantled Tree Kangaroo critically endangered, Scott’s Tree-kangaroo is listed as endangered, Lowlands Tree Kangaroo listed as vulnerable, Seri’s Tree Kangaroo listed as vulnerable and finally the Vogelkop Tree Kangaroo is listed as vulnerable.

Most species of Tree Kangaroo are endemic to Australia while other species are native to Papa New Guinea and Indonesia. Tree Kangaroos in Australia face many threats of which habitat fragmentation is the largest threat known to these quite adorable macropodidae marsupials. Hunting with dogs was said to be no longer an issue with regards to these amazing tree dwelling species of macropods. Tree Kangaroos have adapted to a life in trees so while there habitat becomes less they become threatened by other predators and dogs of which they would normally be able to hide from within the high canopies of trees.

Tree Kangaroos have been hunted for food by indigenous communities across their range for many hundreds of years. For a number of species, this factor alone has contributed to a sharp decline in population numbers. While few species populations of Tree Kangaroo are stable and not declining the majority of others are sadly on the decline. The Wondiwoi tree kangaroo is critically endangered (possibly extinct) there are said t be no fewer than fifty individuals remaining in the wild as we know it.

Two species of Tree Kangaroo are no longer hunted. Scott’s Tree Kangaroo (known locally as the ‘tenkile’) and The Golden-mantled Tree Kangaroo was almost hunted into extinction however the very people that once hunted the species for food now no longer hunt them. Torricelli Mountain Ranges in the north-west of Papua New Guinea did host some fourteen hunting communities. These hunting communities have since now signed a hunting moratorium or a pledge as we know it not to hunt both species.

Conservation Education have achieved major success within the region of Papa New Guinea and instead of hunting Tree Kangaroos into extinction the Conservation Organisation has since established rabbit farms that the locals have implemented into their diets instead of Tree Kangaroos. This form of conservation is known as “sustainable utilization” of natural sources instead of threatened. While rabbits can easily be farmed and bred for food it is helping to preserve the Tenkile and The Golden-mantled Tree Kangaroo. Some people may disagree while many others will agree this is indeed a much safer alternative. Failing this the Tenkile and The Golden-mantled Tree Kangaroo would have gone extinct long ago.

Picture below depicts Tree Kangaroo Hunters.


Unfortunately while some of the Papa New Guinea species of Tree Kangaroo may be safe for now many other species within “Australasia” are not so safe.

Unlike other Kangaroos, Goodfellow’s Tree Kangaroos like to stay in the treetops rather than hopping around on the ground. They choose to live in the treetops to protect themselves from enemies on the ground. The New Guinea Island used to be rich in nature but as it became the major exporter of lumbers and minerals, the forests were destroyed by the human. The more and more safe places to live for Goodfellow’s Tree Kangaroos are now disappearing. Sadly this is a common threat now to many forest dwelling animals that rely on the forests to survive. Humans want for more wood products and paper for example are decreasing habitat of the Tree Kangaroo all over Australasia.

To make the matters worse, roads have been extended to the middle of a forest. It has made Goodfellow’s Tree Kangaroos an easy prey for hunters who go after their meat. They are usually active in the morning and evening but those who live in the area where there are many people have become nocturnal. Once they chose to live in the treetops to protect themselves from the enemies; maybe now they have changed their lifestyle for fear of human, their new enemies.


Matschie’s Tree Kangaroos pictured above are primarily hunted by the natives of Papua New Guinea. They are traditionally hunted by natives with dingos, which sniff the Tree Kangaroos out and grab them from the trees. Doing it this way allows many of them to escape. However, the introduction of guns to the island has placed their future in jeopardy. They are hunted for their succulent meat. Matschie’s Tree Kangaroos are endangered, with only 1400 left in the wild. Breeding programs in zoos worldwide are helping to conserve this species. So all in all those that believe zoos are very bad places must remember that without zoos we cannot breed and preserve some of worlds most endangered species on the planet.

Logging and timber production:

Does felling endanger tree dwelling wildlife such as the Tree Kangaroo and Primates?

logging and timber production have placed the most of the fourteen species of Tree Kangaroo in dire danger. Logging often destroys natural habitats, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and sometimes leading to the local, and possibly global, extinction of species. Although estimates of the rates of loss vary, few deny the reality of the current losses of both flora and fauna. While hunting in some 14 villages in Papa New Guinea may have preserved two species of Tree Kangaroo the logging industry valued at billions of US dollars will never end unless environmental organisations and governments come together to now propagate more sustainable programs that will not harm our already critically endangered fauna. In this case the Tree Kangaroos of Australasia.

Logging companies in Papa New Guinea also have a detrimental affect to human populations thus placing wildlife in danger furthermore. The documentary video below aimed more at “human problems” shows the devastating effect that logging is causing to our critically endangered ecosystem.

According to a joint report by the Worldwide Fund for Nature and the Sarawak Forest Department, “Logging causes immediate forest disturbances, long-term habitat changes (e.g. damage to food trees and salt-licks), increased hunting by timber company workers and availability of logging roads as hunting routes. The destruction of wildlife from habitat loss must be recognized to be on an enormous scale”. In Central Africa, the opening-up of the forest by logging facilitates the illegal hunting of wildlife, including protected species such as primates, and is leading to a decline in wildlife populations. So logging and hunting is not just confined to one area of the globe. Deforestation is a primary concern that places all species of forest and tree dwelling animals in danger.

Even so called selective logging severely affects the complex and rich biodiversity of forests through excessive damage to residual stands, destruction of other plant and tree species and the creaming-off of species which are the most valuable for timber. An FAO study in Malaysia has shown that as much as 50% of the standing forest may be damaged and the surface soil destroyed when up to 30% of the ground surface is exposed. During silvicultural treatment in logging operations in Sarawak, so-called uneconomic forest species are deliberately poisoned. This reduces the complexity and species diversity of the tropical forests to only 10% of the original condition, resulting in the systematic elimination of tree genetic resources and contamination of the environment. According to the IUCN the most frequently recorded of all threats to globally endangered tree species is ‘felling’.

faw logging kayu

While palm oil production within Indonesia, Malaysia and Africa places many species of forest dwelling animals in danger of extinction, coffee, rice and what production are threatening the Tree Kangaroo species quite significantly. However there are ways in which we can help to stop “unsustainable agricultural practices” that are endangering our critically endangered fauna and flora.

Think before you shop:

There are now hundreds of thousands of companies across the globe that are helping the environment by sourcing their own “local” brands of foods. Local sourcing not only helps local communities and increases employment it also helps to reduce unsustainable agricultural practices across the globe thus reducing habitat fragmentation, pollution, indiscriminate hunting and poaching plus cuts green house gas emissions too. Least forgetting when one sources their products locally they help to reduce trade slavery that is rampant within still developing worlds.

International Animal Rescue Foundation, Say No To Dog Meat and Environmental News and Media supports (FAIR TRADE) and (LOCALLY SOURCED) that not only helps local and international farming communities but also our environment. You can find Fair Trade AND Locally Sourced products quite easily now. Just look for the Fair Trade and Locally Sourced logo on many products that you purchase from produce to wine and much more. If you are unsure please ask your hyper-market store manager.

Locally Sourced is a great initiative that helps many species of animals. We ourselves would rather purchase coffee, wheat and rice that has been grown within our own countries instead of habitats that are destroying many species of flora and fauna. Think about it. Greener and safer is always the best option.

Kill your Speed not our Wildlife:


With large scale deforestation rampant in Australia, Indonesia and Papa New Guinea this has led to many Tree Kangaroos becoming a cropper hit by cars or large road trains they face little chance of survival or recovery. Lumholtz’s Tree Kangaroos here on the Atherton Tableland, live in highly fragmented patches of rainforest and are frequently hit by cars or attacked by domestic dogs.

Lumholtz’s Tree Kangaroo and Bennett’s Tree Kangaroo are the only two species of Tree Kangaroo that are native to Australia. Deforestation and agricultural practices has led to roads opening up of which has seen many of them sadly killed. Research suggests Lumholtz’s Tree-Kangaroos prefer forests growing on the Tableland’s rich basalt soils. As this is also the best soil for farming, much of the Tree-Kangaroo’s habitat has been cleared for farms. They have fortunately been able to survive in the strips along creeks and in areas that are too rocky for farming. However, they mostly live on private land, which is unprotected by World Heritage and National Parks status.

This extensive clearing of lowland rainforest greatly reduced the range of Lumholtz’s Tree-Kangaroo. Highland forest logging is further reducing the range, but it is present in reasonable numbers in several national parks and reserves. When on the ground, they are vulnerable not only to dogs, but also to vehicles. Of 27 dead Tree-Kangaroos examined in the Atherton Tablelands from 1992 to 1994, 11 had been hit by cars, six had been killed by dogs, four by parasites and the others by other causes.

As a result of the growing concern for the Tree-Kangaroo’s future, the Tree Kangaroo and Mammal Group was formed. The Group meets at 7.30pm every first Thursday of the month at the Malanda Hotel. Annual membership is $10. The Tree Kangaroo and Mammal Group is happy to have received a Natural Heritage Trust grant to examine different rainforest fragments as possible Tree-Kangaroo habitat.

While humans continue demanding and reproducing will our species of wildlife ever be safe? At some 7.8 billion humans and growing demand for agricultural products, meat, wood, paper and more will sadly reduce more forest land thus leading to the extinction of planets non-human species.

We must decrease our usage of natural resources. End off.



Thank you for reading this brief insight into Tree Kangaroos. 


J. Williamson PhD. Ba. EnVStu 

Environmentalist and Botanist 

Chief Registrar of International Animal Rescue Foundation Europe.

Hundreds of ANIMALS and PLANTS killed off everyday for YOU.







Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo – Threatened With Extinction

The Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo is a “protected species threatened with extinction,” yet still being shot by orchard owners, entire flocks being poisoned, hit by cars and generally wiped out by urbanisation loss of habitat and food sources. In the Perth region they may die out within 15 years!

With their expressive facial expressions, extensive speaking vocabulary and loud shrieking voices, all cockatoos are jesters but the Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo is only found in Southwestern Australia.

Beautiful Carnaby's Black Cockatoo - facing extinction.

Beautiful Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo – facing extinction.

The following video (2.57 minute mark), contains important information related to Carnaby’s cockatoos. Native banksia trees provide the birds with the nectar, seeds and grubs which they need to live on and now the woodlands of Perth’s Sawn Coastal Plain have recently been nominated as a Threatened Ecological Community under the Environment and Biodiversity Conservation Act.

In other words: the birds are facing extinction and now their main food source is under direct threat too. They have lost their breeding and feeding areas, which have been cleared for farming. They have also lost their nesting hollows and food sources to urban development along the Swan River coastal plain.

Threats To The Species

Direct causes of population decline include land clearing and fragmentation of habitat (especially in wheatbelt), the loss of hollow-bearing trees and impact of hollow competitors including Galah, corellas and feral European honey bee, also fires and vehicle strikes. The cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) live for 40-50 years in the wild, but have to be at least four years old to breed and only have one chick a year with a high mortality rate. A large proportion of the remaining population is now past breeding age. When these older birds die, there will be very few younger birds to take their place.

Shot by an orchard grower, this Carnaby was one of Christine Grooms birds in her study. The bird had her identification on it.

Shot by an orchard grower, this Carnaby was one of Christine Grooms birds in her study. The bird had her identification on it.

The Black-Cockatoo is now classified in Western Australia as ‘rare or likely to become extinct’ and federally listed as Endangered. The last 50 years has seen a 50% decline in their population, and their range has been reduced by up to one-third.

It is one of three black cockatoos found in south west WA. The others are Baudin’s Black-Cockatoo and a subspecies of the Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo. These birds are endemic to the area, meaning that they are found nowhere else in the world. All three are threatened. Because cockatoos are long lived birds (up to 50 years in the wild) and they raise few chicks to adulthood, it is highly likely that the birds we see today are an ageing population. Therefore, it is essential that we protect remaining habitat as well as the birds themselves for the survival of the species.

Highly Valuable On The Black Market

Australia’s seven black cockatoo species are highly sought after, with some individual birds fetching up to $30,000.

Pair of Carnaby's Black Cockatoos.

Pair of Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos.

A 55 year old Western Australian man was reported to authorities after he was spotted stealing a chick from an endangered black cockatoo’s nest hollow, high in a nearby salmon gum tree.

“He literally didn’t think he was doing the wrong thing,” says Nicole White, a conservation scientist studying black cockatoos at Perth’s Murdoch University who identified the bird species. “He was saying: ‘There are plenty of them around. Why can’t I have one?'”

Then the officers heard squawking coming from the neighbour’s yard where, upon investigating, they found a further 14 red-tailed black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksii), Carnaby’s black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) and galahs – most of which require a licence. The neighbour, 59-year-old Herbert Edward Kenyon, was illegally trading thousands of dollars worth of birds and was caught red-handed.

Wildlife theft is a massive, complex and nebulous beast. It ranges from individuals taking the odd bird as a pet, through to organised trafficking by international crime syndicates. Experts have no firm grasp on the size of the problem, but they are certain it poses risks to biodiversity.

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo

Although poaching in itself, doesn’t seem to be directly threatening any Australian species with extinction, it “has the potential to severely affect the sustainability of wild populations”, says David O’Sullivan of Customs and Border Protection in Canberra. “The Australian Government takes the illegal trade of wildlife in Australia very seriously.”

Australia’s seven black cockatoo species are highly sought after, with some individual birds fetching up to $30,000.

And where there’s big demand, there are big profits. According to a report released in February 2011 by the not-for-profit Global Financial Integrity organisation, the illegal wildlife trade is third only to that in drugs and human trafficking in scope and value; numbers in the order of tens of billions of dollars are bandied about, but the true value has not been quantified.

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo

“We’ve never put a figure on it,” says John Scanlon, an Australian who is secretary-general of the UN’s Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), based in Geneva. “We know it’s a multi-billion dollar business, but we’ve never had the research to have enough confidence in a figure.”

Much of the global trade in endangered species is accounted for by tourist souvenirs, traditional medicine and bushmeat, John says, but live animals are the most lucrative. Like any collector’s market, rare and unusual forms are the most valuable, meaning that the most endangered species are also the most highly prized. But profit margins are “impossible to summarise”, he says. “Depending upon the form of wildlife, they can be huge. We’ve known of a single falcon selling for $200,000.”

In Australia, Customs and Border Protection is the primary authority that detects and monitors the wildlife trade and enforces the law at the borders. In the 2009-10 financial year, customs seized plants or animals and their products on 4014 occasions – but whether that represents a small or large fraction of all smuggling attempts is unknown.

The majority of items are souvenirs confiscated from holidaymakers who are oblivious to the problem, David says. A smaller number of live animals are smuggled via the “extremely inhumane” organised trade, he says.

Our native animals tend to be exported live, with all the associated problems of smuggling living, breathing, moving creatures. It’s one reason that reptiles and snakes are preferred contraband; they are resilient and quiet.

In fact, the younger the better – bird and reptile eggs are small and easy to transport. Animals or eggs can be strapped against the body of a smuggler, hidden in luggage, or even mailed through the post. Customs has found spiders in film canisters, pythons in garden pots, birds stuffed in plastic tubes, lizards stitched into luggage, and eggs fitted in purpose-built vests (up to 50 eggs, in one case).

Carnaby's Black Cockatoos feeding.

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos feeding.

These distressing methods of transport can cause animals to become dehydrated, starve or die a slow death. And if smugglers think they’ve been caught, they may cruelly “kill or destroy their specimens in an attempt to escape detection and prosecution”, David says.

In 2006, customs apprehended a man smuggling 24 cockatoo and galah eggs onto a plane. Before they could stop him, he smashed all but two of the eggs, which were hidden in a purpose-built vest.

While some intercepted animals make it to zoos or wildlife centres, many have to be euthanased because of their poor condition or biological threat they pose. Even native species will be destroyed if their original habitat can’t be determined, says Keith Larner, a wildlife compliance officer in Victoria’s Department of Sustainability and Environment.

“We don’t know what diseases they’ve been exposed to, so we’re reluctant to take them back to a wild population.” Another problem is the mixing of genes between isolated populations of a species. “We prefer animals go back to the exact spot so we don’t contaminate the gene pool,” he says.

Regulations To Stop Illegal Wildlife Trade

Australia, like all 175 signatories, is bound by CITES regulations. The international body, established in 1975, manages the global lists of flora and fauna that can be traded, and under what conditions.

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo in flight

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo in flight

About 34,000 species are protected by CITES. Globally, 600 animals are listed on Appendix I and a further 4400 on Appendix II. In Australia, 67 types of plant and animal – such as orange-bellied parrots and dugongs – are on Appendix I, and 958 – such as Carnaby’s cockatoos and echidnas – are on Appendix II.

DNA forensics – Keeping Track Of World’s Species

Wildlife forensics is an emerging tool providing that proof, but this highly specialised field is only practised in a few museums and small, university-based laboratories.

DNA’s real power, though, is in helping to regulate the licensing system by ensuring species recorded in logbooks are legitimate. Nicole has spent the past four years of her PhD project collecting DNA from Carnaby’s cockatoo chicks (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) to develop a world-first provenance database. “It’s a species that is regularly poached and traded. So there was a need for urgent action.

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo

“Previously, if a wildlife officer was suspicious of someone, and we didn’t have the DNA…they were virtually powerless in proving that that animal held by that person was illegally taken or illegally bred.”

Nicole can even determine whether a bird is wild or captive, and the rough location it came from. After the 2008 Morawa raid authorities used Nicole’s database to confirm the species of cockatoos illegally held by both the 55-year-old man and his wildlife-trading neighbour, Herbert Kenyon. This led to the successful prosecution of Herbert, who was fined $4500.

This painstaking work is yet to be reproduced, and it will be a long time before databases exist for other animals. Authorities are considering DNA sampling every animal for which owners seek a licence, but this must be legislated. “If we integrate some of the sampling into the licensing procedure, we could really make some good inroads into better policing,” Michael says.

Hundreds Fall From The Sky Dead

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo

In a bizarre event in 2010, over one hundred Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos fell out of the sky dead near the southern coastal mining town of Hopetoun. Other species also dropped from the sky dead too.

A Perth newspaper said: “Rangers discovered more than 100 dead white-tailed black cockatoos near a Hopetoun golf course yesterday morning.

This morning at Munglinup, 75km east of Hopetoun, wildlife officers recovered a further 37 dead white-tailed black cockatoos [Caranby's Black Cockatoos], six regent parrots, two galahs, three mudlarks, three ravens, four yellow-throated miners and a kestrel.”

It appears the birds were poisoned, rather than suffering heat stroke in high temperatures.

Hundreds of Carnaby's Black Cockatoos fell from the sky dead.

Hundreds of Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos fell from the sky dead.

The deaths have been labelled ‘devastating’ for Carnaby’s black cockatoo populations, which are being pushed to extinction from habitat clearing.

Birds of Australia Carnaby’s recovery manager Raana Scott said “It has potentially wiped out half the population of Carnaby’s black cockatoos in Munglinup (50km east of Hopetoun).”

“For birds that live for 50 years and don’t breed until they are 4-years-old and only have one chick a year with a high mortality rate, it is going to take a long time for the population there to recover – if they recover,” Ms Scott said.

Department of Environment and Conservation officers are investigating the deaths and cockatoos have been sent to Perth for biopsies. A department spokeswoman said soil, water and vegetation samples had been taken and would be sent to the WA Chemistry Centre.

CBC 11“There are a number of factors that may have contributed to the deaths, and DEC will undertake a rigorous investigation including autopsies, laboratory tests, site inspections and interviews with witnesses,” DEC Nature Protection Branch manager Kevin Morrison said in a statement today.

Lloyd Marshall, editor of Talking Birds newspaper, said it was highly unlikely that high temperatures had anything to do with the deaths of the parrots and cockatoos.

Australian parrots and cockatoos can easily deal with temperatures around 50 degrees and I don’t think those temperature levels would cause stress resulting in death. In those situations the birds find a shady tree and sit still to conserve energy,”

“I have seen black cockatoos, including babies which are more vulnerable, sitting motionless in trees when temperatures were more than 47 degrees.”

“And to find so many birds dead in such a small area would have to point to poisoning, particularly near a golf course, where the birds could have consumed contaminated water,” he said (end of report.)

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Numbers Declining at 15% Per Year

A 2014 report has found Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos may die out in the Perth region within 15 years, prompting calls for the state and federal governments to protect remaining habitats.

The 2014 Great Cocky Count report by Birdlife Australia and Western Australia’s Department of Parks and Wildlife estimated the current rate of decline in the cockatoos’ population on the Perth-Peel coastal plain was 15 per cent per year.

The minimum count for the birds in the region was 7154, with 59 per cent of those found around the Gnangara Pine Plantation, north of Perth.

Birdlife Australia said the cockatoos had adapted to the pine plantations in the 1950s to survive the loss of 1,000 hectares of native bush around Perth each year. Pines ‘must be protected’ to save species.

But the group’s head of conservation, Samantha Vine, said 1,000 hectares of pine plantations around the city were also being cleared every year.

She said the State Government’s plan to completely clear the 23,000 hectare Gnangara Pine Plantation, to preserve the vital underground water source which lies beneath, would be catastrophic.

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo feeding.

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo feeding.

If this continues we’re likely to see extinction of the [Perth] population in the next 15 years.

Birdlife Australia’s Samantha Vine called on the Government to stop clearing pine until replacement trees were planted and matured and they want the Gnangara Pine Plantation referred for Commonwealth environmental assessment.

They have also written to the Federal Environment Minister, Greg Hunt, requesting the Government take action to prevent the extinction of the population.

Carnaby's Black Cockatoo

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo

State Opposition environment spokesman Chris Tallentire said this was further proof urgent action was needed to save the Carnaby’s cockatoos. “Despite repeated warnings, the Barnett Government has failed to act to protect feeding and roosting areas to save the species from extinction,” he said.

The federal Department of Environment website stated it was difficult to know how many Carnaby’s black cockatoos were left but it said it was known their populations had declined by more than 50 per cent in the past 45 years.

They no longer bred in up to a third of their former breeding sites in WA’s Wheatbelt region (ABC.)

Thank Goodness For People Who Care

Christine Groom, PhD candidate, studying Carnaby's Black Cockatoos.

Christine Groom, PhD candidate, studying Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos.

Christine Groom is involved in the community survey  known as the Great Cocky Count, where volunteers count Carnaby’s at night-time roost sites across the southwest of the state (Western Australia), on a single night; usually April 6th.

Christine Groom is  a PhD candidate at the University of Western Australia in the School of Animal Biology. She also works as a Research Officer in the Species and Communities Branch of the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife. Christine’s PhD project is on Carnaby’s Black Cockatoos, on the Swan Coastal Plain, Perth, Western Australia. Her project is titled “Roost site fidelity and resource use by Carnaby’s cockatoo on the Swan Coastal Plain”

Baby Carnaby's Black Cockatoo chick being weighed.

Baby Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo chick being weighed.

“I will be investigating aspects of the ecology of Carnaby’s cockatoo to find out how they meet their basic survival requirements on the Swan Coastal Plain. For most living creatures basic survival involves finding food, water and shelter. For cockatoos this translates to finding somewhere to roost at night, a nest to raise young, enough food and somewhere safe to drink.

Carnaby's chick inside it's nest: Carnaby's only lay one egg.

Carnaby’s chick inside it’s nest: Clutch 1–2 (usually only one young reared) and only the female incubates and broods the chick.

I’ll be using a combination of tail marking and tracking devices fitted to my study birds to observe or follow them and find out where they go to roost, feed and drink,” said Christine.

Carnaby's nest inside natural hollows in mature trees.

Carnaby’s nest inside natural hollows in mature trees.

You Can Help!

You can help Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo by using native plants in your garden, or when replanting your local reserve.

Once common across the south-west, Carnaby’s has been lost from over a third of its former range, and numbers have declined to 50% compared to the 1960s. Habitat clearance and degradation are major threats, and development is rapidly reducing their remaining habitat, particularly in the Perth area.

Urban gardens are becoming more important for supporting these beautiful birds. Find out more below about planting for Carnaby’s, including our new Perth-focussed nursery plant label ‘Choose for Black-Cockatoos’.

Planting for Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo: ‘Choose for Black-Cockatoos’ plant selection, Phytophthora Dieback

Support the Black Cockatoo Preservation Society in their fight to stop the Caranby’s Black Cockatoo becoming extinct and lost forever.

Once their gone, their gone forever.

Thank you for reading,

Michele Brown.


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