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Avahi cleesei – Extinction looming.


Known only to Tsingy de Bemaraha region of western Madagascar, north of the Manambolo River this stunning small primate is classified as endangered soon to be re-categorized as critically endangered. We humans should be damned ashamed ourselves regarding the Africa’s declining mammal life. Africa and Madagascar once held an abundance of wildlife. Walk through the bush today and one may not even view a single large mammal for some days.

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Identified and named in “2005″ its actually quite hard to fathom that this species is already classified as endangered with species population size on the vast decease. PD Dr. Thomas Geissmann and Dr. Urs Thalmann whom is a Biologist are two of the most intelligent and unique Biologists and Primatologists alive today. Specializing in old and new world species studies their work has been published in many science journals detailing their current and past finds.

Named after John Cleese the British actor famed for his comedy drama (Faulty towers, Monty Pythons Flying Circus and an award winning film 1989 A Fish Called Wanda) the Avahi cleesei species is commonly refereed to as Bemaraha Woolly Lemur or John Cleese’s Avahi. Dr. Thomas Geissmann and Dr. Urs Thalmann named the species in 1995 after John Cleese mainly because of Cleese’s fondness for lemurs, as shown in Operation Lemur With John Cleese and Fierce Creatures, and his efforts at protecting and preserving them. (Please view the film above post).

Populations are decreasing on the African island of Madagascar of which the species was discovered in 1990 via scientists from Zurich University. The species was formally then named in 2005. Strangely populations seem to be more densely populated within disturbed habitats giving reason to believe that the species is or has become quite adapted to humans. Evidence clearly indicates that (some) lemurs of certain genera seem quite “fond” to a degree of human invaders. This however must not be seen as a positive thing.

The northern limit of its range is unclear and there is no evidence of its occurrence between the Sambao and Mahavavy Rivers or between the Mahavavy and Betsiboka Rivers. Currently, it is known only from within Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, where it has been sighted in two localities, in the forest of Ankindrodro a forest 3 – 4 km east-northeast of the village of Ambalarano at the base of the western Tsingy precipice.

The species was previously outside the reserve’s boundaries in 1994, in the heavily disturbed forest in the surroundings of the village of Ankinajao. However, the forest was completely destroyed since these sightings at Ankinajao, and no woolly lemurs have been found there since 2003 – grid references have been removed for mammal security and to remove temptation via poachers for bush-meat.

Dr Thalman and Dr Geissmann noted that the disturbed forest close to the village of Ankinajao (outside the park), which supported a substantial number of individuals in 1994, had been cut completely by 2003. The subhumid forest at the base of the escarpment of the Tsingy de Bemaraha is under continuous pressure from bush fires that reduce it in many places every year–in some places to only a few meters in width. Such subhumid forests are the only habitat in which Avahi cleesei is known to occur so far. Although bush-meat trade has not been formally recorded with regards to “this particular species” the erosion of traditional cultural taboos in Madagascar has led to an unsustainable number of lemurs being killed for bush-meat.

Locals revered the primates, believing that the animals were family ancestors, but the influx of outside influences has seen a breakdown in these views. Some species do not reach maturity for up to nine years and produce offspring once every two or three years. A survey of locals’ eating habits by researchers from Bangor University in Wales, and the Malagasy NGO Madagasikara Voakajy showed that hunting of protected species in eastern Madagascar was increasing. They suggested the rise in illegal hunting was the result of rapid social change, an increase in demand for meat and a decline in traditional taboos.

What seems to be happening in some of the remote areas around the nation’s eastern rainforests is that a lot of legal gold mining is springing up, so people from outside are moving into the area thus increasing poaching and furthermore habitat degradation. Taboos play an important part in Malagasy culture, lemurs, especially indris, have been associated with very strong taboos that traditionally ensured that the primates were not hunted.

For example, one story tells of a man who was looking for honey in the forest when he fell from a tree. Before he hit the ground, he was caught by an indri. He was so grateful that he went back to the village and said from that moment on, no lemur was to be harmed. One can view the indri lemur here – First picture downhttp://www.npr.org/2013/02/02/170849125/did-you-hear-that-i-think-it-was-the-sound-of-a-walrus

Another belief is that the creatures are ancestors that became lost in the rainforests and turned themselves into lemurs in order to survive. However, Dr Jones said that although people did not prefer to eat bush-meat, it was often the only meat available. If they want meat to eat, there is very poor availability of domestic meat in these rural areas, which is a common fact even on the continent of Mama Africa.

Chickens suffer terribly from disease in rain-forest areas, so do not survive that well – so there is not much protein from domestic animals around. Dr Jones explained that the influx of people, attracted by job opportunities at the mines, had led to an increase in demand for meat and because people had wages from the mines, small bars that sold bush-meat were opening.

When Interviewed the results were quite shocking!

1. The survey of 1,154 households showed that the majority of meals eaten over a three-day period did not contain any meat at all.

2. Among the meals that did contain meat, the preference was for fish or domestic animals rather than bush-meat.

3. Just under 10% of meals consisted of wild-caught animals, and just 0.5% contained meat from protected species.

SHOCKING EVEN MORE – when respondents were asked if they had ever eaten a protected species, 95% said that they had. They know the species is “endangered” yet “still continue” to place it at risk from bush-meat trade.. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has been documenting in the vast scale of the bush-meat crisis however we are very concerned with regards to these findings. Either attitudes have to change within the trade of bush-meat, increased overseas conservation projects seen, or we are sadly going to lose the vast majority of our primate and non-primate species by 2040. Avahi cleesei sadly may not even be around then.


When the team monitored villages to see how much bush-meat was being brought in, they recorded 233 carcasses of Endangered indri, the largest species of lemur. Species like the indri, for example, mature at seven to nine years and then only have one young once every two or three years. Primates, in general, are known to be extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation. Should conservation efforts now not reduce the bush-meat trade, awareness and education from local environmental companies, and non-profit organisations/charities then regrettably were going to lose the majority of our lemur species within the next decade regardless of whether they are consumed on rare occasions.

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Located west of the island of Madagascar Avahi cleesei weighs about 5–6 kilograms (11–13 lb), has brown skin with white regions on the rear and inside of the thighs and has a short damp nose, large plate eyes, and ears which hardly stand out from the skin. It typically has a strictly vegetarian diet of leaves and buds, living together in small families. The local population calls the species dadintsifaky, which means “Grandfather of the Sifaka”, because it is similarly sized to sifakas, but more ponderous, heavyset and has ample greyish-brown fur.

***End of Report***

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Harpy Eagle – Road to Extinction.


Known as the fifth most formidable bird of prey on the planet the Harpy Eagle or American Harpy Eagle was identified by Professor Carl Von Linnaeus. Swedish botanist and zoologist Linnaeus was on e of the most influential botanists and zoologists of all time identifying in is his life time hundreds of species of mammal, plant and tree specimens.

Harpia harpyja as its generically known was first identified and named back in 1758 of which its population size wasn’t under threat then as it is today. Regrettably the Harpy Eagle is now near threatened with populations now in the decrease.

Harpy Eagles are not endemic to Africa. Native to Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Plurinational States of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico; Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela reports state the species is locally or regionally extinct in large parts of its former range, notably most of central and north Central America and possibly Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even within its most extensive range Harpy Eagles are actually a rare sight.

Although still reasonably common in the Amazonian forests of Brazil and Peru, it will only survive in the long term if the escalating rate of forest destruction in the region is brought under control and a network of inviolate reserves established (Please view the information below with regards to deforestation). Low overall population densities and slow reproductive rates make shooting the most significant threat over its entire range. It could perhaps survive in disturbed forests or even forest mosaics if its large size and boldness in the face of humans did not make it an irresistible target for hunters (Hunters pay big bucks to hunt this species just to display its trophy on their home walls – what a bloody waste). It presumably also suffers from competition with humans for prey. Humans are sadly playing such a large roll in Harpy Eagle depletion.


International Animal Rescue Foundation Brazil have been documenting on deforestation legally and illegally within the Amazon over the ten years. We reported on “decreased levels of legal and illegal logging”. This however has changed and for the worse it seems.

From 2011-2012 some 2.050 square kilometers of forest were lost displacing species, ripping up medicinal plants destroying the environment furthermore. However from 2010-2011 some 2,261 square kilometers of forest were ripped up. Although declines are noticeable its not enough and species extinction within these areas especially within Harpy Eagles zones habitats are becoming “common practice”.

Harpy Eagles main habitats are Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French and Guiana.

However larger but sparse population sizes are seen within the countries that share the Amazon rain-forest being, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Galapagos, Patagonia and Peru. These areas are of major interest to International Animal Rescue Foundation Brazil as deforestation is rife and species extinction slowly occurring of both flora and fauna. Deforestation was stated to be on the (decrease). That is of course what the South American governments want everyone to believe. Please see facts below.

WHAT HAPPENED from 2011-2012 when reported only 2.050 square kilometers of rain-forest was recorded destroyed?. However from 2013 and this figure will shock you. A staggering 28% of rain-forest was lost IN ONE YEAR! Beating all records known since 2004.

Someone and “some government and a certain petroleum company” of which we have been BANNED FROM NAMING IN OUR ARTICLES knows exactly WHY Amazonia rain-forest depletion increased by 28% between August 2012 and last July 2011, after years of decline.

BACK in May of 2012 Speak Up For the Voiceless.Org printed via reports from International Animal Rescue Foundation Brazil three articles within its “Environmental Chapters 1-33″ detailing the (advance of two unmanned) oil companies. Pe******** and Cha****** . Later that year Pe********* emailed our Brazilian environmental company ordering them to remove all pictures, all MAPS and ALL evidence that showed them (DESTROYING MILE UPON MILE) of pristine rain-forest DESPITE a national uproar by the Nat-Geo and American NGO’s. Harpy Eagle habitat, plants of medicinal importance aquatic and mammal life within the areas 295.6 kilometers from Yasuni were obliterated. Indigenous tribes were also displaced. NO the forest destruction is not caused by locals. Forest destruction within the Harpy and other mammal zones are being destroyed due a loan handed to President Rafael Correa not being paid back on time to the Chinese. Google it or read whats left of the articles here http://www.speakupforthevoiceless.org – please view the maps and please watch all videos.

The fight to stop the destruction of this area of rain-forest has been lost. Sadly money speaks louder than words. America, China and Ecuador will be held responsible for any such species extinction caused by noise pollution, Co2 emissions, poaching, pollution, and human species conflict. The provisional statistics from August 2012 to July 2011 suggest that the area suffering deforestation was 5,843 sq km (2,255 sq miles), compared to 4,571 sq km (1,765 sq miles) in the previous 12 months. The 28% rise interrupts a period of declining deforestation which began in 2009. However, it still remains the second lowest annual figure for forest loss in absolute terms.

The worst year on record was 2004, when 27,000 sq km of forest was destroyed. Monthly data from several scientific institutions had suggested the deforestation rate might be on the rise. Little did anyone know it was actually true. The Brazilian government stated This swing is not related to any federal government fund cuts for law enforcement,” she told reporters, adding that around 4,000 criminal actions have been taken against deforesters in the past year.

Although the Ecuadorian and Brazilian region of Amazonia is spread far and wide, Harpy’s do inhabit both large and small owned regions. Brazil owns the vast majority of the Amazonian being some 60%.

Harpy’s occur in uninterrupted expanses of lowland tropical forest (typically below 900 m but locally to 2,000 m), but will nest where high-grade forestry has been practiced, and use forest patches within a pasture/forest mosaic for hunting, however with no forest there is no Harpy. Nests have been reported only 3 km apart in Panama and Guyana.

The Harpy Eagle was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Vultur harpyja, after the mythological beast harpy. The only member of the genus Harpia, the Harpy Eagle is most closely related to the Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis) and the New Guinea Harpy Eagle (Harpyopsis novaeguineae), the three composing the subfamily Harpiinae within the large family Accipitridae. Previously thought to be related, the Philippine Eagle has been shown by analysis of DNA to belong elsewhere in the raptor family as it is related to the Circaetinae.

Here are a few interesting facts about the Harpy Eagle:

An Amazonian apex predator: In the Amazon rain-forest, Harpy Eagles share the top of the food chain with Jaguars and Anacondas. The Jaguar rules the forest floor, the Anaconda is king is swamps and lakes, and the Harpy Eagle dominates the canopy of the rain-forest.

What do they eat?: Although Harpy Eagles are commonly believed to solely prey upon sloths and monkeys, studies carried out in Tambopata have shown that they catch and eat a variety of animals. While they do eat sloths and monkeys, they also take large birds such as toucans, kinkajous, and will even kill Brocket Deer! That’s quite amazing for such a large bird of prey.

Over sized beak and talons: Harpy Eagles look especially intimidating due to their huge, Grizzly Bear sized claws and massive beak. The legs of the Harpy Eagle can also be nearly as thick as the wrist of a person!

A wide-ranging, rare bird: This big eagle historically occurred in rainforests from southern Mexico all the way south to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. However, they need large tracts of animal-filled rain-forest to survive and have thus disappeared from many areas of their range.

The moral of this story is should deforestation continue, the want for more wood and paper products, lack of recycling the sadly we will lose the Harpy by 2030.

Thank you for reading;

Chief Environmental Officer
Botanist & Environmentalist

Dr Josa Depre.


South African Foie Gras – Cruelty Certified


The trade in foie gras has caused quite a controversy over the past decade mostly within Europe and America. Animal rights activists and outspoken chefs have denounced the sadistic farming practice and horrific slaughter of ducks and geese force feed a cocktail of corn with a gavage. Gavage is the term commonly known as “feeding tube” that is rammed down the duck and goose neck  into the animal’s oesophagus; if an auger is used, the feeding takes about 45 to 60 seconds. Modern systems usually use a tube fed by a pneumatic pump fed via a slit cut in the oesophagus; with such a system the operation time per duck takes about 2 to 3 seconds.

ENM prints on a wide range of animal and environmental issues locally and worldwide however have yet to document on the cruel foie gras trade within Africa. Many Africans seem completely oblivious that the food they are consuming has been placed through a hellish cycle of abuse and narcissistic torture.

The French (who produce 78% of the world’s foie gras) have taken recent bans very personal with a politician from foie gras producing Gascony calling on all French restaurants to ban California wines in solidarity with the foie gras industry. California chefs still to this day violate the law even though foie gras has been banned. Although the ban will not have a significant impact on the French markets as they consume most of what they produce the French are apparently concerned that the ban would spread to other countries. The last orders of foie gras must now be heard within south Africa.

Locally foie gras also made headlines early last year when the NSPCA confiscated local producer Bon Canard’s Muscovy ducks and laid a criminal charge of animal cruelty apparently relating to the cage sizes and the controversial “gavage” technique used to fatten the ducks. “There was never any cruelty in our process, there are many misconceptions about the production,” said Rhoda Diedericks from Bon Canard. They were producing foie gras for 15 years with the SPCA apparently often on their farm even witnessing the feeding process. Its was “alleged” that the SPCA of south Africa supported a “humane foie gras trade” although no evidence of this allegation can be found. South Africa’s SPCA have been creating quite a large awareness and education program on foie gras production and the cruelty involved.

Several European countries have banned the sale and production of foie gras although some still continue to legally import, Great Britain being one prime example, Netherlands and Brazil being the (largest) exporters of foie gras and poultry into south Africa.  South Africa has still yet to really address this sick act of cruelty although some traders such as Supermarket chain Fruit & Veg City (2012) was forced to remove foie gras (duck liver paté) from its shelves and issue an apology after shoppers voiced their anger at the sale of the French delicacy.  The South African retailer stated;

Fruit and Veg City and Food Lover’s Market is pleased to confirm that the group has discontinued the stocking and sale of foie gras in its stores effective immediately,” said the chain, via its publicist.

“The product was available in a limited number of stores located in Gauteng and due to several complaints we have had from consumers, we have taken a second look at this industry.”

The group said its decision was that, although the sale of the product in South Africa was not illegal, to endorse this product would be to endorse an industry that is noted for its inhumane practices and treatment of animals.

“Our priority is always the consumer, focusing on trends and demands, but this is always balanced with the company values of fresh produce sourced in a sustainable manner.” Emily Springer wrote on the retailer’s wall on Facebook: “We love going to your stores. Please don’t spoil this. [You say:] ‘We are here to educate, invigorate and update you on all the goodness of the Fruit & Veg City offering.’ Goodness does not equal selling foie gras.”

Bonny van Niekerk posted: “Thank you for making it so easy for me to never shop in Fruit & Veg again. It’s not often that we are given the chance to do the right thing and make a public stand against animal abuse. [I] am disappointed that you did not step up! Shameful!”


With many bans implemented within Europe, Europe and Brazil remain the (largest) poultry exporter to South Africa with some vast tons of poultry imported into South Africa as stated by SARS annual import summary (2007-2012). The summary states that Netherlands and Brazil are the largest exporters of duck, geese, and poultry into South Africa of which our investigative reports are included below for your information.

There seems to be no reduction with regards to foie gras and poultry imports too. From 2007 some 278,437,828kgs of poultry imports were imported into South Africa. From 2009 some 229,000,000kgs of poultry were imported of which 2012 was the largest to date equalling some 403,772,595kgs poultry imported into South Africa from Netherlands, Brazil, South America, even the United Kingdom. Please note this final number equates “all poultry” imports being chickens, ducks, and geese. Ducks and geese are defined as “other”.

Classified as “other” on the summary report we can state that from 2007 some 46,617kgs of duck and goose were imported into South Africa from Europe, Brazil, America and Great Britain being the soul exporters, of which in 2009 saw only a slight decrease. 2010, 2011 and 2012 onwards sees more demand grow for “duck and geese” products of which from 2010 sees some 63,064kgs imported, 2011 sees some 188,436kgs imported and 2012 saw some 369,114kgs of duck and geese imported into South Africa. SARs current 2014 summary has yet to be released however this is proof that demand for “duck and geese” products of which foie gras is also listed is on the increase within Africa at worrying levels. Total number of duck, geese and guinea fowl imports equated to a 0.1%.



Restaurants flagged as selling foie gras within South Africa;

Restaurants that have been highlighted as selling this filthy disgusting animal torture range from Ginja & Shoga, FortyAte, Bosman’s, Savoy Cabbage, Aubergine, La Colombe, Main Ingredient, Foodsmiths, Cape Colony, Bon Apetit,  L’Auberge Du Paysan, Le Quartier Français, Manolo, Five Flies, La Campagnola, Villa Belmonte, BlauuwKlippen, Fashoda Loge, Constantia Uitsig Restaurant, Buitenverwachting Restaurant, D’Vine Restaurant at Willowbrook Lodge, Hout Bay Manor Hotel, The Greenhouse, The Restaurant at Grande Provence, Linger Longer, Le Carnard, Auberge Michel, Emily’s, 96 Winery Road, D’vine at Willbrook Lodge, Jaqui Daya Good Food Store, Mosaic at The Orient Hotel, Stone Hill, Lynton Hill, Guardian Peak, Terroir Kleine Zalze Estate, The Michaelangelo, Bouillabaisse, Green Truffle and finally The Westcliffe in Johannesburg.




Most foie gras producers do not consider their methods cruel, insisting that it is a natural process exploiting the animals’ natural features. Producers argue that wild ducks and geese naturally ingest large amounts of whole food and gain weight before migration. This is far from actual truthful though as like humans their stomach will inform their brain via neurological signals that their tummy is now full thus ceasing eating. The same neurological behaviour is also seen within geese and ducks to many more animals too. Despite the scientific evidence, they claim that geese and ducks do not have a gag reflex in their throats the same way that humans do, and therefore do not appear to find force feeding uncomfortable. Michael Ginor, owner of Hudson Valley Foie Gras, author of Foie Gras… A Passion, claims his birds come to him to be fed and says this is important because “a stressed or hurt bird won’t eat and digest well or produce a foie gras.”


According to Industry groups including the CIFOG, and researchers at INRA, forced feeding is not a cruel procedure. Mirepoix USA, a top provider of goose and duck foie gras, alleges that the animal rights activists attack is a form of prohibition against a cuisine item. Mirepoix claims that the use of the term “diseased” to refer to fatted liver is inaccurate and that geese and ducks naturally store dead fish in their esophagi for long periods of time.[28] The ducks used in foie gras production, however, are a hybrid of Pekin (a type of Mallard) and Muscovy ducks, both of which are dabbling ducks and as such, subsist mainly on a diet of underwater vegetation, larvae, and various insects.

Chefs and diners alike have been force-fed misinformation about how its production affects the welfare of the birds, but here are the scientific facts:

Confinement: The birds are kept in barren pens or cages that restrict their freedom of movement, cause painful injuries to their feet, and prevent them from enjoying any natural behaviour.

Stress and Pain: Insertion of the feeding pipe stresses the birds, as it overcomes their gag reflex and can cause painful injuries to the throat.

Death: During the force-feeding phase, mortality rates are three to 10 times as high as in flocks of non-force fed ducks of the same age. These high rates are due to the injuries to the throat, liver failure, and heat stress – all of which are directly linked to the force-feeding practice.


Trading and producing foie gras within south Africa must stop sooner rather than later. The cruelty involved to produce such a rich yet stagnant dish of inhumane cruelty is beyond comprehensible of which we are shocked to see such a copious demand for foie gras products increase despite awareness and activism within south Africa. An all out ban within Europe, South America and the United States via banning exports, productions and “avine bird parts” used in the process of foie gras production will not necessarily stop demand or production within south Africa. The craze for foie gras in south Africa is great of which banning exports will begin a more “increased” trade of foie gras within south Africa. The entire trade has to stop now.

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Thank you for reading;

Chief Environmental Registrar.



African Pet Meat Trade – Africa Exposed.


Selling dog meat has since been prohibited in Lubumbashi since Saturday, February 8 2014 within the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo). The provincial Minister of Environment and Conservation Katanga Audax Sompwe announced the measure during a meeting with the mayor and the mayors of all municipalities. To our shock dog meat abattoirs have been uncovered all over west, north and east Africa. Had awareness campaigns not been practiced dog and cat meat would still be a staple diet for many in the DRC for instance. WE are monitoring the situation within western Africa however an area that is considered extremely volatile a cautious approach has to be taken at all times even when reporting to displaying photographic and video evidence. The last thing we wish to increase is civil disturbance within communities or place life in jeopardy.

The Minister asked the mayors to close all illegal dog abattoirs, and to track those who steal and farm people’s pets to eat and sell these animals. Audax Sompwe says that consumption of dog meat has been seen at “worrying proportions” in the city of Lubumbashi. According to him, “we are witnessing the last time in Lubumbashi slaughter of the pet at a breakneck pace.” We at International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa are keeping an open mind though with regards to policing and pet slaughter houses being closed down. As yet no substantial evidence has been seen of such markets and slaughter houses being closed down or the arrests of vendors.

The provincial Minister of the Environment is satisfied with laws apparently implemented that dogs should be protected like any other animal. “The dog is still a human companion, an animal that had been used to take hunting,” he says to justify its prohibition. It also evokes the unhygienic conditions in which the meat is prepared.

Last week International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa included an article within Environmental News and Media of which documentation was shown on the possible relation to dog meat and the current increasing Ebola virus. Evidence clearly showed that there is plausible belief that consumption of infected dog meat within western, northern, and east Africa has been to blame for the increase of victims that had contracted Ebola.  Dogs are rarely cared for within these regions of Africa that forage for food mostly consuming dead animal carcasses that have/could be infested with Ebola. Furthermore hunting with dogs a common practice within central, north, west and eastern Africa has also shown to be a disease risk to villagers. Dogs that are used to hunt bring back an array of infectious diseases of which Ebola was noted.

2011 saw dog meat back on the menu within the country Democratic Republic of Congo of which rising food prices mainly beef, and lack of sufficient staple dietary incomes had been quite a concern for many a people. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and an African and Australasian registered organisation Say No To Dog Meat.Net have been increasing awareness of such issues in the region however are somewhat sceptical that the dog meat trade will simply vanish.

Only yesterday did International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa report on climate change destructions that have been predicted to increase by 2020 -2100 that could spell a more vicious wave of pet consumption within the DRC and countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, Angola and even South Africa should climate concerns not be addressed now.

2011 Dog meat was very expensive on the market. Its price varied between 4 and 8 euros per kilo, it is therefore impossible to buy every day,” explains Odette Nyabadeux, an inhabitant of the Nyabushongo neighbourhood. The financial crisis, which is affecting numerous countries in the Great Lakes region, has also severely affected the economic life of the Congolese population. Indeed, it forces people to look for alternative ways of surviving.

As the price of an entire dog can vary between 4 – 10 euros, a group of people often come together to buy an animal for two dollars each. “This allows us to eat the meat several times a week,” concludes Anto Bukasa, head of a household in Goma, who has also come to stock up on meat at the market. Dog meat is therefore appreciated for its affordable price which is true of the whole region explains Solonge Mudekereza: “even at home in Katoyi, we very easily find dog meat sold at all prices. Beef is very expensive.”

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and a non-related registered non-charitable organisation are optimistic that dog meat “consumption” will cease. Dog meat farms and private traders may be hit on the head and reduced however the actual “cultural” practice and the taste of dog meat has somewhat increased peoples want for more which raises concerns with regards to infectious disease and illness.


Previously in DRC, dog meat was only eaten by a few tribes from the province of Kasai. Other tribes considered it to be dirty or taboo. However, attitudes have changed, explains Jeannette Ndamusu, of the Bashi tribe and mother of eight children: “Many years ago, dog meat was not sold on the market because we didn’t eat this meat. If we heard that our children were eating dog meat with our neighbours, they would be severely punished. Back then, our way of life forces us to eat dog because beef is extremely expensive.”

According to the statements of those who consume dog meat today, it doesn’t appear to have any harmful effects on the health of the population. “Today, I eat dog without a problem. Its meat likes any other kind and besides it is delicious,” confirms Odette Nyabadeux.

For now we will be as explained monitoring the situation within the Democratic Republic of Congo to see if any such trade in dog meat is actually banned and that of dog meat abattoirs are closed down. Working closely with the provincial Environmental Ministries and local police food and health agencies within known dog meat consumption areas we will update soon.

Moving on to Liberia we were extremely shocked to see such a vast dog meat trade within the country. Unlike Nigeria where dog meat is only consumed in areas of Jos and Lagos, in Liberia dog and cat meat is consumed all over the country. Some 4.9 million people (statistics 2012) actually consume their pets. Furthermore Ebola has been linked to the consumption of pet trade.

We recently contacted an animal welfare organisation within western Africa that has spoken outright on the pet trade within Liberia. For now based on intelligence reports we are keeping the organisation and individuals name strictly private. The reasons for confidentially is because Liberia is an extremely volatile and poor country of which pet trade is a staple income for many Liberians. Money is scarce and for now we do not wish to endanger individuals that wish to publically speak out on such trade that could place human life in danger, least forgetting hampering awareness and education projects too. Please view the interview below for your information.

ENM – How long have you been advocating for animals and what encouraged you to take such positive actions against environmental abuse and the Liberian dog and cat meat trade?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – First of all, I was born, grew up and live in a society or environment where animals are treated as commodities. Dogs are very helpful in sustaining lots of families at the rural level in Liberia. Dogs serve as source of income for lots of rural inhabitants- they hunt. These animals serve their owners with loyalty but are treated as commodities. Their lives are not respected and their meaningful contributions to sustaining lots of families are not considered. When these animals are unable to perform their duty or when their owners need money, the dogs suffer as the result. They are either sold alive or killed and prepared as commonly called “ISSUE“ and sold in the community. Growing up in a society where animals’ lives are meaningless, I said to myself, these animals deserve better lives. We need to stop the horrific and barbaric acts and replicate the love and loyalty these animals continue to show us even the point when we are killing them. 2007, I started to create the awareness and discouraging people especially the younger generations who are future decision makers to say NO to dog and cat meat. My team and I continue to visit communities and schools campaigning against eating these animals and challenging their beliefs about dog meat. The campaign is embedded with environmental protection awareness. We all benefit from a society that protects its environment.

ENM – Recently we have been exposing to the public the pet meat consumption trade within Africa of which many people are still unaware actually exists. How bad is the dog meat trade within Liberia and where are dogs and cats coming from?  As you may or may not know within Nigeria smugglers traffic dogs and cats over the border from Cameroon, Niger, Chad and Benin. Is there any evidence that smugglers are active within Liberia?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – This is not the case in Liberia. These dogs are locally raised in the

Communities lots of people own dog(s). They usually sell some of their dogs or puppies to others. Dog snatching is common in big cities and towns like Monrovia. It rarely happens in rural communities. People who sell or eat dog meat in the rural communities own them.

ENM – How many dogs and cats on average are killed for the pet meat trade within Liberia? And on average how many market stalls are there within Liberia that sell dog and cat meat?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – Our campaign has been on the local level. We have not done a survey to determine the rate of consumption in the country. We do not have specific markets in Liberia for dog meat. It is done in local communities. Recently, I was told that there is a place in Monrovia where dog meat is always available but I have not done follow up on this so I cannot conclude that it is true or not.

ENM – We recently republished an article on our main animal welfare and environmental rescue site of which we detailed dog farms within Namibia. On knowing that such a trade within Liberia is active and not illegal is there evidence that shows dog and/or cat meat farming to keep up with the trade? For example within Korea and China there are many dog and cat meat farms that are similar to that of cattle farms. If there are any farms within Liberia where exactly are these farms located, or is it more a case that communities will farm locally their own dogs and cats then sell on to the public?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – It is not illegal to eat dog or cat meat in Liberia, but to my

knowledge there is no established farm in Liberia for dog or cat meat. We have not identified such an area in the country even though we are just in one part of the country.

ENM – How long has the dog and cat meat trade been active within Liberia and have you noticed an increase within the pet consumption trade? If so when did the increase in trade occur and why do you think the pet consumption trade increase occurred for?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – It is a long time societal practice. It is normally done, and on big occasion days, the consumption can increase in rural areas.

ENM – Climate change and civil war within Northern Africa, Central Africa and Western Africa has been linked to an increase in wildlife depletion, habitat fragmentation and extinctions of flora and fauna. We know from experience that within the majority of these African states where climate change and civil war has been increasing or is still active that this has increased food shortages. Do you agree a food shortage have increased the dog meat trade or is entirely responsible for pet meat consumption?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – That may be true in other country, but in Liberia dog meat eating is not based on food shortage, even though food shortage is a problem in Liberia. It is normally done; it was done before the war and after the war. It has nothing to do with food shortage.

ENM – Is there any specific dog or cat species that is consumed within Liberia and if so what species of dog or cat, or is it just a case that any dog or cat is killed then consumed? For instance do consumers eat a specific breed and if they do why do they eat this certain breed of dog or cat for?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – As long it is a dog, the eaters will eat it. The dogs eaten here are locally raised.

ENM – Within South Korea, and China dog and cat meat is consumed for medicinal reasons of which has never been medically proven. Do Liberians consume dog and cat meat for medicinal reasons and if so what medical benefits do they believe they will obtain from eating dog and cat meat?

at work

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – People who eat dog meat in Liberia, when ask they will say it protects them and gives them authority when they are speaking in public. Some also say that dog meat is sweeter than the other meat.

ENM – From 2005-2013 there have reports of Africans citizens falling ill after consuming dog and cat meat. In some extreme cases people have actually died from consuming infested dog and cat meat. Have there been any cases of any such illness occurring after eating dog and cat meat in Liberia? And do you know of any prognosis of any consumer that fell ill after consuming dog or cat meat?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – Perhaps, but it has not been recorded in Liberia.

ENM – Rabies, SAR’s, food poisonings and a potential mutation of any H1N1 virus are our major concerns within the dog and cat meat trade both within Asia and Africa.  To your knowledge has there been any rabies or SAR’s cases increasing within areas of Liberia where dog and cat meat is consumed? Furthermore is there any evidence of food poisonings occurring within the dog and cat meat consumer market? If there is any evidence of food poisonings what to your knowledge were the culprit viruses that made consumers ill for example, E-coli, Campylobacter enteritis, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Salmonella or the highly contagious Gastroenteritis?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – Dogs suffered from rabies in Liberia and we have been educating people about rabies and the preventive measures. People always ask us if their dog(s) died of rabies whether they can eat it, we continue to tell them“ NO“- they should bury the dog(s). We have not come across a case of food poisoning occurring within dog and cat meat consumer market.

ENM – Would you agree Liberian traders that sell dog and cat meat are also using the money made from this trade to fund the purchase of firearms, narcotics, to fund human trafficking, or poaching within other Africans states or is it correct to state that traders are simply killing and selling domestic animals to support their own families?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – It is mainly for sustainability. They are simply killing and selling domestic animals to support their own families. It is not an organized trade.

ENM – Liberia hosts a fairly small population of wildlife species, would it be correct to state that with such a small wildlife population status of any species that dog and cat meat is being used as a substitute for the bush meat trade?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – That is not the case. People who eat dog meat do not eat it because there is no other meat; they eat dog meat because of their own beliefs that dog meat has some medical and supernatural power. Some people say that dog meat is sweeter than other meat. It is used as a substitute for the bush meat trade.

ENM – What age groups mainly consume dog and cat meat or is the consumer trade more identical to that of Asia of which mainly men will consume dog and cat meat?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – The consumption rate is mainly among men. Cat meat is rarely eaten. Very few people eat cat. It is not sold in the market.

ENM – What are your major concerns with regards to the Liberian dog and cat meat trade and do you propose the trade be addressed to cease such animal cruelty?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – It is a cruel act. We need to address the issue. People need to show their innate love and compassion for these loyal animals. As the result of these cruel acts done to animals, children grow up accepting the idea that animals are to be exploited and used for own ends, denying that animals have their own feelings, emotions, individual personalities and family relationships.

ENM – Do you believe that a “regulated trade” would be beneficial to reduce animal cruelty increasing animal welfare? A regulated trade is basically a trade that is recognised by the government, controlled and reduces the risk of abuse and illness.

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – I believe that the trade should be totally eradicated.

ENM – Within Asian dog and cat meat consumer nation’s dog and cats are killed in the most grotesque manner. Beaten and tortured to death to provide a tougher meat that is strong tasting. It’s believed that consuming such a tough and strong tasting meat makes you   more strong and fit. Are dogs and cats tortured in the same manner within Liberia or are they simply just slaughtered outright. How do the slaughterers kill the animals and is it mainly men or women that kill the animals?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – Dogs are killed by beating and strangling. (ENM is awaiting further literature with regards to this question which is of importance).

ENM – Liberia hosts some 12.2% strict Muslim citizens however under strict Islamic law it clearly states that dog meat is strictly forbidden and killing such an animal cruelly is also seen as a violation of strict Islamic law. To your knowledge are there any Muslims within Liberia that consume dog meat and what are your thoughts on this and any potential religious violation?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – Throughout out campaign awareness, we have not seen people in the Muslim community eating dog meat. Some of them do not even raise dog. The law is good. It shows compassion for other creatures that share this planet with us.


ENM – During the 2001-2002 Ebola outbreaks in Gabon, it was observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, scientists sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus-epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus-IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus-epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. On the (02.04.2014) it was announced that four Liberians had died from contracting Ebola virus. What are your thoughts on this and has the Ebola scare with deaths rapidly occurring over Africa had a profound effect within the trade of dog and cat meat? Furthermore do Liberians actually know that consuming dogs that have been exposed to Ebola or dogs that have consumed dead infested Ebola wildlife species can actually die or become seriously ill? More worryingly would you agree that Ebola infested dog meat has been responsible for the deaths of many Africans outside of Liberia and within Liberia. I ask this questions because the areas from which Ebola has been seen, are areas within Africa where dog and cat meat is consumed on a wide scale?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – Liberians have not been informed that this may expose them to the virus. The government has been placing more emphasis on bushmeat. I personally believe that eating animals that have eaten infected meat pose serious health concern. For now, people who have died of the virus caught it from close relatives. But the possibility of people dying as result of eating infected dog meat is high if people are not educated about it sooner.

ENM – When I spoke to you last you stated that dogs and cats that are eaten are mainly pets. However the Liberian pet trade is quite large. Would you agree that stray dogs and cats are also caught and killed for trade? If strays are killed and eaten then would you agree that there is an extremely high risk of stray dogs and cats that have come into contact with Ebola wildlife now posing a serious viral risk to life within Western Africa and the majority of some 3.7 million Liberians?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – The Liberian Health Ministry continues to warn the population to stop eating bush meat- which is considered in Liberia as the main ingredient in food preparation. According to the ministry, these wild animals may be infected with the virus before killing them, so eating bush meat for now may pose risk of the Ebola virus. Most of the stray dogs and cats also eat other animals. These animals may be infected with the virus, so eating the dog and cat meat may pose high risk of people eating them. I do not want to limit it to stray dogs and cats, in the rural communities, people keep dogs for hunting and these dogs also eat other animals in the bush, eating dog and cat meat as a whole pose serious health concern.

ENM – What work have you undertaken to educate the public and those that trade dog and cat meat within Liberia? I have noticed you seem rather active within animal welfare of which you have encouraged many people to join in. Are you making a difference though?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – We have been educating the population and discouraging people from eating dog meat. We placed more focus on the younger generation to change the negative conception and beliefs they have learnt from the adult concerning dog meat. The children also serve as animal ambassadors in their various communities in disseminating the information to the wider society. Our intervention is making a difference gradually but slow. There are people we met and discussed with them, after the discussion, they admitted of eating dog meat but vowed to stop eating dog meat.

ENM – My final question, in what areas of Liberia is the dog and cat meat trade most active?

Liberian Anti Pet Trade – I want to say yes because it is normally done here. Even though we do not have an established market where people go and buy dog meat. It is locally done in communities.

Thank you, Mr Darbo for taking the time to answer my questions.

For security and because of the content of this article we have replaced the West African DMT organisation name with Liberian Anti Pet Trade.

Dog meat trade in Africa poses a serious health risk full stop. Research and intelligence from our ground team indicates two prominent areas where International Animal Rescue Foundations Europe unit and its unrelated non-charitable organisation Say No To Dog Meat.Net will be working within to decrease rabies and infectious disease and to halt the dog meat trade.


Meanwhile in Nigeria a report stated ten cases of rabies in subjects aged 3 to 52 years were recorded in these five months period from 2012. Eight of the cases were male and apparently got infected directly or indirectly through the trade in stray dogs for human consumption. None had proper PEP and all patients died. This is unfortunately the sad reality of dog and cat meat trade within both Africa and Asia. Africa though poses a significantly higher risk than Asia due to lack of awareness, medicine and community outreach support.


Nigerian dog meat snatchers

Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. In the past, human rabies usually resulted from a dog bite, but recently, more cases of human rabies have been linked to bats, cats and raccoons. In the developing world, dog bites are still the commonest cause of rabies.

Rabies is universal. According to WHO report in 2006, more than 3.3 billion people are at risk for rabies in over 85 countries worldwide. About 55 000 deaths from rabies are estimated to occur every year, 99% of which are the consequence of dog bites. Of these 31 000 are estimated to occur in Asia (20 000 in India alone) and 24 000 in Africa. Universally no disease exceeds the case fatality rate of rabies. Progress must continue towards the elimination of human rabies.

In countries where rabies is endemic, stray dogs account for more than 90% of human rabies exposures, especially among 5-14 years old children in rural or peri-urban areas. In parts of southern Nigerian, dog meat is a widely consumed delicacy. In recent times we have recorded a number of cases of rabies associated with bites and scratches from such dogs bought for consumption. The purpose of this report is to highlight the transportation and wide consumption of stray dogs in southern Nigeria as a risk factor for rabies and cruelty to animals; and alert the authorities on the need for the control of this trade and threat to human life.

The subjects were children and adults admitted to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar with a clinical diagnosis of rabies. The hospital serves as a referral centre for the whole of Cross River State, in southern Nigeria. Cross River State has a population of 2.9 million. The demographic data of the patients; parents’ occupation, health seeking behaviour of the patients / parents, the clinical features at presentation, modalities of treatment before presentation, nature of attacks, and immunization status of the dogs and the outcome of the patients were documented. Through careful history, the sources of the infections were determined. Focus group interviews of the participants in the stray dog trade was also conducted to determine the sources of the dogs and their handling. Each patient was treated with intravenous alimentation, sedation and other supportive measures.

Table 1 (pic below) shows a summary of the features of the ten cases of rabies seen in the UCTH between July and October 2012. Focus group interviews of persons involved in the trade revealed that such dogs are usually stray dogs captured in northern Nigeria mainly Adamawa, Bauchi and Plateau states and transported in large numbers in trucks to the south for consumption. Ones are selected for domestication. These ones often go into fights with the local ones. Others are tied and killed with blows to the head, before being roasted and prepared for eating. Serial number 1 was bitten by a domesticated dog which suddenly turned violent and was immediately killed and eaten. The father of serial number 3 is a dealer in stray dogs and dog meat and the child was bitten by one of the stray dogs meant for sale. The others were earlier bitten by domesticated dogs which had earlier had fights with stray dogs (serial nos. 2,3, 7 and 8). Serial number 6 was bitten by an unidentified stray dog while serial number 9 and 10 were bitten by stray dogs meant for sale. Almost all the victims either first presented to chemists shop or to no health facility at all. One first presented to a traditional medicine man. None had post exposure prophylaxis.

The dealers in dog business seem to be aware of rabies and claimed to have an organ within the dog’s abdomen which when eaten, serves as prophylaxis against rabies. They insisted this was a trade secret which could not be revealed. The traders take measures to circumvent veterinary checks on the way during the transportation of the dogs. Such animals usually arrive from the long distance journey un-fed, exhausted and irritable.

Generalised concerns;

  1. Rabies is universal with almost uniform mortality. Recently survival rate of 8% has been claimed in the United States.
  2. The ten cases of rabies reported within five months in a referral centre which serves a population of only 2.9 million is an epidemic and may represent a tip of the iceberg.
  3. The major risk factor for rabies in this series was the widespread trade of stray dogs fuelled by consumption of dog meat as a delicacy. All of the dogs meant for consumption are usually strayed, apparently unimmunized, posing a threat to those involved in the trade.
  4. The states in Nigeria from where these dogs are captured are known to be endemic for rabies from dog bites. 11,12 Rabies could easily have entered the food chain in Cross River State from these sources. The prophylaxis claimed by the dealers is obviously spurious. Since this trade is usually carried out within or near living quarters, children are also exposed. The preponderance of males in this study may be a reflection of the fact that the trade is carried out almost exclusively by males. Male children are also more adventurous and therefore more likely to encounter these animals.
  5. The study also observed poor health seeking behaviour in all the subjects. Six of the ten cases reported did not present to any health care facility following the bites, while the other four visited patent medicine stores and drug vendors for first aid. Post exposure prophylaxis with anti-rabies vaccine is the major preventive measure against rabies following a bite by a rabid animal.
  6. None of the victims had prophylaxis, as none presented to an appropriate health facility until the onset of symptoms. It is also obvious that the patients/parents had no knowledge of the implication of such bites or the appropriate prophylaxis. In our environment, roadside chemists play major roles in health care as they are closer to the people, cheaper and poorly regulated. These chemists have no formal training and learn by apprenticeship with older chemists. It is evident that they either do not know the significance of bites by stray dogs and/or the proper post exposure prophylaxis. In addition, the capture of dogs and transportation for several hours in congested trucks without food or water, and killing with blows to the head amount to cruelty to animals and should not be tolerated. However the practice is wide spread and deeply rooted and would not be easily eliminated


Trade in stray dogs, fuelled by consumption of dog meat as a delicacy, is a major risk factor for exposure to rabies in our environment. Poor health seeking behaviour and inappropriate post-exposure prophylaxis lead to clinical disease which is uniformly fatal.


Huntress Cry Victim.

Female hunter - Date 1920 - Tiger hunting.

BACK in February Environmental News and Media highlighted a brief article on hunting is not conservation of which basic facts were placed into the public domain debunking hunter gibber and how female hunters treat hunting as a type of fashion parade.

Uncle Sam’s Misguided Children, Daily Mail UK, The Sun, Telegraph, Colorado CBS Kathy Walsh and many more media and press stations published articles to the effect that we were in some way “bullying, stalking and harassing female hunters”.

I must say we was quite shocked to see many British animal and wildlife loving media and press actually supporting animal killers within the United States that hunt for the fun of it. Amusingly the comments left by some thousands on many media and press stations that were not in support of such acts of horrific animal abuse concluded our primary beliefs that women hunters are treating hunting as another form of porn gratification. Men on the other hand just get down with it as they have done for thousands of years just as sick and demented as their opposite sex. (Sorry not name calling there just pointing out basic common knowledge).

Both sexes have hunted animals internationally for thousands of years of which the majority of hunting was mostly to feed the family or supply animal bi-products to communities or family members. Problem is now hunting then has changed seeing a vast majority of hunter’s within the states now encroaching onto our Mama Africa in search of much larger and bigger prey to fulfil their adrenalin junkie punitive sensory organs.  Charisa Argys states that it’s not a sexual lust – more a tradition passed down onto family members.

Keeping this article brief (for now) many hunters have been displaying concerns towards us that they feel we should not print on their activities being online and on the ground. We disagree there. Should a male hunter, female hunter or legal minor hunter wish to display acts of cowardly abuse online and via the ground to the hunting fraternity then we have every right to display too. After all we are speaking up for the dead animal. And its family!

Though hunting is now fairly well regulated by law, historically it was a chief cause of extinction in Southern Appalachia. The first to go were the large mammals. When Europeans first settled here in the late eighteenth century, for example, woodland bison were still plentiful. But hunters quickly learned to ambush them at natural salt licks, where the bison congregated. By 1800 they had become rare. Within a decade or two they were extinct.

Eastern elk, too, once inhabited the forests of Southern Appalachia. Like the woodland bison, the elk sought the salt licks, and, like the bison, there they were relentlessly slaughtered. They were extinct by the start of the Civil War. Elk recently reintroduced to the Smokies are not eastern elk but a non-native variety.


The Southern Appalachians were originally home to two kinds of wolves: the red and the grey. Both were hunters of deer, bison, and elk. As the settlers eliminated their prey, they turned increasingly to farm animals. The result was an escalating war of extermination that lasted until about 1920 when, somewhere deep in the Smokies, the last wolf cry was silenced. Though driven from the East and in constant retreat, grey wolves maintained substantial refuges away west in the Rockies, in Alaska, and in Canada. Wolf hunting continues to this very day and as usual it’s the wolf at blame. But the smaller red wolf, whose range never extended beyond the Southeast, was hunted almost to extinction. By the mid-1970s, there were maybe a hundred red wolves left in the world, mostly in Louisiana and Texas. Many of these could not find mates and had begun breeding with common coyotes, so that the strain was rapidly disappearing. During the 1990s attempts were made to reintroduce red wolves into the Smokies, but some of the wolves wandered repeatedly out of the Park;

Eastern Cougar some succumbed to parvo virus, probably caught from coyotes whose range had expanded to fill the niche left by the wolves; and some lapped up puddles of sweet-tasting antifreeze from parking lots and died in agony as ethylene glycol crystallized in their kidneys. As a result, reintroduction efforts were suspended, and the Smokies are once again empty of wolves.

Nobody knows when (or even if) the eastern cougar disappeared from the Southern Appalachians. Wary hunters, they were themselves hunted mercilessly for over two centuries. Sightings are still sometimes reported, but wildlife officials believe that if there are any big cats here they are released or escaped western cougars, not the native eastern variety.

Two remarkable Southern Appalachian birds, the passenger pigeon and the Carolina parakeet were hunted to extinction early in the 1900s. The Carolina parakeet, the only member of the parrot family native to the eastern United States, was a large and flamboyantly coloured bird, about thirteen inches long, mostly bright green, but with a yellow head and neck and orange cheeks and forehead. Carolina Parakeets were exterminated because they raided orchards, because ladies prized their feathers for hats, and because their bright colours made them useful for target practice.

The passenger pigeon may have been the most abundant bird species on earth. Ornithologists estimate their precolonial population at two to three billion. Their extensive winter roosting grounds along river bottoms in the Southern Appalachians are recalled in the names of two rivers, the Pigeon and the Little Pigeon, and in the name of the city of Pigeon Forge.

Despite their numbers, the passenger pigeons succumbed quickly. Market hunters across the eastern United States blasted hundreds of millions from their roosts or from the sky. The meat was shipped by rail to New York and Chicago, where it had become fashionable. Well before the passenger pigeons vanished, there were warning signs and scattered calls for conservation, but most people seemed to think that so numerous and familiar a bird could never be eliminated.

Hunter Prois Field Staffer, Tad Mecham. Picture is not Charisa

Their last precipitous decline surprised even the conservationists. As their numbers fell, the pigeons ceased to mate. Apparently their mating instinct was triggered in a way that we will now never understand by something in the presence of the great flock. The last known passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, died in the Cincinnati zoo in 1914.

These extinctions were warnings. Hunting was only the first great wave in the storm of extinction now sweeping the globe. Hunting targets larger animals, but today it is smaller animals and plants that are being lost, not to hunting, but to pollution, habitat destruction and competition from invasive organisms transported from distant ecosystems. These causes are harder to regulate, and as a result the pace of extinction is quickening.

Charisa states within Kathy Walsh’s CBS news article that she will continue her and here children’s rights to hunt no matter what. This is a woman after all that “lives in fear”  a woman that went onto multinational media and press depicting her cougar hunt video to the dismay of thousands of angry commentaries that were gunning for her blood (yet gave her name and US state crying fear). Sorry Madame but we feel you actually adore the attention, rather that despise anti-hunters. The Daily Mail recently published an article of many on Giraffe hunters of which is titled “Is this really fun for all the family”. Daily Mail we are singling out here as being complete hypocritical bastard’s that wish to attack a well-known conservation welfare company in support of an American hunter yet hypocritically depict an article on US and EU hunters doing exactly what Charisa did?

What did the public think though of Madame Charisa hunting article that has most likely gained her respect and probably thousands in freebies to even an American Film.. Read below for more information;


Two weeks ago mum of two quoted;

How can she be proud of her “accomplishment” of shooting an animal that wasn’t threatening her? Had she fought off the animal barehanded in an attack and managed to kill it instead of it killing her, that would be an accomplishment. Shooting an animal merely for the fun of it with a high powered gun isn’t an accomplishment. At least deer hunters eat the meat. That poor cat died for no purpose other than for this woman to get some sort of sick pleasure in killing it.

OldFossil quotes;

The only time nature and animal populations get out of balance is when humans interfere in some way from introducing species to environments where they didn’t evolve or removing predators. How do these gun happy Yanks think the natural world managed to successfully evolve for billions of years before they came along with their bullets?

Rricco quotes;

She’s worried about those threatening comments but it’s okay for her to kill animals for fun. Wow…what a “smart” woman! ¿¿

Lynn from Canada quotes;

I have no problem with hunters that hunt for food not sport. Then taking a picture is equally sick.

In the 19th century, southern and central European sport hunters often pursued game only for a trophy, usually the head or pelt of an animal, which was then displayed as a sign of prowess. The rest of the animal was typically discarded. Some cultures, however, disapprove of such waste. In Nordic countries, hunting for trophies was—and still is—frowned upon. Hunting in North America in the 19th century was done primarily as a way to supplement food supplies, although it is now undertaken mainly for sport. The safari method of hunting was a development of sport hunting that saw elaborate travel in Africa, India and other places in pursuit of trophies. In modern times, trophy hunting persists and is a significant industry in some areas.

Trophy hunting is most often criticised when it involves rare or endangered animals. Opponents may also see trophy hunting as an issue of morality or animal cruelty, criticising the killing of living creatures for recreation. Victorian era dramatist W. S. Gilbert remarked, “Deer-stalking would be a very fine sport if only the deer had guns.”

There is also debate about the extent to which trophy hunting benefits the local economy. Hunters argue that fees paid contribute to the local economy and provide value to animals that would otherwise be seen as competition for grazing, livestock, and crops. This analysis is disputed by opponents of trophy hunting. Some argue that the animals are worth more to the community for ecotourism than hunting

michelle m

Charisa goes on to quote that she will defend her child’s hunting career. (Picture above is not of her child of which we will not identify)..

Keeping this article informal and brief we will be printing a rebuttal soon, frankly the world must see now just how the female and male hunting groups are acting locally and internationally that hasn’t been displayed on the web. Charisa underestimates us stating that we obtained her picture without authorisation. Charisa provided her picture to our ENM journalist late last year of which has led us to other Colorado hunters and strangely animal abusers that get a kick out of killing and abusing animals for the sheer fun of it. ENM has been on the ground within the US since 2013 sourcing many US hunters both male and female. Watch this space as your likely to be in for a rather unpleasant shock.


Climate Change Destruction & Species Extinction Looming

african sunrise (1)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) last month released its full summary on climate change and the effects we are most likely going to see with regards to our environment, species extinction, increased poverty, hunger, and civil unrest.

International Animal Rescue Foundation’s most cornering issue with regards to the report is that of the climatic effects that are going to be seen within Mama Africa, a still developing continent that has been ravished with civil unrest, war, poverty, and low unemployment. On my return from Africa as of last week I am still baffled by the lack of any professional and positive actions being taken by African ministers all over the African continent.  2050 we will most certainly see an increase in air temperature by some 2-3oc of which will place megafauna and fisheries in evermore danger although sea levels will not rise as some reports have suggested until at least another 150-160 years. Coastal erosion and low lying communities will though be affected by some slight increase in sea levels should Co2 emissions not be addressed sooner rather than later. 

Turkana, Kenya has already been hit with low rainfalls which have had an unwanted devastating effect on to farming communities and cattle. The Turkana people are literally “fighting to stay alive” and yet the United Nations and Kenyan Government on my visit to the Kenyan village have not addressed the dire situation these people are within. Please view the link here of which a “Say No To Dog Meat.Net a registered organisation are currently taking action on regarding Turkana and their dire situation.

Within the next four decades maize prices could rise by up to 131 percent, there could be 17 million more undernourished children in the poorest countries, and some African farmers might have to give up agriculture if the planet keeps getting hotter, new studies show. $50,000 is roughly the average revenue produced by many small farms within Africa. Should we not see a decrease in CO2 emission and temperature levels then unfortunately the African people are going to be stuck in a rather dire situation.

Eighty per cent of rural African people depend on small family plots for their livelihood. Most farmers have less than one hectare of land and struggle to grow enough food to survive. Hence the reasons why International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has recently been publishing on the ever-increasing-trend of dog and cat meat trade and increase in bush meat trade too within the African continent see here for more details. Food shortages are becoming more common and we cannot as a western world continue blaming the African people for such shortages.

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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) noted in its latest assessment that a two-degree Celsius increase in global temperatures by the turn of the century would have a catastrophic effect: water stress in arid and semi-arid countries, more floods in low-lying coastal areas, coastal erosion in small island states, and the elimination of up to 30 percent of animal and plant species.

Global temperatures could be kept below the two-degree Celsius tipping point if harmful greenhouse gas emissions were allowed to peak by 2015, and subsequently by 80 percent to 50 percent until 2050, the IPCC said.  The International Energy Agency warned in its World Energy Outlook 2010 that the demand for oil and coal – the two biggest causes of greenhouse gas emissions – would have to peak before 2020 to keep the global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius.

The IFPRI global projections were accompanied by more detailed studies of African countries, which used the same climate models to show that as populations increased and soaring temperatures hit crop production, the numbers of malnourished children climbed by millions, even in the more developed countries such as South Africa. Only in Malawi, where the local modeller took into account nutrition policies currently in place, did the projections show that the number of malnourished children could fall by 2050.

Implementing policies to help countries adapt, make their people resilient to the impact of climate change, and reduce the risk of disaster was critical, said Lindiwe Sibanda, head of the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN), an African think-tank.

Absalom Manyatsi, an agronomist and the lead author of the study on Swaziland, pointed out that his country, where the impact of climate change would be aggravated by a high incidence of HIV/AIDS, did not have a climate change adaptation policy. In fact, the government intended to increase sugarcane production for biofuel at the expense of maize production.  Neighbouring Mozambique has an adaptation policy but is extremely vulnerable to natural hazards – 20 of the country’s 128 districts are highly prone to drought, 30 to flooding, and 7 to both risks – exposing about 43 percent of the population to natural hazards said Genito Maure, lead author of the case study on Mozambique and a senior lecturer at the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, the capital.

Agriculture’s contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) of Mozambique had dropped quite sharply from about 45 percent in 1989 to 20 percent in 2000, and up to 2010 had stabilized at around a quarter of GDP. “The climate change projections show food production is going to plunge even further with temperatures going up,” Maure said. Most people still depended on farming for an income and the country needed to make agriculture resilient, for instance by investing in infrastructure such as putting in a road network to improve access to markets and the flow of grain from the more fertile north to other parts of the country, he said.

Population growth would be a challenge in many African countries, said Delali Nutsukpo, a senior agriculture official in the Ghanaian government and lead author of the country’s case study. “We need to take measures to control population while investing in rural livelihoods programmes – but will that happen?”

At the beginning of this year International Animal Rescue Foundation began its ground surveillance project of threatened and endangered species of which is printed on their main Facebook page every Monday and Friday with snippets throughout the week on species endangerment of both flora and fauna. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has noted a rather stark increase in the number of mammals land, air and sea now facing population declines caused by the ravaging effects of climate disruption change. Mama Africa’s citizens will not be the only living creatures affected by such surges in temperature, the fact we’re now looking at species “extinction” and on a grand scale is very worrying.

Thus far there are only a small number of mammals that are to be affected by the ever-increasing effects of climate change and it’s something that we seriously do need to take on board now. Categorised below are the most affected mammals of which pose a significant concern to environmentalists and animal welfare organisations and how we are going to prolong their life and environment. The list may seem a meniscal number however if these mammals habit is affected just how does one take the necessary precautions into preserving their habitat? Furthermore just one species of mammal can represent some “thousands of others plus sub-species as well” should local and international extinctions occur because of greenhouse gas emissions than our ecosystem and biodiversity will be vastly affected.

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International and local extinctions occurring caused by climate change; 

The Emperor Penguin, which may face food shortages because of a reduction in shelf ice under which the bird hunts for the shrimp-like krill on which it feeds. Less ice also means smaller breeding areas for the penguins.

Ringed Seals, which must shift their ranges further north in order to find ice on which to raise their young.

The Arctic Fox, which faces competition from red foxes that are now able to expand their range into the tundra because of global warming.

The Beluga Whale, which faces increased human intrusion into its habitat due to reduction in the ice that previously made boat travel difficult.

Staghorn Corals, whose skeletons are dissolving due to the increased acidification of the oceans.

Clownfish, which are also threatened by oceanic acidification that affects their sense of smell, thereby hindering them in their search for the sea anemones in which they live and on which they depend for protection from predators.

Salmon, which will suffer from the fact that warmer water temperatures deplete the oxygen content in their breeding streams and rivers.

The Koala Bear, which, because of the way that the increased amount of CO2 in the atmosphere affects Eucalyptus trees, is suffering from the decreased nutritional content in the Eucalyptus leaves on which it feeds.

The Leatherback Turtle, whose reproduction is being affected by the rising temperatures of the beach sand in which it lays its eggs. Warmer temperatures cause dramatic imbalances in the sex ratios of turtle hatchlings.

The WCS list of animals affected by climate change includes five completely different creatures:

Bicknell’s Thrush, a species native to high-elevation regions of the Eastern US, is seeing major changes in its breeding habitat due to global climate change.


Flamingos are experiencing a reduction in the size and quality of the tropical and semi-tropical wetlands they depend on for survival.

The Irawaddy Dolphin, one of the world’s four freshwater dolphin species, is being affected by changes in water flow and salinity in its Bangladesh and Southeast Asian river habitats.

The Musk Ox faces increased predation by grizzly bears that will be able to expand their range into musk-ox habitat due to global warming.

The Hawksbill Turtle, which faces the same climate-related reproductive problems as the leatherback turtle on the IUCN list.

Furthermore species of bird indigenous to Africa and non-endemic are also beginning to feel the strain of climate change. Old and new world eagles, owls and vulture species populations are in decline with noticeable local migration patterns (not international migratory) seen to be altering.

Birds suffer from climate change effects in every part of the globe. Scientists have found declines of up to 90 per cent in some bird populations, as well as total and unprecedented reproductive failure in others. Specific groups of birds are at high risk from climate change: migratory, mountain, island, wetland, Arctic, Antarctic and seabirds.

While bird species that can move easily to new habitat are expected to continue to do well, bird species that thrive only in a narrow environmental range are expected to decline, and to be outnumbered by invasive species. African and Asiatic non-migratory species will feel the strain furthermore should illegal logging, increased agriculture and land seizures for tourism not be reduced.

Up to date scientific reports confirm a clear and escalating pattern of climate change impacts on bird species around the world, suggesting a trend towards “major bird extinction” from global warming. Scientists have found that bird extinction rates could be as high as 38 percent in Europe, and 72 percent in north-eastern Australia, if global warming exceeds 2 º C above pre-industrial levels (currently it is 0.8ºC above).

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Climate change will also cause some of its most series but “least” predictable impacts by shifting the timing of natural events and by shifting species geographical distributions. This will rearrange animal and plant communities and ecosystems and disrupt bird’s relationships’ with predator’s competitors, prey and parasites. These changes are expected to alter the makeup and functioning of most if not “all”, the world’s ecosystems spelling a catastrophic change of events for species. Furthermore and based on scientific findings and conclusive research evidence clearly suggests that bird species will not be able to adapt. As explained above some local migratory birds may be able to adapt to the changes of climate change however new research is emerging that even this may not be possible.

The early warning signs of climate change can be seen in shifts in timing of important seasonal events for birds, such as eggs laying and migration. These shifts have been documented in North America, Europe, Australia, America and Africa. Some birds in Europe and Africa have even stopped migrating altogether with climate change becoming more rampant.

Human induced climate change could cause historically unprecedented rates of change with species forced to shift 10 (ten) times faster than during any climatic change seen at least since the last ice age. This will exceed the ability of many plants and animals to migrate or adapt thus leading to “extinction”.

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa can now categorically state based on proven research, and conclusive climate modelling analysis that climate change will be the most destructive aggressors to our bird, mammal and aquatic species and “could” contribute sustainably to extinctions worldwide on a copies scale of birds, mammals and aquatic species. Birds and other mammals that “were considered safe” are no longer within a safe zone of which will all be affected in some way by increased temperature rising and habitat fragmentation.

Staying on the African track, will animals become under “increased” attack from local African communities that are fighting to stay alive? International Animal Rescue Foundation Europe believes so. The Europe (Raf) NGO stated;

“CO2 emissions responsible for increased climate change events have contributed to vast swathes of agricultural lands, river beds and cultures vanishing. With no land to farm in affected zones and little or any water readily available to distant cut off communities and farmers based on the current poaching trends of individual opportunistic poachers that poach to feed their families, we should under no circumstances believe poaching will decrease.”

“Evidence has proven from a variety of sources and our own within the Central African Republic, North Africa and West Africa that food is scarce and farming communities seriously depleted thus inducing starvation, crime and antisocial behaviour. Furthermore on questioning the locals all questioned had not received any form of aid or help from the United Nations or their own government to bulk up food mass, water and sanitation. This then poses the question of just how do these families actually survive” I think Johan, that we can categorically state that poaching to feed families and increased bush meat trade coupled with illegal logging and traditional medicine trade and demand within Asia will most certainly increase. Regardless of how governments and environmental agencies are now tackling demand and poaching within South Africa and Asia it’s not going to have any real profound effect on the “want” to stay alive” people here are desperate, what do we do Johan?.

The local communities have less than a $1-3 a week to live on and human population within the West, Central Africa and North Africa is vastly exploding, they need monetary funding, they need food they need water they are dying”. “Coupled with the increase in human population this is also having a profound effect onto South Africa a more “developed African country”. Human birth rates are increasing, agriculture, food availability and aid is decreasing, asylum seeking is increasing from the north to the south of which will also displace native mammal species thus seeing increased local extinctions of mammals and birds”.

“We led a 2 year mission into Africa back in 2001 of which bush meat poaching and “opportunistic” poaching was not as high as it was today based on chart surveillance and questioners”. “On questioning the many small communities within the CAR, Northern Africa and Western Africa families reported lack of rainfall, decrease in arable farming, and low income. I must also point out that now the local communities know they can gain a buck or two from Rhino horn and Elephant ivory then sadly we are not going to see any form of poaching decrease unless the African and Western Governments address their carbon emissions professionally and proactively sooner rather than later”. “At the moment Johan we are pleading with the international governments to help increase arable and cattle farming of which if we can see some form of agricultural help we can then monitor the local big game poaching pandemic and bush meat trade further hopefully with positive results seen”.

“We can no longer just address poaching and demand, we have to address and take on climate change, poverty, and agriculture too, and until this is addressed we will most likely by 2070 see some 15 species of megafauna wiped out with birds and small predators too”. 

Johan that runs the African External Affairs Environmental Investigations Unit also stated another worrying aspect of how climate change “will” see many thousands of Africans suffer from starvation from lack of available fish and staple dietary foods that many Africans rely on. Of course if the worst comes to the worst then importations from other countries can be relied on. To feed though the majority of 1.033 billion (2011-2013) people will only increase CO2 emissions internationally furthermore as those countries providing Africa will not only have to fend for themselves but provide to Africa too. Continents around the globe are also under climate change disruption too!

Approximately 200 million Africans rely on fish as an important part of their diet. Ten million households directly derive income from fish production, processing or trade. Yet the enormous potential of fisheries to help feed and improve the nutritional status of the rapidly-increasing population of Africa is greatly under-realized, and precious aquatic resources are being degraded.

CO2-driven acidification and warming will gradually change ocean ecosystems over century-long timescales. These changes will likely have gained momentum by 2050 such that their impacts will be strongly felt for centuries. Biodiversity and habitat loss are already evident and will continue to degrade ocean ecosystems, while eutrophication and toxic plankton will continue to have localised, dramatic effects on ocean health. While ocean ecosystems are set to degrade, the inefficiencies of current fisheries practice means we get only a fraction of what we could get from the ocean. Humans only benefit from a small proportion of the ocean’s primary productivity – on land we eat herbivores, but we eat top-end predators from the marine environment. Poor and inconsistent regulation of the marine environment means we have also diminished ocean populations to the point where their inherent resilience and productivity is low. Population growth, especially the disproportionate growth of those who depend heavily on fisheries to underpin their livelihood (directly and indirectly), will make the issue of fisheries and fishery management more pressing over the next few decades.

What does the future hold for 2050 and marine aquatic fish stock?

The overwhelming evidence from all contemporary climate change models suggests ocean temperatures will increase almost everywhere over the next century – though some areas will warm more than others. The Arctic may become ice-free and the Antarctic Ice Shelf reduced. The tropics could experience regular (annual?) spikes in sea temperatures, leading to bleaching of coral reefs, with temperatures hostile to many of the existing biological communities. Warming will bring about reorganisation of existing communities, with migration of species away from the tropics, and only if suitable habitat is available elsewhere. The timing of important life-history events (phenology, e.g. spawning, egg maturation, migrations) will change, often leading to match-mismatch between trophic levels (e.g. zooplankton and larval fish) with consequences on whole ecosystems and bioresources (e.g. fisheries). Sea level is unlikely to change dramatically in the next 50 years, but shallow water nursery/feeding areas may change, as may chemical signals emanating from shallow water environments. Concluding big aquatic Africa predators will most likely be affected from depleted fish stocks thus seeing species forced to displace or regrettably perish from hunger and malnutrition. Extinction within the next 50-80 years will evidentially occur of many African and non-native African aquatic species.


Climate change is not going away. And, Africa will bear the brunt of it.

Africa consumes a tiny fraction of the world’s fossil fuels, yet it is predicted to shoulder far more than its share of the negative impacts of climate change. Between its size, vast natural resources, and unique weather patterns, the continent is especially susceptible to the effects of rising temperatures. Without comprehensive measures to understand and address the impacts of climate change, the well-being of both Africa’s wildlife and its people are in jeopardy. Climate change disbelievers can either shut up or buck up as climate change in Africa is here and Africa still a developing country will be affected the most.

Climate change is not a natural phenomenon. It is caused by mankind.

Climate change impacts our planet’s weather patterns, affecting everything from the global economy to food security to our physical safety. What’s more, greenhouse gases are hazardous to our health. Humanity created this phenomenon, and it’s up to us to address its effects and prevent further damage. Africa is home to just 17% of the world’s forests, yet deforestation on the continent is estimated to be four times the global average—and the pace is accelerating. Practices like rapid deforestation combined with excessive greenhouse gas emissions from around the world are all contributing to climate change. Rising temperatures are having a catastrophic impact on the people of Africa, resulting in unreliable farming seasons, low water supplies, increased droughts, severe heat waves, heavy storms, and flooding.

Part of the challenge in addressing climate change is that it can be a difficult concept to understand. Even once people understand the threats climate change poses, it is hard to get individuals, businesses, countries, and communities to change their behavior and adopt new habits, such as using eco-friendly cook stoves that require less wood than traditional cooking methods.

Solutions that can be adopted are;

Counteract greenhouse gas emissions by arranging carbon payments.

Provide training on sustainable land use and agriculture techniques.

Promote sustainable energy technology.

Impact of climate on food in Africa


International Animal Rescue Foundation will release more data on this subject in the next few months based on their climatology reports and questionnaires –  please take a minute of your time to fill in our survey below.

Thank you for reading and for taking time to fill out our poll.

Dr Jose Depre BEM, PhD, Ma EnVstu

Donate today by clicking this link to Fund African Wildlife Survival (F.A.W.S) below and help us to sustain our Africa pristine and natural wildlife heritage.  For further information please contact the International Animal Rescue foundation here

Kerala-Nagaland-Dog meat .. Welcome to India


Kerala – which leads the country in several indicators including literacy – is also the highest consumer of meat with a daily requirement of over 5,000 tonnes, according to the state animal husbandry department. Animal husbandry director R. Vijayakumar does not find the figure of 5,034.96 tonnes a day surprising as 80 per cent of the state’s residents are non-vegetarians. “The sad part is that the domestic production of meat (beef, mutton and chicken) is just around 264.31 tonnes,” Vijaykumar said, adding: “The rest comes from nearby states.” The department has collected this data for a national meeting in Gujarat later this month to review the production of meat and allied products. The survey finds chicken to be the most preferred. In fact, from a mere six per cent share in 1990, it now accounts for 45 per cent of the meat consumed in Kerala. “The eating profile of our people has undergone a huge change,”.

Concerning is the trade of dog and cat meat ongoing in both Nagaland and Kerala of which many “governmental ministers” are trying to whitewash or keep quiet. No longer will the trade be kept quiet. Today International Animal Rescue Foundation India visited the state of Assam of which investigating on local reports located not just dog and cat meat vendors but stories from the locals that state a “sex trade” is ongoing within Assam, Kerala and Nagaland of both dogs and cats to our utter disgust. We cannot print the locations of our findings online due to the graphic content however ask our viewers, supporters and subscribers to please research “Kerala dog sex trade” of which you will be sickened by what we found on the ground. Dog meat, cat meat and animal sex is something that we would least expect to locate within India.

The authorities in Assam have increased vigil along National Highway 39, which connects the state with Nagaland, to check smuggling of dogs to the neighbouring state where dog meat is considered a delicacy. “It’s election time and there is big demand for dog meat in Nagaland where feasts are held in villages and in which the meat is looked forward to. As such we have increased vigil along the highway to check smuggling of dogs from Assam to the neighbouring state,” said Arup Ballab Goswami, honorary wildlife warden of Golaghat district.

Election in Nagaland is considered a time for feasts and merry-making and sources said village councils play a significant role in deciding the fate of candidates. “More often than not, these councils decide who the villagers should vote for. It’s a collective decision and once taken it is expected to be adhered to by the villagers. The entire exercise also involves a lot of community feasting as candidates do their bit to woo votes,” a source said.

There are also reports of a large quantity of liquor being smuggled to Nagaland from Assam, as the neighbouring state is officially dry.
Sale of dogs in Nagaland is brisk business but the supply remains insufficient. Thus, dogs from Assam are illegally sent to Nagaland. Buyers from Nagaland arrive at villages in Assam and buy dogs at prices between Rs 200 and Rs 500 each, depending on the health and build. Sources said a single dog could fetch a price as high as Rs 2,000, especially during festivals.

Till a few years back, it was a common sight to see rows of dogs, tucked in gunny bags, kept on the side of the highway near Dimapur along the Assam-Nagaland border checkgate as owners awaited vehicles to load the consignment for onward journey. Goswami said there has been a drop in smuggling of dogs in recent times following steps taken by Assam police after wildlife activists raised a hue and cry. “But dogs still get smuggled to the neighbouring state and this increases during festivities,” he added.

Goswami said smuggling of dogs, a big racket, was punishable under Section 11 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
Nagas are voracious meat-eaters and dog meat is just one of the delicacies. The daily market at Kohima throws up a wide array of meats, from the ubiquitous chicken, pork, beef, squirrel to frogs and what have you.

Nagaland will go to the polls on April 9 to elect its single representative to the Lok Sabha. On election dogs and cats will be mercifully slain and eaten in “celebration” of the newly elected winner.

Stay tuned for more updates on this story.




Ebola Leaves Meat Market Women Furious

SNTDM Ebola 6

Ebola Leaves Meat Market Women Furious

The deadly Ebola Epidemic is reported to have entered the Liberian territory , which is dog meat central, after killing more than eighty persons in neighbouring Guinea. Market women selling bushmeat are furious because the Liberian government issued a statement for people to lay off eating dried bush meat for a while.

The women are angry because the government’s announcements is costing them customers and they want the government to shut up. Ebola can be transmitted to humans from eating infected bushmeat, which act as carrier of the deadly virus.

To date, health warnings have focused on dry bushmeat, however, infected dog meat is a very serious health situation that is not to be taken lightly.

After selling meat for fifteen years, Liberian lady Ma Hawa, bush meat dealer at Monrovia’s Waterside Market, told FPA that even during the deadly civil war when food was scarce, Liberians were not exterminated adding that Ebola will not wipe out the entire country.

“They said the sickness came from Guinea and people in Guinea do not eat dry meat so they just trying to spoil our business,” said Ma Tenneh Kamara,

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“During the war, they were eating human beings, that one na [not] make them sick, that now they say that meat making people sick. They are spoiling our business and it is our living. The people who are eating dog meat, what they will say about them? They are just complaining about dry meat, people eating itchy dog, it is not killing them. They know how far the sickness coming from before they [are] lying on [about] meat.“

Ma Yassah, another woman dealing in the favorite food aid that the Ebola epidemic is taking away a vital part of the Liberian way of life-its food because without bush meat some dishes are not worth cooking or eating.

Liberia’s Health Minister Dr. Walter Gwenigale on Monday issued a warning to Liberians to desist from eating bush meat for now and went on to say that eating of bush meat or having sex during the epidemic would be a bad idea, something that was also buttressed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Country Director, Dr. Nestor Ndayimirije.

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“I want to mention one point which is critical. The public needs to know that even if they [the hunter] say that they have killed that animal, it may be sick. It may be in the incubation period,” said Dr. Gwenigale (end of article.)

The dog meat trade in Liberia uses many dogs sold to traders from dog snatchers. If a stray dog eats an infected bushmeat animal, the dog becomes infected with Ebola as well. If a dog trader then catches the infected stray dog and unknowingly sells it to a dog trader for human consumption, an Ebola infected dog becomes a method of spreading Ebola and causing human deaths.

Dog Meat Trade & Ebola.

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa has been researching in depth the dog and cat meat trade all over Africa since 2012.

Worryingly news is now emerging that the Ebola virus a killer has been noted within the African states listed herein of which there is an active bushmeat trade and pet trade. Furthermore there is also decreased levels of wildlife within these areas compared to that of Southern Africa and East Africa.

Please view the research below that is related to dogs and Ebola. Research was conducted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

During the 2001–2002 outbreak in Gabon, we observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 14 the 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus–epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus–IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus–epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic.


Picture (1) depicts areas where Ebola has been documented and states of Africa that have a known dog and bush meat trade. Areas too where dog and cat meat is consumed of which have yet to see any documented evidence of Ebola as yet. As you can see all the above African states are widely known to consume dog meat of which Nigeria is the largest trafficker and consumer nation. Is it not much of a coincidence that these are the only areas where dogs and cats are consumed of which Ebola has broken out. Nigeria, Mali, Ghana and Senegal have yet to document on any such cases. If this is not a coincidence then we leave you with the question, where has Ebola really derived from? No known cases have been reported in East Africa or Southern Africa to date.

During the past 3 years, 5 Ebola outbreaks due to Ebola virus-Z have struck the region of central Africa, including Gabon and Republic of Congo, and caused 334 deaths among the 428 reported human cases. In previous studies, it was showed that each extended outbreak could be subdivided into several independent epidemic clusters or chains of transmission, which resulted from close contact with an Ebola virus-Z–infected animal carcass. Epidemiologic observations and genetic analyses identified gorilla, chimpanzee, and duiker carcasses as the main sources of human cases. It must be noted too that stray dogs will consume dead wildlife meat that could be infected with Ebola. Once the species barrier has been crossed between animals and humans, the disease spreads among humans by direct physical contact.

Some human cases in the recent outbreak in the Gabon/Republic of Congo region did not have a documented source of exposure to Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Similarly, 14 (4.9%) of the 284 cases in the 1976 Sudan outbreak (6) and 55 (17.4%) of the 316 cases during the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit (7), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, former Zaire), had no direct physical contact with an infected person or known infected carcass. These observations point to other routes of transmission (e.g., human-human respiratory tract infection through droplets and aerosols) or may suggest that other, unidentified animal sources may be involved in Ebola virus transmission to humans.

Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks occurred in villages where people keep domestic animals, including dogs. The dogs are not fed and have to scavenge for their food. They eat small dead animals found near the villages and also internal organs of wild animals hunted and slaughtered by villagers. Some dogs are also used for hunting in the dense forested area. Although canine infection by Ebola virus has never been documented, domestic dogs’ behavior and diet place them at risk.

Scientists examined whether pet dogs could have been infected by Ebola virus and their potential role as primary or secondary sources of human infection. Researchers conducted a large-scale serologic survey to determine the prevalence of Ebola virus infection in pet dogs in an Ebola virus–epidemic area of Gabon.


Sampling was conducted in 2 ways. 1) Dogs in Libreville and Port Gentil were sampled in a veterinary clinic. Blood was collected in 5-mL dry Vacutainers (VWR International, Fontenay-sous-bois, France), and serum was prepared by centrifugation. Serum specimens were stored at –20°C until they were sent to the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Gabon, where they were stored at –80°C until testing. 2) Dogs from the Ebola virus–endemic area were sampled in the villages. An experienced veterinary team was located at Mekambo, where field laboratory facilities were set up; blood samples were collected on a daily basis in the vicinity of the village by using 5-mL dry Vacutainers and medetomidine anesthesia. The tubes were then transported to Mekambo each evening, and serum was decanted from whole blood. Serum samples were kept in liquid nitrogen in 1-mL aliquots at Mekambo until they were transported to CIRMF. Serum samples were then stored at –80°C until serologic testing, antigen detection, and RNA amplification were carried out.

Dog owners were interviewed on their pets’ activities (e.g., participation in hunting) and health history. The focus of the interviews was on potential Ebola virus–exposure events, including human cases that occurred in the village and among dog owners.

Laboratory Investigations

Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G was detected by using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method as previously described (8). Briefly, Maxisorp plates (VWR International) were coated with Ebola virus–Z antigens diluted 1:1,000 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), overnight at 4°C. Control plates were coated with uninfected Vero cell culture antigens in the same conditions. Sera diluted 1:400 in 5% nonfat milk in PBS-Tween 20 (0.1%) were added to the wells and incubated overnight at 4°C. IgG binding was visualized by using a peroxidase-labeled anti-dog IgG (Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and the TMB detector system (Dynex Technologies, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France). Optical density (OD) was measured at 450 nm with an ELISA plate reader. For each sample we calculated the corrected OD as the OD of the antigen-coated well minus the OD of the corresponding control well. The cut-off value (CO) was calculated as follows: CO = M + 3σ, where M is the average of the corrected OD of the 102 negative controls from France, and σ is the standard deviation. Samples were considered positive when the corrected OD was above the cut-off.

Samples positive in these serologic assays were used for antigen detection (9) and for viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification (10). Three positive and 3 negative serum specimens were also used for virus isolation (9). Briefly, Maxisorp plates were coated with a cocktail of 7 monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus–Z antigens; control plates were coated with normal mouse ascitic fluid produced from the parent myeloma cell line. Serum was then added to the wells, followed by hyperimmune rabbit Ebola polyvalent antiserum and then peroxidase-conjugated goat antibodies against rabbit IgG. The TMB Microwell peroxidase substrate system was used to measure OD. For the detection of viral mRNA, total RNA was isolated from serum with the QIAmp viral RNA kit (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France), and cDNA was synthesized from mRNA as previously described. Two pairs of degenerate primers corresponding to the L-gene of Ebola virus were used for 2 rounds of amplification, which yielded a 298-bp fragment.

Statistical Methods

Confidence intervals for proportions were calculated by using the Clopper and Pearson method (11). Statistical comparisons between seroprevalence rates according to the sampling area were performed by using the Fisher exact test. The Cochran-Armitage test was used as a trend test for proportions, after checking for the goodness-of-fit of the underlying linear model (12). All tests used a 0.05 significance level. Statistical analyses were performed by using R software (R Development Core Team; 13).


A total of 439 blood samples from dogs were screened for Ebola virus–specific IgG. Two (2%) of the 102 blood samples from dogs living in France had detectable Ebola virus–reactive IgG (Table 2). Seven of the 79 dogs sampled in Libreville and Port Gentil (8.9% prevalence rate), 15 of the 99 dogs sampled in Mekambo (15.2% prevalence rate), and 40 of the 159 dogs sampled in villages located within the Ebola virus–epidemic area (25.2% prevalence rate) had detectable IgG to Ebola virus antigens.

During the 2001–2002 Ebola outbreak in Gabon, human cases of Ebola virus infection appeared only in certain villages within the Ebola virus–epidemic area (Figure 1). The prevalence of Ebola virus-reactive IgG among dogs from the villages where humans cases occurred was 27.2%, compared to 22.4% among dogs from villages where no human cases were noted (Table 2). In some cases, hunters had brought back to the village an Ebola virus–infected animal carcass found in the forest. This carcass was the source of human infection in the village, and the disease then spread from human to human, both within the village and to other villages by population movement. Thus, only secondary human cases were observed in some villages, with no identified animal source. The prevalence rate among dogs from villages with both an animal source and human cases was as high as 31.8%, compared to 15.4% among dogs from villages with human cases but no identified animal source.

In conclusion, this study offers the first evidence that dogs might be asymptomatically infected by Ebola virus in the wild. This finding has potential implications for preventing and controlling human outbreaks. The increasing canine seroprevalence gradient from low-risk to at-risk Ebola virus–endemic areas indicates that this seroprevalence might be used as an epidemiologic indicator of virus circulation in regions where no other means of virus detection are available.

Read the entire study here now;


WHO quotes nothing about the transmission of Ebola from dogs to humans which is worrying.

Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. In Africa, infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.

Ebola then spreads in the community through human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola. Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.

Among workers in contact with monkeys or pigs infected with Reston ebolavirus, several infections have been documented in people who were clinically asymptomatic. Thus, RESTV appears less capable of causing disease in humans than other Ebola species.

However, the only available evidence available comes from healthy adult males. It would be premature to extrapolate the health effects of the virus to all population groups, such as immuno-compromised persons, persons with underlying medical conditions, pregnant women and children. More studies of RESTV are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the pathogenicity and virulence of this virus in humans.

Signs and symptoms

EVD is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.

People are infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. Ebola virus was isolated from semen 61 days after onset of illness in a man who was infected in a laboratory.

The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms, is 2 to 21 days.


Other diseases that should be ruled out before a diagnosis of EVD can be made include: malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, cholera, leptospirosis, plague, rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, meningitis, hepatitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers.

Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed definitively in a laboratory through several types of tests:

  • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • antigen detection tests
  • serum neutralization test
  • reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  • virus isolation by cell culture.

Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; testing should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.

Prevention and treatment

No vaccine for EVD is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use.

Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. Patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids.

No specific treatment is available. New drug therapies are being evaluated.

Natural host of Ebola virus

In Africa, fruit bats, particularly species of the genera Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti and Myonycteris torquata, are considered possible natural hosts for Ebola virus. As a result, the geographic distribution of Ebolaviruses may overlap with the range of the fruit bats.

Ebola virus in animals

Although non-human primates have been a source of infection for humans, they are not thought to be the reservoir but rather an accidental host like human beings. Since 1994, Ebola outbreaks from the EBOV and TAFV species have been observed in chimpanzees and gorillas.

RESTV has caused severe EVD outbreaks in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) farmed in Philippines and detected in monkeys imported into the USA in 1989, 1990 and 1996, and in monkeys imported to Italy from Philippines in 1992.

Since 2008, RESTV viruses have been detected during several outbreaks of a deadly disease in pigs in Philippines and China. Asymptomatic infection in pigs has been reported and experimental inoculations have shown that RESTV cannot cause disease in pigs.


Controlling Ebola Reston in domestic animals

No animal vaccine against RESTV is available. Routine cleaning and disinfection of pig or monkey farms (with sodium hypochlorite or other detergents) should be effective in inactivating the virus.

If an outbreak is suspected, the premises should be quarantined immediately. Culling of infected animals, with close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses, may be necessary to reduce the risk of animal-to-human transmission. Restricting or banning the movement of animals from infected farms to other areas can reduce the spread of the disease.

As RESTV outbreaks in pigs and monkeys have preceded human infections, the establishment of an active animal health surveillance system to detect new cases is essential in providing early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities.

Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people

In the absence of effective treatment and a human vaccine, raising awareness of the risk factors for Ebola infection and the protective measures individuals can take is the only way to reduce human infection and death.

In Africa, during EVD outbreaks, educational public health messages for risk reduction should focus on several factors:

  • Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
  • Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission in the community arising from direct or close contact with infected patients, particularly with their bodily fluids. Close physical contact with Ebola patients should be avoided. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
  • Communities affected by Ebola should inform the population about the nature of the disease and about outbreak containment measures, including burial of the dead. People who have died from Ebola should be promptly and safely buried.

Pig farms in Africa can play a role in the amplification of infection because of the presence of fruit bats on these farms. Appropriate biosecurity measures should be in place to limit transmission. For RESTV, educational public health messages should focus on reducing the risk of pig-to-human transmission as a result of unsafe animal husbandry and slaughtering practices, and unsafe consumption of fresh blood, raw milk or animal tissue. Gloves and other appropriate protective clothing should be worn when handling sick animals or their tissues and when slaughtering animals. In regions where RESTV has been reported in pigs, all animal products (blood, meat and milk) should be thoroughly cooked before eating.

Controlling infection in health-care settings

Human-to-human transmission of the Ebola virus is primarily associated with direct or indirect contact with blood and body fluids. Transmission to health-care workers has been reported when appropriate infection control measures have not been observed.

It is not always possible to identify patients with EBV early because initial symptoms may be non-specific. For this reason, it is important that health-care workers apply standard precautions consistently with all patients – regardless of their diagnosis – in all work practices at all times. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, the use of personal protective equipment (according to the risk of splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices.

Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply, in addition to standard precautions, other infection control measures to avoid any exposure to the patient’s blood and body fluids and direct unprotected contact with the possibly contaminated environment. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).

Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from suspected human and animal Ebola cases for diagnosis should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.

View more within the video below.

International Animal Rescue Foundation and Say No To Dog Meat.Net whom are not affiliated with us have been stating now for many months that dog and cat meat trade “will pose a significant health risk” in viral format to the global population unless the trade is ceased. Could the Ebola outbreak now be one of these major global concerns and if so why has not one single government lobbied by us and SNTDM actually taken this on board. We will most likely never know where the Ebola outbreak originated from. This is plausible evidence though that Ebola can be transmitted from dogs to humans and from dogs that have brought back infested Ebola meat to human villages. Is it such a coincidence too that Ebola has only been recorded within Western Africa where dog, cat and bush meat is consumed and where poverty, climate change, civil unrest and lack of wildlife species is common place. Only one single case of Ebola this year as been recorded within Southern Africa that we are aware of.

We have highlighted this issue in the hope that someone within the virial community will investigate in-depth the possible relations of consuming dogs and bush meat and Ebola virus documenting a detailed response to our concerns as to why Ebola has only been recorded within Western Africa. Bush meat is consumed all over Africa, yet dog meat is consumed only by small minorities with the exception of Nigeria. Coincidence or are the authorities concealing what they have actually ignored?

Whatever the answer this must be a wake up call to the entire African continent now before its to late.

The Dog Meat Trade: Sex, Lies and Brutality


The Dog Meat Trade: Sex, Lies and Brutality

Welcome to the dog and cat meat trade, where the treatment of animals is unregulated, cruelty goes unchecked and butchers answer to no one. Worst of all, in many dog and cat-eating countries, parents expose their children to the trade at a very young age, desensitizing them against animal cruelty in a way that only works to perpetuate this gruesome trade, generation after generation.

Small children are often involved in killing dogs and cats, either by observing or helping their parents commit acts of brutality and murder. In the same manner that parents may hide coins in the Christmas pudding to surprise their children, children of dog and cat eaters are “surprised” by the news that the meal they ate the night before was not funny-tasting beef, but dog. And so the next generation of dog-eaters is born.

Small children can be seen accompanying their parents to dog and cat meat markets, peering in wonder at small animals housed in cramped, dirty cages. Meanwhile, their parents roughly pick up puppies and tip them upside down – similar to the way you might examine an orange in a grocery store – only to throw them down and do the same with several more pups until they decide which one they want. The child is simply excited because he is getting a living “thing” to play with for a while.

It’s not unusual for a family to raise a dog for about four months – just enough time for a child to think of the dog as their own pet – then kill it and eat it. One of the attractions of fattening a puppy at home is that you can kill it in the “traditional” manner, which ensures you will not end up with soft, tender meat, considered sub-standard by dog meat-eaters.

This thinking is in complete opposition to the western and European world when it comes to the quality of meat. Western and European carnivores demand tender meat, brought about by inducing as little stress as possible upon farm animals leading up to and during their slaughter. This goes hand in hand with regulations enforced by official meat inspectors within regulated slaughterhouse industries.

In complete contrast to western and European ways, Asia and African dog-eaters demand tough meat, believing that when men eat tough meat it makes them “tough.” What they really mean is that tough meat is believed to act as a male sexual stimulant and promote virility and sexual prowess, giving a man longer staying power and extra energy for a repeat performance, regardless of his age.

This belief is absolutely false and without merit – there is absolutely no scientific evidence that proves that gorging on dog meat does anything to aid a man’s sexual performance or cure his difficulties, such as premature ejaculation. Men with challenges in the bedroom should simply see a doctor, a sex therapist, or both!

Thinking that dog meat acts as a sexual aid is only the tip of the iceberg, because these people aren’t interested in eating just any type of dog meat – the animal must be killed in a certain manner in order for the meat to work its “magic,” according to numerous dog meat-eating men I have interviewed across many dog and cat-eating nations.


Customers demand that the dog be tortured to ensure full flavour, which is affectionately called “tenderising.” The most important factor to a dog meat eater is that when killing a dog, its body is flooded with adrenaline, which is pumped though the dog’s body when terrified and in agony. This over-saturation of adrenaline produces the tough meat consistency and strong flavour so greatly desired by dog meat aficionados.

Fake Sexual Performance Claims

Because dog meat is falsely promoted as possessing magical sexual powers, it is mainly eaten by men, who like to eat it in groups. Depending on the country, it is usually frowned upon for women to even consider eating dog meat, however there are exceptions in the case of pregnancy and postpartum conditions.

I’ve interviewed numerous dog butchers from different countries and they’ve all intimated that the sexual potency of dog meat is far too strong for fragile womenfolk to handle. They seem to believe that the meat may cause the fairer sex to go out of control and become irrational with lust – heaven forbid! According to dog and cat meat butchers, such lusts are a man’s domain and are not something women should trouble their minds over.

In dog and cat meat markets, it isn’t unusual to see evidence of this ignorant, sexist and perverted thinking. For example, an elderly South Korean woman building up her husband’s ego by announcing that dog meat allows her husband to “cuddle her twice in one night” as she breaks up into giggles while he puffs out his chest. Or a devoted father taking his young boy out for a day and buying a puppy, which in reality is really no different than his shopping at an adult store and perusing the sexual aid products with his son in tow.

121534-slaughter-house-in-dongbei-county-of-lianzhou-guangdong-province 3

Although there ‘are’ animal lovers in dog and cat eating countries, for the most part cruelty is simply an accepted part of life for many of the people, where they are conditioned, brainwashed and desensitised to believe that animals are simply lesser beings that are meant to be used, tortured and consumed. That’s why you’ll commonly hear the same defensive protests from these people when questioned about their taste for dog meat: “it’s no different than eating a cow, pig or chicken!” Yes, it is different because there is no regulation, no oversight and no protection of companion animals from the deliberate inflicted cruelty that goes hand-in-hand with dog and cat meat-eating.

Livestock are regulated and have rights whereas dogs and cats are not regulated and have no rights. However, legislation and/or legalisation will only make the situation worse because many countries already have existing laws in placethat are openly ignored, so more laws are NOT the answer. The only solution is to end the dog and cat meat trade. 

Dog Butchers

The practices dog meat butchers use are beyond gruesome. Notice in the (top) photograph that the dog has been bludgeoned in the head with a wooden mallet, which would not kill the dog at all. The dog would simply be stunned due to head injuries, giving the killer enough time to stab it in the chest – not to kill the dog but simply to inflict agony, guaranteeing that the animal’s body floods with adrenaline. This ensures tough meat.

After bludgeoning and then stabbing the dog, the man would “tenderize” the dog by repeatedly bludgeoning the tender parts of its body, such as its belly and groin, as the dog writhes on the ground in agony. The man would then begin skinning the dog alive. 

Small dogs and puppies are often clubbed on the head to stun them, (not to kill them), then their fur is scrapped off with a knife, which does not kill them either, then the conscious dog or puppy is boiled alive and left to flail in a vat of boiling water whilst being cooked from the outside in, as shown in the photo below.


In South Korea’s main dog and cat meat market, Moran Market, dog butchers have modernised their killing methods, due to the daily quantity of dogs they kill and these days they mostly electrocute the dogs in either their mouth or genitals, However, this only stuns the dogs and does not kill them. After dropping to the ground and seizing, the dogs are dragged into the killing rooms where they regain consciousness and are them thrown into  hair removal machines, which are giant agitators of boiling water that rips the fur off the dog’s body as the machine spins violently. The dog is then hung by the neck and set on fire from the flames of a blowtorch. “Traditional” killing method (torture) is still available on request at Moran Market.

Good old-fashioned “traditional” tortures can last up to one hour. In some countries such as South Korea, one method involves hanging a fully conscious dog by the neck and beating it with a club whilst repeatedly giving the dog multiple electric shocks, just to add more agony, but not to kill it. Over the course of close to an hour, the still alive but petrified and agonised dog is set it on fire with a blow torch and slowly cooked alive. When the word “traditional” is mentioned in relation to dog meat, it is referring to preferred and deliberate brutal torture methods.

When the initial flames hit the dog’s flesh, its entire body shudders violently while its eyes roll back in its head. Even several minutes later, there are still signs of life such as the dog’s ears still flick back and forth and it’s lower jaw opens and closes, as if to let out silent screams, as it cooks from the outside in.

Having witnessed this torture firsthand I can tell you it is perhaps one of the most horrific things to witness, not just because the cruelty is so intentional and extreme but also because the so-called human’s objective is not to kill the animal right away, but rather to torture it for as long as possible.

Whether by hanging, bludgeoning, stabbing, boiling, burning or skinning alive, there is no humane way to kill a dog or a cat in the meat trade. The only answer is to simply ban this trade wherever it exists. It is a cruel and gruesome industry that thrives due to greed, ignorance, cultural superstition and emotional desensitization. Eating dog and cat meat does not cure anything – it only causes the suffering and death of dogs and cats!

Companion animals must be protected and most importantly, taken off the menu. Domesticated thousands of years ago to be just that – our companions – dogs and cats are our friends, not food!

Michele Brown.

Kill the Trade – Destroy your Ivory Stockpiles.

Elephant1International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and Speak Up for the Voiceless call on all environmental organisations, animal activists and members of the public to lobby the first set of governments listed herein to destroy all confiscated ivory within their vaults.

We have to make a stand and show to Asia that we will not support, tolerate or debate an ivory trade. Enough is enough and now the time has come for all governments around the world to destroy all ivory, standing up to this bloody menace of poaching today and not within ten years of which we will have no Elephants walking freely within the wild.  Please view the sample letter below.

Make Contact Today;


Contact below;

Great Britain


Áras an Uachtaráin
Phoenix Park,
Dublin 8
email info@president.ie









Dear President of _________________

I call on your respectable government to now initiate a destruction order of all confiscated ivory pieces within your vaults confiscated by customs, police and wildlife departments. Last year we lost some 20,000-30,000 Elephants of which ivory is used to supply the trade in white gold (worked ivory) within Asia.

Countries around the globe are now stepping up and destroying their confiscated ivory sending a clear message to Asia that trade will not be tolerated or debated. A transparent message must now be sent to Asian criminal gangs and those that trade in wildlife products that trade will not be on the agenda or tolerated.

Every 15 minutes an Elephant is poached to supply the trade in white gold. Please destroy your stockpiles and stop any form of trade in confiscated ivory emerging.

I look forward to your reply.




Name ________________

Address ______________

Email ________________

Telephone ____________

Date _________________



BOKDAYS Film Exposed – a Cautionary Tale

BOKDAYS Film Exposed – a Cautionary Tale

My name is Michele Brown and I am an animal welfare activist, rescuer and frontline fighter against the dog and cat meat trade in Asia and Africa. In my 30 years as a first-response rescuer I have witnessed my fair share of animal cruelty, but nothing compares to the unspeakable brutality inflicted upon companion animals in dog and cat-eating countries. This is why I have made it my life’s mission to stop this gruesome trade by exposing it for what it is – heinous animal cruelty.

To help raise public awareness about this pressing issue, I recently produced a short, controversial film titled:BOKDAYS, Hidden In the Land Of Morning Calm, which focuses on the dog and cat meat trade in South Korea. It was made in early 2013 with the intention of premiering it at Cannes Film Festival in May, of the same year. I put the footage together, wrote the script, narrated it, edited the music and made the poster for the festival. I used to write a blog about the dog and cat meat trade called Chiffon River, so I made BOKDAYS under the name of Chiffon River Productions.

But little did I suspect that not only would this film never make it to Cannes but that it would also be used as a publicity stunt to further someone else’s agenda and be stolen from me. But then, I guess that’s what happens when you put your trust in people who claim to care about animals but really care more about themselves.

Letter form the Charities Commission, UK to my self, accepting my request for  resignation and removal from No To Dog Meat and  the World Protection of Dogs and Cats in the Meat Trade.

Letter from the Charities Commission, UK to my self, accepting my request for resignation and removal from No To Dog Meat and the World Protection of Dogs and Cats in the Meat Trade.

The rescue community is overflowing with well-intentioned individuals who are truly passionate about animals and protecting them from harm. But along with these many good souls, animal issues also attract a certain percentage of people who may care about animals but whose true, underlying objectives can include attracting personal attention, exerting control, bullying others and profiting financially and receiving public acclaim. In my opinion, those are the kinds of people who give the animal welfare community the unfair – but sometimes accurate – reputation of being full of “crazies” and “fanatics.”

I unfortunately had the displeasure of working with such an individual last year and as a result, paid dearly for it. Up until now I have remained silent about my experience, choosing to turn the other cheek rather than lowering myself to this person’s level but the bullying and extreme level of hatred that I thought would lessen with time only continues to grow worse. So I have decided to tell my story, not merely because I want to get this upsetting experience off of my chest and set the record straight, but also because I’d like to caution those who want to help animals, but may not know who they’re getting involved with when they sign on with certain organizations or individuals. So while I will always encourage people to get involved and do whatever they can to make a better world for animals, I also want to stress how important it is to do your homework and look before you leap into this sometimes perilous world.

Partnering Up to Save the Animals

Early in 2013 I began working with Julia de Cadenet who claimed to be a fellow anti-dog and cat meat activist. While we never met in person, she was a legal professional who had come highly recommended to me, so innocently I thought she might be a good partner who could really help get a movement underway. Together we formed an organisation focused on ending the dog and cat meat trade.

I did NOT ever fly to the UK or sign any paperwork to be appointed as a Director, such as banking documents. I did not know I was supposed to have signed in person, therefore my signature was forged. On De Cadenet’s demand I did send her a copy of my passport as she said that was all she needed and the information would be kept safe because “she is a barrister.”

In mid September 2013 De Cadenet told me she had (recently) forged my signature (again.) Without my knowledge or consent De Cadenet had forged my signature AGAIN, to the Charities Commission and now made me First Director.

I had NO knowledge this had taken place. This is the only reason I was listed as First Director for the month of September. I asked for immediate removal, resigned and severed all association with  De Cadenet and her organisation.

I never had any banking account pass codes or knowledge of their accounts or their paypal accounts.

We agreed that to be successful in our mission we would need to bring heavy public attention to this issue, so ‘De Cadenet’ thought that being the first to premier a film about this subject at the Cannes Film Festival would be a great way to raise awareness. And that I would have to make my first movie in just 10 weeks! Although I was daunted by the idea, I accepted the challenge because more than anything I wanted to help all the innocent animals, dying by the thousands every day in dog and cat-eating countries.

I had nothing to work with when I started the film, so the project entailed me sitting through thousands of hours of sickening film footage and hundreds of photographs depicting unspeakable dog and cat cruelty. I wept buckets of tears as I worked day and night, intent on getting the project done before the festival submission deadline.

For part of the film I used (with written permission) 20-year-old BBC footage that was filmed inside South Korea’s infamous Moran Market, where hundreds of dogs and cats are still brutally slaughtered each day. I was not given any funding to make the film, so I had to spend my own money on editing software, which was essential because the film footage was so old and almost every frame needed major work.

The process was hard enough without De Cadenet in the background, telling me what to do and constantly reminding me how much was riding on the film. Numerous times I told her to stay out of the creative process and leave me alone, but she just jokingly referred to herself as my “stage mother.” She was simply a control freak.

I only found out some time later after I’d made the film that any movie footage submitted to Cannes must be filmed within that same calendar year. Since she was in charge of submitting the film, De Cadenet would have already known about this particular rule but she never mentioned it to me. I later took that as another indicator that I had been asked to make the film for reasons other than spreading awareness about the dog and cat meat trade.

During the frantic period of preparing the final edit of the film, De Cadenet became adamant about having her name listed as producer and her legal firm included in the closing credits. Not thinking anything about it, I simply complied, bolstered by her promise that I would be able to remove her name and take full credit for the film once the festival was over (I have that in an email from De Cadenet pictured below). 


Submission to Cannes Film Festival

BOKDAYS was submitted to the festival in April while I was away in New Zealand for a few weeks. I hoped to return home to a much calmer atmosphere that would allow me to devote my energies to campaigning for the film leading up to its premier the following month, but instead, tensions around De Cadenet couldn’t have been more heightened.

A couple of weeks later, De Cadenet told me that BOKDAYS hadn’t been accepted into the festival but “it will still be at Cannes.” I wasn’t shocked because of the 20-year-old, low resolution film footage I had had to use, which would cause the film to pixelate when played on a large screen. Still, De Cadenet was adamant that BOKDAYS would be part of the festival, telling me that she had applied for the film to be included in the main sector of Cannes rather than the short film corner, which would be better suited to the film due to its controversial topic. So according to her, my short film would now be in the same section as the major full-length feature films.

Looking back, I admit I was naïve and was completely out of my depth in knowing what was really happening with my film. I live in Australia and have never had any dealings with anything like the Cannes Film Festival. All I could do was trust that De Cadenet was indeed the expert she presented herself to be. But by this time, I sensed that something wasn’t right.

At Cannes Film Festival

As our organization’s campaign manager, De Cadenet decided she would be the one to represent BOKDAYS at Cannes, while I would remain home promoting my film online – the film I believed was going to be shown at the festival. Since May 18 2013 was supposed to be BOKDAYS’s big launch day, we decided to also make it our World Awareness Day against the dog meat trade.

Since I did not attend the festival, I had to rely on De Cadenet’s depiction of what happened: she arrived at the festival – days after it was already underway – where she met up with a group of French ladies, who were also animal activists. Evidently they stood in the gutter in the pouring rain on the edge of the road next to the festival, holding up banners advertising the organization and its cause. According to De Cadenet this campaign was a great success because they were photographed by Reuters.

Note: I have never been able to find a Reuters photo of  De Cadenet and the French ladies at Cannes, nor have I seen one single photo of  De Cadenet inside the Cannes venue itself. However, I have seen photos of her standing in the gutter in the rain, on the pavement and in front of the escalators that go up into the building.

In addition, De Cadenet claimed she tricked the South Korean Film Commission into watching my entire film. As they shouted at her to turn it off, she supposedly screamed obscenities at them and pointed her finger in their faces, screaming, “I will have you banned from Cannes Film Festival!” I have no idea if this really happened, but I do know that angry Korean men would not take kindly to being pushed around or screamed at by an overbearing western woman, so it seems pretty unlikely that it did.

De Cadenet did send me a glamour shot of herself at the festival where she’s draped around a power pole on the side of a road, holding a tiger skin handbag with one of our organization leaflets on it. The photo could have been taken anywhere, so I don’t know if she was at Cannes or not. When she emailed me the picture she asked me to Photoshop her on the red carpet, knowing full well that I do not believe in photoshopping press photos and I refused to do it.


Meanwhile, people were starting to question the credibility of whether BOKDAYS really was at Cannes. In fact, the online controversy was growing by the day. When I alerted her to this, De Cadenet became agitated and kept saying she didn’t have to prove anything to anyone. She told me to say that the film was “at” Cannes instead of “in” Cannes and showed me the film’s name in the festival catalogue. I asked why we couldn’t show this entry in the catalogue as proof of the film being at Cannes but she refused. What I did not know back then is that the festival catalogue is simply a listing of films that had been submitted for entry and are for sale but aren’t necessarily being shown.

De Cadenet also pointed out that BOKDAYS had been “uploaded to the Cinnando website so people could view it at Cannes.” However, little did I know that this did NOT mean the film had been accepted into the festival. Cinnando is an online screening room where people can view the festival entries. I understand now that any film that is submitted to Cannes is listed in the catalogue and can be uploaded to this screening room. But at that time, De Cadenet used the Cinnando screening room to convince me that BOKDAYS was at Cannes. In turn, I did my best to try and convince others that what I was being told was true, fighting tooth and nail to defend my film until I started realizing that what I was being told wasn’t making sense. Cinando can be contacted here for more information regarding exactly who they are and what they are about. 

Two months later, public outrage had not settled down. I had written an article for our website about BOKDAYS being at Cannes. People took it upon themselves to contact the film festival and one individual even published a response letter from Cannes clearly stating that the film had indeed not been there. During this time I had given a few interviews, each time saying that the film had been in or at Cannes. But on one such occasion, a French radio station had done their homework and revealed to me that BOKDAYS had not been at Cannes but had been “sidelined,” which means it had not been accepted or included in the festival. Even though her story was steadily falling apart, De Cadenet insisted that everyone, including the French radio station, were wrong.


Screen Shot 2014-03-27 at 6.51.59 pm

READ FROM THE BOTTOM UPWARD, to follow the conversation between the Reporter, myself and CEO notodogmeat.

I was confused, disappointed and saddened. It seemed that the entire point of making the film had been lost. No one was focusing on the dogs and cats in the live meat trade, only whether or not the film had been included in the Cannes Film Festival. I no longer knew who or what to believe and everyone seemed to have their own agenda. Even to this day, I do not know for sure if my film ever made it to Cannes.

Had I have known that De Cadenet’s main objective was just to have her name in the Cannes catalogue with the words “dog meat” attached to it for a publicity stunt, I would not have ploughed through thousands of hours of gut-wrenching, heartbreaking footage nor put myself through such emotional stress and grief to make the film. I would not have worked day and night and put my heart and soul into something for several weeks just so someone else could promote herself and her legal firm in film credits and in print, all the while knowing that the film would not be accepted or included in the festival. BOKDAYS wasn’t the only thing that had been sidelined at Cannes – I had been sidelined, as well.

Any outrage anyone might feel reading this article pales in significance compared to the moment when De Cadenet finally blurted out the truth to me on Sept 21st, 2013 via video Skype:

“Oh, your film went to Cannes, alright [laughter] – in my pocket, in my coat pocket!” [laughing] “It was seen at Cannes alright, by a couple of girls in my hotel room [laughing] and at the airport when I opened my laptop and walked away and just let it play!” [laughing.]

The following photo is a screenshot of an interview with me, from the French Radio Station – note the comment at the bottom of the page written by De Cadenet on December 19, 2013, who states: “Our film BOKDAYS was shown at le Marche du Film Cannes Film Market as well as many of the country Pavilions…” after which she goes into an ad for her organisation.

Comment written by J. d C, notodogmeat CEO Dec 2013, about BOKDAYS.

Comment written by J. d C, notodogmeat CEO on December 2013, about the BOKDAYS film, on the French Radio Station’s website. Contact RFI by clicking on the link within the screenshot.

A Hard Lesson

The organisation currently has countless websites listed under a multitude of names in a blatant attempt to bully any organisation who uses the two words  “dog” and “meat” in their name. This organisation’s bullying tactics ultimately hurts the dogs and cats, who are already suffering unspeakable cruelty in the meat trade.. Amongst these countless websites under countless names and identities, is my film BOKDAYS, being displayed on each of their websites, under the false pretence as a film that went to Cannes Film Festival. They are using my  film to wring tears out of viewers in the hope that the viewer will be moved to donate money.  YouTube has still failed to remove my film even though I am the curator. I feel violated and let down. 

This is first time I have ever spoken out about events surrounding the film and my former association with De Cadenet. Many people voiced their furious opinions about this debacle but no one ever approached me or asked for my story, nor did anyone seem to care that I was the one who had been duped more than anyone. My biggest mistake was being gullible enough to trust someone I thought was reputable and believing what I was told. While the film ended up being buried in shame and hate, the dogs and cats were the ones who really lost out over this.

De Cadenet held the false belief that I wanted fame. I did not want fame, I wanted to inform people about the dog and cat meat trade so they could spread the word and join the fight to halt it. I had been fighting the trade for years as a lone voice at a time when no one listened. When I first wrote about what was happening in Vietnam people thought I was making it up. I had witnessed unspeakable cruelty that I knew had to be exposed. The enormity of the global dog and cat meat trade was far beyond anyone’s imagination and while a couple of countries were receiving exposure, many countries were flying under the radar. Having witnessed it in real life, I had to try and do something. I made a secret vow to all the animals I witnessed and wanted so much to help but couldn’t. I told them I was so sorry for their pain and that they would not die in vain.

Despite the fact that I had so little to work with, I believe that BOKDAYS effectively conveys the atrocities of the dog and cat meat markets and a horrible industry that needs to be exposed. I don’t regret the work I put into the film because I know it has touched the hearts of some people, but I regret being used as a pawn in someone else’s ill-intentioned game.

I wept from the heart as I made that film. The footage of a dog meeting its death in the final minutes of the film had never been seen before. The film only shows him for about two minutes because I edited the scene down, but what was not shown was this poor dog being tortured for almost an hour. While he hung from the neck he was beaten with a bat and then set on fire – still alive – with a blowtorch. As the woman butcher roasted him alive, she laughed out loud as his live body shuddered in agony and his eyes rolled back in his head. Even several minutes later, the dog was still conscious, his ears flicking back and forth, his eyes rolling intermittently, and his mouth opening and shutting, as if screaming silent screams.

To take a film that deals with a subject like this and use it as a vehicle for your own self-promotion is beyond disgusting. To take a film about a serious subject and turn it into a joke, even a satirical joke, is appalling. Saying things like “Moron” Market is not funny, not when you’ve stood and heard the blood curdling screams of dogs begging for mercy as they die brutal deaths in front of you and you’re not able to do anything to stop it. Those poor animals don’t deserve to be the butt of stupid jokes.

And to top it all off, BOKDAYS remains on her website, touted as her property due to her producer credit, which I was never allowed to remove as promised in a written email from her to me. I did not sell the film to De Cadenet and I have never received any payment for it. 

Everyone has an agenda, even people who work in the animal rights community. You might think that people who love animals would also be honest, genuine and kind-hearted individuals who always put animals first, but unfortunately, that’s not always the case. The assault against my trusting nature hit me hard. It hurts to be taken advantage of and used.

So when you’re looking to get involved with a legitimate animal welfare organization, make sure to do your homework about them and research them thoroughly. There are a lot of people out there who aren’t what they seem.

After the film was launched everyone seemed to have something to say but very few people seemed to give a damn about the animals. I don’t care if the film was shown in Cannes or not, but I do care about the fate of companion animals – the dogs and cats in the live meat trade whose eyes I’ve looked into and promised to avenge by stopping this horrendous industry. I remain a frontline fighter and writer of the global dog and cat meat trade and a first response animal rescuer. I am committed to this cause in body, mind and soul. And I will not stop fighting until the dog meat trade until it is halted, even if it takes the rest of my life to see it through.

Please remember “my film” was made from my heart and with love, but it was stolen from me and is now being used against me, to promote an organisation I chose to severe all association with, for very solid reasons. I do NOT support that organisation and have nothing to do with it.  I suggest anyone donating should ask what your money is being used for. I also wish to point out that I am not the only person that had property of mine stolen. A Cannes Film producer also wrote an almost identical account of how Julia had stolen her work too.

Michele Brown.


The French Radio Station’s website and J d C’s comment about BOKDAYS, as CEO notodogmeat. December 2013.


Speak Up For The Voiceless reserves the right to remove any article unless the article is non-factual. Information within this article is completely factual with evidence shown. Speak Up For The Voiceless is an environmental and animal welfare organisation that speaks up for those that have no voice. Those that suffered here are the animals and the real film producer. They had no voice – we have given their voice back to them.




Fake Rhino Horn – Will fake trade pose a danger to regulated trade?

Counterfeit Rhino horn trade is big business within Africa and Asia of which poses a significant threat to any proposed legal Rhinoceros horn trade, regardless of what the pro trade lobby has suggested within online forums and meetings with governmental environmental agencies.

Within this article we look at just how big such trade is and whether it will actually threaten the proposed lifting of the still banned Rhino horn trade within South Africa.

Pro trade lobbyists believe that by flooding the market with genuine Rhino horn that such counterfeit trade will be diminished and should not pose any real significant threat to legal trade or increase poaching furthermore. Although the counterfeit trade is not really a major issue to any such proposed legal trade, criminals that want to make a quick buck regardless of any such trade being made legal will still continue peddling fake horn regardless of who the legitimate suppliers are. We are after all talking of “money making” here.

Rhino horn smugglers are now making very high quality fake horns, allowing unscrupulous hunters to sell the real horns at a huge mark-up to black market dealers for traditional medicine and status symbols.

The fake horns are made with top quality resins and look so authentic that they are almost impossible to distinguish from the real thing, a report presented July 2012 to members of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (Cites) says. The report, presented to the convention’s standing committee in Geneva, says Cites officials have been alerted to the increasing involvement of “professional hunters in the illegal Rhino horn trade”. Yet hunters deny having any involvement within the trade whatsoever.

“Trophies are exported to hunters after a legal hunt, but once the hunters have received the trophies in their home countries, the original Rhino horns are removed from the trophies and replaced with fake horns.” This is rather interesting as since 2014, March our investigative unit the CICU has yet again viewed a staggering increase in what looks like real horns and fake horns online for sale.

Cites did not specify in which country the fake horns were being made and sold, but details in the report point to the possible involvement of either American or European hunters in the fake horn scam. In 2012, wildlife investigators in the US arrested several American and Vietnamese nationals in a major bust in several cities across the US following the seizure of numerous Rhino horns, some of which were suspected to have originated from legal Rhino hunts in SA and other parts of the continent.

There have also been a series of robberies from museums and private collections across Europe over the past two years in which the horns were stolen from mounted rhino head trophies.

“The fake horns were initially made with a mould and were relatively easy to identify, but recent reports from authorities indicate that fake horns encountered lately are made in high-quality resin with a density even higher than that of a real horn. “This makes visual identification, once fully mounted, extremely difficult.”

But Cites officials have now found a way to smoke out the culprits. “Fake horns can, however, be identified relatively easily by collecting and burning a small quantity of dust from the horn, which will deliver a distinctive smell indicating that it is not Rhinoceros horn.

“In the light of this new trend, it is of extreme importance that Cites parties should have adequate legislation and enforcement controls in place, to prevent horns that are part of legal exported trophies from being used for purposes other than hunting trophies, and to ensure that the trophies remain in possession of their owners.”

Another possible source of the fake horns could be in Vietnam, which has been implicated as the end destination of dozens of SA rhinos shot legally by Vietnamese poachers posing as bona fide trophy hunters. The report notes that Vietnamese authorities had pledged to conduct a stock-taking exercise to check whether SA Rhino trophy horns were still in the possession of Vietnamese hunters.

“It is vital for the authorities in Vietnam to conclude this activity as a matter of urgency and to investigate fully all incidents where trophies are no longer in possession of the hunters. Such follow-up investigations can provide important information on the identity of the driving force behind the trafficking of Rhino horn.”

People who no longer had their horn trophies should be able to tell investigators who the horns had be sold to.

While fake Rhino horn is fraudulent, there are numerous effective, viable and affordable substitutes for Rhino horn in traditional medicine, the use of which has been encouraged by government and traditional medicine authorities, and surveys indicate that most practitioners are adopting them. Consumer attitudes toward rhino horn as a medicine have been little studied (although research is underway in Viet Nam). In Japan, only 17% of nearly 1,200 people surveyed had heard of Rhino horn as a medicine, and just 1% said they had ever taken any.

Trade in counterfeit Rhino horn is not just problematic within Africa, Europe and Vietnam. Indian kingpins and traders have also devised ways in which to produce rather crude fake horn that has fooled buyers into purchasing leaving them out of pocket.

The standard advice to smell a Rhino horn to know if it is real or not has made con artists come up with fake substitutes made of wood and dry bamboo root with a little frog meat rubbed in for the authentic “odour”. In the clandestine world of Rhino horn smuggling, buyers are always in a hurry and usually go by the smell. And horn traders are making the most of it.

The “markets” are now flooded with these wooden horns and few can tell the real from the fake. A source in the forest department revealed the recipe: wood, dry bamboo root modified by using lac. “Meat of frogs and other animals is also rubbed on the fake horn to replicate the smell of a Rhino horn,” the source said.

The Rhino horn — which is in heavy demand in south Asian and middle-east countries — is prized for its supposedly aphrodisiac and unproven medicinal qualities. This alternative market came to light with the recovery of a fake rhino horn from Bokakhat town near Kaziranga National Park January 28th 2012. Two persons, Mrigangshu Kalita and Ajit Bora, were also apprehended from Bokakhat when they were about to strike a deal. Kalita, however, managed to give police the slip and escaped under cover of darkness. Bora hails from Garmurh in Bokakhat, while Kalita hails from Jorhat district and had been staying in a rented house in Bokakhat.

Acting on specific information, a team of forest officials set up a decoy and the duo were apprehended while they were waiting to meet a buyer. “We did not realise that the horn recovered from them was a fake one until we brought it to the forest range office and examined it,” a forest official said. “We are interrogating Ajit, more things will come to light,” he said.

Forest department sources said there has been a spurt in demand for Rhino horns in the international market recently. Assam has witnessed the death of 15 rhinos this year (2014). The last poaching incident took place last week of which two poachers were shot dead in a heavy battle.

The Telegraph had recently reported about a group of buyers from Bhutan camping at Mangoldoi town near Orang to buy the horn of a Rhino which was killed at the park on January 10 2012. A forest official, however, said the only positive side to the development is that buyers would now think twice before buying a Rhino horn from Assam.

Trading online;

International Animal Rescue Foundation’s CICU investigative teams located many peddlers online selling what is “believed” to be genuine horn and what appears to be wood crafted horn. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna seem non-to concerned that this trade “illegal” is quite clearly evident. What is more worrying though is that such a trade in counterfeit horn can have a serious detrimental effect on the proposed legalisation of real horn trade. Should fake trade hamper any legitimate trade then poaching will only increase if not rage completely out control leading to the extinction of our Rhinoceros within a matter of eight years if that.

Conservation Investigations Crime Unit located the following online – these traders are still actively selling wildlife parts ranging from Rhino horn, Elephant ivory, Tiger parts, Pangolins, Bear bile and skins from various mammals.

Mr Sidi Salem, Kafr El-Sheikh is selling below what appears to be crafted wooden Rhino horn for some £30,000 weighing in at an approximate 55 grams from the trading site dubizzle.com that is located wihtin Egypt. CICU department that runs Operation Trojan Horse has previously linked this area far north of Africa to rather large trade of ivory products. Late last year our investigative team located various “carvers” of which they are passed on various sums of ivory to be carved then smuggled into Saudi Arabia. From Saudi Arabia the parts are then smuggled into Eastern China.

main (1)

A further trader is peddling what appears to be old (antique) Rhino horn from the classified site of be3weshtry.com one of many sites located within Egypt. The trader is a Yemeni man that is still trading from this site although there are no updated details. We cannot confirm if this is real or what may be counterfeit horn. Either way this trade is illegal and threatens any legitimate trade.


A third trader is peddling from another Egyptian site what he claims to be antique Rhino horn. On viewing such horn in great detail it appears more resin like rather than any real Rhino of which is clearly advertised. The site listed hereto is mmlkat-ala7jar.com has been under close observation by the CICU unit and EAD since 2012 of which is filled with many wildlife parts under the guise of “antique”.


International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa printed recently on a rather suspect Rhino horn that was up for sale below. The horn, quite clearly is not antique as has been suggested within the article. The trader is still peddling even though Interpol Environmental Crimes Unit have been informed. Furthermore what is more concerning whom is supplying this individual from Africa with Rhino horn? This particular article is somewhat outdated however the CICU and EAD montier sites regularly of which they have passed on intelligence of conversation and potential sales of wildlife trade to the Interpol’s Environmental Crime Unit.

The trader that goes by the name of Razzer Q uploaded this one particular horn back in 2008. Intelligence has shown that this trader is also peddling in counterfeit horn and still trading from this site.


A fifth trader that quite clearly goes to the lengths of advertising all contact details, email, and cell number has been peddling again what appears to be “fake” Rhino horn from Egypt. We cannot state if this is real or counterfeit however evidence of such fake and real Rhino horn trade within northern Africa is growing by the month. Please click on the picture below for more information.


Just to give you an insight into how crude traders and scammers are online and on the ground, the picture listed below is from a trader advertising within the Ukraine what they state is their “own Rhino horn”. If one researches you’ll actually view what these scammers are selling are horns that were confiscated by wildlife and environmental investigative authorities. The scammer[s] have simply uploaded the pictures then created a site of which they are trying to fool potential buyers into believing they are actually purchasing illegally from legitimate traders. Click the picture for more information below.


ukr5Fake Rhino horn trade is vast and spans the entire globe. Scammers also pose a significant risk to any potential legalised trade just as much as those that are peddling resin made Rhino horn. Conservation Investigations Crime Unit located a staggering 385 advertisements alone just within South Africa trying to scam purchasers with fake advertisements. Photography within these advertisements we can easily trace to pictures of seized Rhino horn.

A RECENT study in Vietnam, sponsored by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), reveals that demand for Rhino horn may be much larger than previously thought. It shows that, in addition to consumers of Rhino horn, there is a large group of “intenders” — people who intend to buy Rhino horn when they can afford it. The study shows that Rhino horn is bought not just for traditional medical purposes, but also as a status symbol. Rapid growth in living standards means the number of people who could become consumers of rhino horn is potentially enormous.

These findings cast doubt on the viability of proposals, supported by the South African government, to introduce a legalised, regulated market in Rhino horn. Supporters of such an approach believe a regulated market offers a better chance for the survival of the world’s remaining Rhinos than a ban on all trade. They argue that a ban on trade has perverse consequences — it raises the price of horn and so increases the incentive for poachers. By contrast, this view suggests that legal sales of stockpiled Rhino horns, plus the dehorning of live Rhinos to sell their horns, would drive down prices, reducing the incentive to poach. This is of course not proven and as much as one tries to argue this point with the pro trade lobbyists their main response is more in the line “we have to give it a try at least”.

Concluding we have many avenues that have still yet to be exhausted by the South African Government that may or may not preserve the Rhinoceros, either way that MUST be tried and tested. We have to exhaust all our options before leaping forward into a trade that could potentially cause more harm than good. Rhino poaching is increasing of which for this year alone to date (2014) we have lost some 192 Rhino of which the majority are slaughtered within the Kruger National Park.

Counterfeit Rhino horn trade regardless of what any pro trade lobbyists state poses a significant threat to the any legal trade. Should trade be legalised and with vast evidence of “counterfeit and illegal” trade still online and on the ground will the legitimate trade actually decrease counterfeit trade and scams? International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa believes not. For example those that are merely wanting to make a few hundred thousand of which do not use Rhino horn will still continue to sell imitation Rhino horn to individual users that wish to purchase at a decreased selling price, this “type of trade” or “undercutting” is no different to the sales in illegally imported tobacco and liquor . The South African government will have to tread very carefully now and ensure that should they be given the go ahead to trade from Cites then the price will have to be right with “controlled and professional trade” practiced at all times. Corruption must be addressed as to the hundreds of thousands of imitation sellers and scammers online and on the ground dealt with. Rhino pseudo hunting must also be banned too. Evidence is quite clear that hunters and farmers are in on the fake and real horn trade. Cites and the Department of Environmental Affairs are more than aware of this yet fail to acknowledge the seriousness of this problem.

Rhinoceros horn is not medicine and has never been proven to cure any form of medical ailment within humans. Very high concentrations were experimented on within rodents and of which only showed a very small decline in temperatures induced by scientists. The evidence is below of which clearly shows Rhino horn containing natural ingredients that are commonly located within the human hair and fingernails, horse hoof, tortoise shell, and parakeet beek.


I will be writing more on this article in due course of which I will be going into more detail of such imitation trade and trades not related to Rhino horn that have been exploited costing the globes governments billions in lost revenue every year. Imitation trade and unregulated trade is rarely documented on within the public domain of which needs to be.

What I myself find rather concerning as the Chief General Director is the ease that my team can locate illegally traded Rhino horn, Elephant ivory and Tiger skins online within countries that have supposedly tight online security. Yes the majority of my team are multi-bilingual speakers it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to locate illegal activities. Furthermore I wish to express my concerns at the lack of policing and intelligence sharing from one government/policing authority to another. Lastly, we have documented time again on the increasing wildlife trade within Northern Africa I.e Egypt of which not one single arrest has been made with regards to the peddling of Rhino horn and Elephant ivory.


Chief Director General



In Response to the Colorado Hunter Fraternity.

Dear Activists and Conservationists

Recently an article was published via ENM that depicted a picture with Madame C. Argys within titled Hunting is Not Conservation. The article published sometime between February 2014 and March 2014 seems to have had quite an unpleasant effect on the majority of hunters within Colorado, United States of America.

Environmental News and Media publish very sensitive and moving documents that can or have had a profound effect both to the Animal Rights Activist, member of the public, Madame C. Argys and many hundreds of Colorado Hunters and Huntresses.

ENM takes no responsibility for any form of threatening behaviour/anti social behavior or “bullying” name calling from activist to hunter and hunter to activist with regards to their articles. ENM cannot police the hundreds of thousands of activists online or via the ground. It is down to the individual to take that responsibility and behave accordingly when online. The article is no different to that of anyone author publishing within the media a document on an animal abuser or thief. Uproar will occur no matter what, when, or written by whom.

The hunter fraternity as with those that harm animals to those that take pleasure in destroying our natural environment must understand that those whom are trying to preserve the environment will scrutinise at any time. Regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, or gender. Exposing those that do harm, or those that wish to corrupt childrens minds with graphic hunting photography and non-factual documentation.

Not everyone derives from the United States and some 900 million people use Facebook everyday with a further two billion using the internet daily. Public outcry locally and internationally will occur. Those that believe what they are undertaking is “morally correct” may be seen by others as “unethical” thus forming debate.

ENM has not bullied, threatened, nor attacked anyone Colorado hunter or huntress. They have though placed within the public domain a rather crude document that details on hunting, feminine hunting and unethical hunting. However.

Environmental News and Media will state now. Animal Rights Activists AND Hunters that engage in threatening behavior must cease and desist now. Failing this the ENM publisher will no longer document on such articles freely of which a “paid subscription” will be required.

No evidence has been put to ENM of alleged bullying, cyber intimidation, or harassment from activists to hunters based on ENM’s article[s]. However Madame Argys and her friends have engaged activists and instructed the US media and Hunter bloggers to now attack and slander Activists – yet they feel threatened?

ENM will continue to publish what they see as required for public debate. ENM will also defend themselves should US media or Hunter Blogs wish to engage ENM and not the “online activist community”. International Animal Rescue Foundation America will also defend ENM too of which we ask the organisations majority of some 5 million supporters to stand with us.

An update will be made by Environmental News and Media via its twenty three sites off Facebook soon. ENM states again that all hunters AND activists that participate in attacking online one-another must cease now. This behavior is uncalled for of which ENM ask for “public debate” via the Colorado Hunter sites off Facebook that have defended Madame C. Argys shooting of a Mountain Lion for food. Them sites can be viewed below. Madame C. Argys states that she requires non-chemical toxified meat to be fed to her family. There are some 300 organic farms though within Colorado. This Lion that was hunted for sheer sport as her friend explained (blasted to infinity) and not for food as it has been quoted. 

You can rightfully debate here on what you believe is ethically moral. should the US media now take interest in this then they too can see why Activists are sick and tired of seeing such graphic animal cruelty of which is not conservation or sustainable utilization.


Please refrain from attacking the hunter, their associates or families. Please only engage in mature adult debate. Maybe then the CNN news will understand where conservationists and activists are coming from.



Thank you

US and Alberta Director

Tourists contribute to Lions future extinction.


Citizens around the globe last week rose up against the African canned hunting fraternity seeing many hundreds of thousands take to the streets from London, South Africa, even America and Australia and many more continents. Demonstrating against the repulsive and barbaric practice of canned Lion hunting and canned hunting in general. The Johannesburg march can be seen lower down the page.

Tourists from around the world that visit Africa are still failing to acknowledge the damage they are causing by visiting Lion petting farms and safaris that operate under the guise of “conservation”.

One safari that we took a brief glimpse into is Shingelani Safaris that has links to Texas, United States and is primarily based within Southern Africa. Shingelani Safaris states nothing on its website about petting farms nor directly encourages on its site tourists to participate in such petting. Hunting is though on the agenda of all Big Five.  Shingelani Safaris has within its grounds many big cats and cubs of which tourists have been frequenting for some years. The Safari operator hosts many hunting operations netting many hundreds of thousands of Ran/Zar yearly. Rhino, Elephant, Lion, Buffalo, and Hippopotamus are just a few of the animals that can be hunted.

Tourists around the world seem completely oblivious to the financial support they are providing to these so called sanctuaries, conservation areas (all being fenced in) and safaris that organise summer camp visits. Shingelani is one of these safaris. Bengal Tigers, Lions, Cheetah, Leopard and Servel are just some of the captive breed cats that are being raised on Shingelani’s “sanctuary”. Are alarm bells ringing within your head yet? More to the point have you ever witnessed Tigers within South African National Parks roaming freely? No, then maybe you should ask Charmaine or Shingelani just exactly where these cats are ending up?

What YOU the TOURIST need to know about playing with Lion cubs:

Every year thousands of people visit facilities where they can interact with Lion cubs. Every day, a captive bred lion is killed in a canned hunt. The truth is that these Lions are the product of factory farming. The cubs are taken from their mothers so that she can produce another litter in six months’ time, as opposed to two years’ time, if she had the opportunity to raise her own offspring.

These factory farmed cubs are often kept in unsuitable cages with little regard for their social requirements. For a fee you can play and have your photograph taken with them. One South African female hunter Charmaine Vuuren didn’t pay much of course for her experience. She works for the hunting organisation Shingelani supported and sponsored by Dallas Safari, SCI, Professional Hunters Association of South Africa and Wild Sheep Foundation. Charmaine and co are pictured below.




What happens to these human imprinted animals when they have outgrown their usefulness? Because they are human imprinted and have been deprived of growing up in a natural social group they cannot be rehabilitated or sold to game reserves.

Do these Lion cubs benefit from this forced interaction? How can they!

What possible enjoyment can they derive from being pawed, picked up and being posed all day long, day after day, until they have grown too big? Are these animals part of breeding programmes that will save Lions from extinction? NO! These inbred, human imprinted and psychologically damaged animals have absolutely no conservation value. They cannot be rehabilitated into the wild. As I have previously explained how many Tigers do you actually see within the wild of Africa? You may see the odd one that has been let out into the wild that was once a pet. Not really a streak of Tigers though is it?

Captive Lions or any captive big cat cannot be used to supplement dwindling wild populations. They can be used as canon fodder in the canned hunting industry. Every reputable animal welfare organization in the world considers the practice of using lion cubs for human playthings as cruelty.

Lion cubs are by their very nature not gentle animals. Lion cubs used for petting opportunities are normally trained not to scratch or bite. How do you think a naturally boisterous animal is trained not to behave naturally? These cubs are sometimes even drugged!

What about your safety? Every year many people are injured while interacting with wild animals in petting parks. Why do you think that they want you to sign an indemnity or have signs stating that you play with these animals at your own risk? Do they warn you about the possibility of being infected with parasites carried by these animals, some of which can be deadly?

Next time you are presented with the opportunity of playing with a lion cub, first ask;

  1. Where are the cub’s mothers?
  2. Why aren’t they being raised by their mother?
  3. Where do the cubs come from?

Often, operators rent lion cubs from bigger breeding farms. What happens to them when they grow too big? If they are rehabilitated Where have they been rehabilitated and is there supporting documentation?

Once they have been rehabilitated, do they have the opportunity to live out their natural lives, or is their rehabilitation just to facilitate their death at the hands of hunters? If they are sold to game reserves which game reserves (by name)? If they are part of a breeding program for what purpose?

What happens to surplus animals? The operators of facilities with Lion cubs often have all the answers, but if you start asking these questions you will at some point be faced with a hostile response.

At the end of the day it is up to you how you spend your money. We urge you to practice responsible tourism. If you are compelled to play with a Lion cub that has been stolen from its mother and is subject to stressful and unnecessary handling day after day, please do so with the knowledge that this is probably why it has been bred and what will happen to it! In reality your hard earned money that goes into supporting Lion farms ends up coming out with a dead animal. Most likely a Lion as pictured below killed in between February and March 2014 by US hunter Jeremy Conklin.

jeremy conklin



Moving back to Charmaine the hunting organisation that she works very closely with she tends not to leak this information onto her Facebook profile or make it too public most likely in the hope that no one will locate what she is supporting and destroying. In fact if one looks at Shingelani website you can clearly see that there is also a slight difference in the name pictured on Shingelani site to that of her Facebook profile - of course this is not really an issue however we are trying to show how these individuals try to conceal and not make much of a public display with regards to their hobbies and work. Lion breeders and petting farm owners, safaris that participate in such horrid activities tend to keep rather quiet and are secretive too. To many questions asked raises suspicions as to whom you are. Petting farms and hunting nets big financial gain, if you’re seen to be trying to hamper such activities or destroy them you are then classed as an (anti-hunter) or attacked outright.

Global March Against Canned Hunting in Johannesburg can be viewed below.

Behavioural effects on captive animals from human interaction;

The majority of studies carried out imply that safari and zoo visitors induce stress within a wide range of captive animals. Under no circumstances should any member of the public pet animals, feed them or be encouraged by the owners to participate in handling animals. Evidence also states that the vast amount of research carried out generally points to a negative effect and that the way in which an individual animal reacts to people will be reliant upon its species or the individual. Many studies agree that visitors are of a harmful influence for some primates (Hosey, 2000), (Wells, 2005) and (Fernandez et al., 2009). Generally this confirmation shows itself in the appearance of variations in behaviour associated with human visitors (Carder and Semple, 2008). Hosey et al.

A 2010 study by the Plymouth Student Scientist stated (2010) describes behavioural indicators of stress including, increased abnormal behaviours, especially stereotypies, more intra-specific (between cage-mates) aggression and inter-specific (human directed) aggression. Increased activity is also mentioned (or sometimes decreased activity), along with lower instances of affiliative behaviours like grooming. Morgan and Tromborg (2007) highlight the detrimental effects of chronic stress responses on the long-term health of captive animals. They describe consequences such as, immunosuppression, poor reproduction and self-injurious behaviour. One would be led to think that such “Safaris” that operate under the guise of “conservation” and being as they say “scientifically literate” would be aware of such disturbances in behaviour and health. It seems not though with regards to Shingelani Safaris.

Where do these cats come from?

Tigers, Lions, Cheetahs and other cats are mostly bred on captive farms dotted around safaris or within the safari grounds itself. There are though more sinister and quite worrying concerns as to where many of these cats are deriving from though. For example the Bengal and Sumatran Tiger we have noticed breeders within Botswana and South Africa breeding and selling from various sites around Africa. Please view the links below.





The SPCA a highly professional and recognised organisation quotes below the implications of “trading and owning exotic pets”.

The contentious issue of the trade in, breeding and the keeping of exotic wild animals as pets in South Africa has not only deeply disturbing welfare implications for the animals concerned, but, just as importantly, is a significant threat to conservation and biodiversity.

The practice of importing and exporting wild animals as pets has been happening for decades. Much of the trade is driven by purely whimsical impulse purchases and for prestigious reasons. Entertainment fads often determine which wild animals are the fashionable pets of the moment and everything from the smallest reptile to a full-grown tiger can be sold to anyone for the right price.

However, most owners don’t realise the huge responsibility or costs involved when they purchase exotic pets. Nor do they consider what is going to happen to these animals when the novelty wears off.

According to the Humane Society of the United States, the exotic pet trade is a multi-billion dollar industry, second only to the drugs and weapons trades in terms of its gross worth. Millions of animals are forced into the exotic pet trade every year for the purpose of becoming someone`s pet or entertaining the masses in a circus or zoo.

While some wild pets have been bred in captivity, many exotic animals are plucked directly from their native habitats. The animals kept in captivity represent only the tip of the iceberg in terms of what is killed in the catching and transportation process. These animals are often smuggled illegally in horrific conditions, and those that survive often suffer a variety of illnesses or injuries due to being kept incorrectly by ignorant owners.

Although as babies these animals might be cute and easier to maintain, they usually grow into dangerous adults with unmanageable needs where life in a domestic environment rarely satisfies their natural desires. Additionally, as exotic animals grow, their needs for food and space increase, sometimes astronomically. When it gets to that stage, the once-loved pets often end up in cages where they are neglected or abused and it`s not unusual for exotic pets to be malnourished and stressed. They also tend to develop behavioural issues that can lead to bites and attacks or even self-harming. Such animals typically are confined to small cages, passed from owner to owner, or disposed of in other ways. There are not enough reputable sanctuaries or other facilities to properly care for unwanted wild animals.

Exotic animals in captivity are bred intensively to supply the demand, or create colour morphs that are sought after for their novelty value. Unwanted exotic pets can end up back in the exotic pet trade but some are released into the wild where, if they survive, can disrupt our local ecosystem..

Owning an exotic pet comes with some real health implications, too. Reptiles and amphibians carry salmonella, and more than 74,000 cases of salmonella poisoning are linked to these pets each year in the United States alone. Exotic pets like monkeys and rodents often carry viruses like herpes B, monkey pox and rabies, all of which are highly infectious and potentially fatal to humans. Exotic venomous snakes need specific anti-venom which hospitals in South Africa do not have. Exotic venomous snakes have been found in the wild in South Africa. This is a huge threat.

There`s also a wider issue of the global social and environmental responsibilities that we have to consider. Removing wild animals from their natural habitats negatively affects delicate ecosystems and biodiversity which rely on those species to further the life cycle of plants and keep animal populations in check. Habitat destruction and the trade in wild animals are the two largest threats to wild animals worldwide.

Countries across the world are being systematically drained of wildlife to meet a booming demand for exotic pets and there`s rarely a happy ending for the animal.

Exotic pet owners, pet shops and facilities that keep and display exotic animals perpetuate the exotic pet industry. They encourage people to think that it is okay to have these animals as pets and this means that other people, often less well-equipped and knowledgeable, think it is okay to have an exotic animal as a companion.

These remain wild animals that do not take comfort from living in a household. These animals have to be caged and denied their natural behaviours to form part of “the family”.

By supporting the exotic pet trade you are supporting animal cruelty. Read more in the link below.


Canned hunting is a fast growing business in South Africa supported by many international tourists. As much as we continue to push this awareness into the public domain evidence has clearly shown that the canned hunting business has increased dramatically.

Lions and other big cats are the most sought after. Breeders remove the cubs from their mother so that the Lioness will quickly become fertile again, as they squeeze as many cubs from their adults as possible – five litters every two years. For an animal that is usually weaned at six months, missing out on the crucial colostrum, or first milk, can cause ill-health. “These breeders tell you they removed the cubs because the mother had no milk; I’ve never seen that in the wild,” says Pieter Kat, an evolutionary biologist who has worked with wild Lions in Kenya and Botswana. “Lions and Tigers in captivity may kill their young because they are under a lot of stress. But the main reason breeders separate the young from their mother is because they don’t want them to be dependent on their mother. Separation brings the female back into a reproductive position much faster than if the cubs were around. It’s a conveyor-belt production of animals.”

Breeders argue it is better that hunters shoot a captive-bred Lion than further endanger the wild populations, but conservationists and animal welfare groups dispute this. Wild populations of Lions have declined by 80% in 20 years, so the rise of Lion farms and canned hunting has not protected wild Lions. In fact, according to Fiona Miles, director of Lionsrock, a big cat sanctuary in South Africa run by the charity Four Paws, it is fuelling it. The Lion farms’ creation of a market for canned Lion hunts puts a clear price-tag on the head of every wild lion, she says; they create a financial incentive for local people, who collude with poachers or turn a blind eye to illegal Lion kills. Trophy-hunters who begin with a captive-bred Lion may then graduate to the real, wild thing.

“It’s factory-farming of lions, and it’s shocking,” says Miles. She began working to protect Lions after watching a seminal documentary about canned hunting. “The Lion all around the world is known as the iconic king of the jungle – that’s how it’s portrayed in advertising and written into storybooks – and yet people have reduced it to a commodity, something that can be traded and used.”

We have compiled this short article to clearly illustrate how these farms run, how tourists are supporting such a trade, and the negative impacts of what Lion farming has on the wild Lion populations. Least forgetting to that many safaris are not what they make out to be. You the tourist must start questioning these safari operators and supporting us and other organisations that are working quietly to close these operators down.

Since 2012 -2014 Lion farming has increased dramatically thanks to the unsuspecting members of the public that visit such safari operators.  The ongoing capture of wild lions to introduce fresh blood into captive breeding will negatively affect the wild population, while the the explosive growth of the Asian lion bone trade, fuelled by canned hunting, will impact severely on wild lions through an increase in poaching. Tourists are directly contributing to Lions and other bigs cats future extinction. Although Lions are not as yet “endangered” the sheer decline in wild population numbers coupled with the increase in Lion and canned hunting businesses will evidently see such stunning cats banished from the African continent. Canned Hunting and breeding farm operations must end now. No excuses. We are killing our species of by funding the very people we are trying to stop. It makes no sense.


The media above depicts another threat to the Lion species. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa endeavours to show all sides to the story so that all areas of conservation are lobbied. Habitat fragmentation, climate change, human species conflict and the counterfeit Tiger bone trade (Lion bone) are primary conservation welfare concerns of which we must address on an international scale.

Please donate to our our organisation here all monetary donations is ploughed directly into Funding African Wildlife Survival F.A.W.S  for more information please email us here at info@international-animalrescue-foundation.org.uk – Every donation you place our US and Eire organisations place $10.00 to your donation.

Director EU

J. Williamson



Communications site


Speak Up for the Voiceless.Org a conservation and environmental organisation publishes articles raw from the investigative room. We endeavour to ensure that all articles are factual and true to the best of our knowledge. We keep on record unpublished all proven and factual documentation for cross examination should public scrutiny occur. From time as with many organisations mistakes can be made or typos. Please contact us below within the comment box should you view such mistakes with proven data so that such errors can be rectified.

Climate Change and its effects on African Wildlife Part I


Climate change has been slowly creeping up to Africa now for the past ten to twenty years. Many species of animal and flora have been affected by such catastrophic climate changes of which needs taking into account when we point the finger of blame at “hunters” with regards to species decline.

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa does not support hunting however we have to make it aware to many activists that call out hunters that climate change and global cooling is more a contributing factor today than one singular hunter.

Our climate is changing, both naturally and due to human exploitation. There is already undeniable evidence that animals, birds and plants are being affected by climate change and global warming in both their distribution and behaviour. Unless greenhouse gas emissions are severely reduced, climate change could cause a quarter of land animals, birdlife and plants to become extinct. Coupled with “poaching and hunting” Africans wildlife is in more danger than originally thought.

International Animal Rescue Foundation last year 2013 documented daily on many Africans aves species of which seven out of ten species were coming under extreme threat from climate destruction and global temperature rise.

Climate variability and change affects birdlife and animals in a number of ways; birds lay eggs earlier in the year than usual, plants bloom earlier and mammals come out of hibernation sooner. Distribution of animals is also affected; with many species moving closer to the poles as a response to the rise in global temperatures. Birds are migrating and arriving at their nesting grounds earlier, and the nesting grounds that they are moving to are not as far away as they used to be and in some countries the birds don’t even leave anymore, as the climate is suitable all year round.

A sea level rise of only 50cm could cause sea turtles to lose their nesting beaches – over 30% of Caribbean beaches are used by turtles during the nesting season and would be affected. The already endangered Mediterranean Monk Seals need beaches upon which to raise their pups and a rise in sea level could there could damage shallow coastal areas used annually by whales and dolphins which need shallow, gentle waters in order to rear their small calves. We have also noted the vast decreasing populations of Spheniscus demersus, Bucerotidae family, deer, antelope and all Africans big cat species.

Humans have already destroyed many of the natural migrations of animals. The migratory journeys of Wildebeest in several African countries are stopped by fences. Changing rainfall patterns are causing dams to be erected in some areas of our planet, not taking into account the migratory fish and mammals that annually migrate up river to breed and spawn and water birds which rely on wetland sites for migration are at threat from rising sea levels caused by human effects. On the other side of the coin, the atmosphere is sucking moisture from the land at a greater rate than ever before causing severe droughts in many countries which are now facing reduced crop production and major drinking water shortages.

Although it is thought that no species has yet become extinct exclusively because of climate change, many migratory and non-migratory species are expected to become extinct in the near future. Over hunting is concerning of course – climate change is ever more worrying of which has potential to wipe out over a period of ten years for example thousands of species unless climate change in Africa and internationally is addressed accordingly.

We must also not forget humans that will also suffer from climate change destruction of which again places animals in danger within Africa. Evidence has already proved that dogs and cats are being consumed on a regular basis in small towns and city’s dotted over the Africans continent. Agriculture is also vastly affected by climate change of which has a knock on affect to “cattle stock and arable land”. No fertile lands equals a reduction in food for cattle = reduction in human food. This most certainly induces hunger and famine. Evidence proves too that in famine hit and war torn areas within Africa poverty stricken families have been involved in poaching of wild Rhino, Elephant and other mammals just to live and provide income and whatever food they can access of which has increased in price.

Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability, a situation aggravated by the interaction of ‘multiple stresses’, occurring at various levels, and low adaptive capacity (high confidence). Africa’s major economic sectors are vulnerable to current climate sensitivity, with huge economic impacts, and this vulnerability is exacerbated by existing developmental challenges such as endemic poverty, complex governance and institutional dimensions; limited access to capital, including markets, infrastructure and technology; ecosystem degradation; and complex disasters and conflicts. These in turn have contributed to Africa’s weak adaptive capacity, increasing the continent’s vulnerability to projected climate change.

We regularly see many animal activists arguing that hunting has the most devastating effects on wildlife either in Africa or internationally. Hunting is not our major concern though to “species depletion”. Many animals that are hunted within Africa are mostly hunted on private and thus do not place wildlife “within the wild” in any real danger. Activists must concentrate their anger and frustrations now on “climate change” as a whole. Ignoring this most critically important issue will just see more species perish from lack of awareness and actions in helping to reduce Co2 (carbon) emissions internationally that have undesired effects on the Africans continent.

Tourism and Wildlife – Climate change;

Changes in a variety of ecosystems are already being detected, particularly in southern African ecosystems, at a faster rate than anticipated (very high confidence). Climate change, interacting with human drivers such as deforestation and forest fires, are a threat to Africa’s forest ecosystems. Changes in grasslands and marine ecosystems are also noticeable. It is estimated that, by the 2080s, the proportion of arid and semi-arid lands in Africa is likely to increase by 5-8%. Climate change impacts on Africa’s ecosystems will probably have a negative effect on tourism as, according to one study, between 25 and 40% of mammal species in national parks in sub-Saharan Africa will become endangered.

East Africa can expect to experience increased short rains, while West Africa should expect heavier monsoons. Burma, Bangladesh and India can expect stronger cyclones; elsewhere in southern Asia, heavier summer rains are anticipated. Indonesia may receive less rainfall between July and October, but the coastal regions around the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand can expect increased rainfall extremes when cyclones hit land.


“It is virtually certain that in the long term, global precipitation will change. High latitude countries, such as in Europe or North America, are expected to receive more rainfall, but many … subtropical arid and semi-arid regions will likely experience less precipitation … Over wet tropical regions, extreme precipitation events will very likely be more intense and more frequent in a warmer world,” said the report’s authors.

They added: “Monsoon onset dates are likely to become earlier or not to change much while monsoon withdrawal rates are very likely to delay, resulting in a lengthening of the season.” Developing country scientists and commentators have welcomed the report, which they said backed their own observations. The report derives from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

“The IPCC makes the case that climate change is real and happening much more strongly than before. We are already seeing the effects of climate change in Bangladesh and across south Asia. It’s not news to us. Most developing countries are facing climate change now. They do not need the IPCC to tell them that the weather is changing”, said Saleemul Huq, director of the International Centre for Climate Change and Development, based in Dhaka.

Scientists have also lowered projections of sea-level rises. Depending on future greenhouse gas emissions, sea levels will rise an average of 16-24in (40-62cm) by 2100. Nevertheless, there will be significant geographical variations; many millions of people living in the developing world’s great cities, including Lagos and Calcutta, are threatened. Weather disasters are also more likely in a warmer world, the report suggests. Although the global frequency of tropical cyclones is expected to decrease or remain essentially unchanged, they may become more intense, with stronger winds and heavier rainfall.

Life in many developing country cities could become practically unbearable, given that urban temperatures are already well above those in surrounding countryside. Much higher temperatures could reduce the length of the growing period in some parts of Africa by up to 20%, the report said. Dr Camilla Toulmin, director of the International Institute for Environment and Development, says: “Climate models are not yet robust enough to predict impacts at local and regional scales, but it is clear … that everybody is vulnerable in some way.”

Oxfam predicted that world hunger would worsen as climate change inevitably hurt crop production and disrupted incomes; this will most certainly place wildlife and domestic mammals in grave danger too. They suggested the number of people at risk of hunger might climb by 10% to 20% by 2050, with daily per-capita calorie availability falling across the world.

“The changing climate is already jeopardising gains in the fight against hunger, and it looks set to worsen,” said Oxfam. “A hot world is a hungry world. If the remainder of the 21st century unfolds like its first decade, we will soon experience climate extremes well outside the boundaries of human experience.”

Climate change effects – Lion species

Back in 2008 the National Geographic reported the following based on Lion studies and climate change. Activists must take heed of this information now.

Droughts and downpours exacerbated by climate change allowed two diseases to converge and wipe out large numbers of African lions in 1994 and 2001, according to past studies. Lions regularly survive outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and infestations by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. But both normally occur in isolation.

In 1994 and 2001, however, a “perfect storm” of extreme drought followed by heavy seasonal rains set up the conditions for the two diseases to converge, the study said. The effect was lethal: The synchronized infections wiped out about a third of the Serengeti lion population in 1994. The nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population experienced similar losses in 2001.


“It was already well known that die offs can be triggered by droughts and floods,” Craig Packer, an ecologist at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul, explained in an email from his research site in Tanzania. “We were able to identify the interacting components of a lethal co-infection that had not previously been considered,” he said. The research is published in the issue of the journal PLoS ONE.

“Lethal One-Two Punch”

Packer and his colleagues combed through more than 30 years of data on the lion populations to determine the complex combination of factors that caused the mass die offs. They found that at least five CDV outbreaks swept through the lion populations with no ill effect. The two die offs, which are also tied to CDV outbreaks, were preceded by extreme droughts. Probing further, the researchers discovered the droughts weakened lion prey, including the Cape buffalo. No Cape buffalo will evidentially decrease Lion populations of which the Buffalo is the Lions most sought after prey. Do you see the problems here that are almost identical to that of human overpopulation yet many activists still continue to lay blame at the hunting fraternity which must now change. We are all to blame for increasing climate change – Climate destruction is much more volatile than a hunter with a rifle too.

When the rains resumed, Babesia-carrying ticks emerged en masse and proliferated in their buffalo hosts. Many of the buffalo died. The lions feasted on the weakened, parasite-infested buffalo, but the feast left the hunters with unusually high concentrations of Babesia. The subsequent CDV outbreak proved lethal, according to the study.

“CDV is immunosuppressive—like a short, sharp bout of AIDS—thus greatly intensifying the effects of the Babesia,” Packer said. This co-infection, or synchronization of the diseases, caused the mass die offs, Packer and his colleagues concluded. Sonia Altizer is an ecologist who studies wildlife diseases at the University of Georgia in Athens. She was not involved with this study, which she said is “at the leading edge” of the field.

“[It] lays out mechanistically how a climate anomaly could allow a combination of pathogens to have a lethal one-two punch,” she said.

Conservation Implications

Study author Packer and his colleagues warn that as global climate change continues to produce more extreme weather anomalies, potentially fatal synchronized infections are likely to become more common. “Many mysterious maladies [such as] colony collapse disorder in honeybees are likely to result from co-infections,” Packer noted. Altizer said the research adds to a growing body of evidence showing how extreme climate events can have major impacts on the spread of infectious diseases. Since more deadly co-infections are likely to arise, she said researchers need to reconsider how they treat wildlife and humans.

“Understanding the mechanism by which the animals are actually dying or succumbing to disease then changes how you should go about preventing that,” she explained. In the case of the lions, Packer noted, wildlife managers may be able to better protect populations by reducing their tick loads immediately following a drought rather than controlling for CDV. National Geo-Graphic.

Climate variability and change could result in low-lying lands being inundated, with resultant impacts on coastal settlements (high confidence). Climate variability and change, coupled with human-induced changes, may also affect ecosystems e.g., mangroves and coral reefs, with additional consequences for fisheries and tourism. The projection that sea-level rise could increase flooding, particularly on the coasts of eastern Africa, will have implications for health. Sea-level rise will probably increase the high socio-economic and physical vulnerability of coastal cities. The cost of adaptation to sea-level rise could amount to at least 5-10% of gross domestic product.

Turkana is a prime example of how climate change is forcing people within Kenya, Africa to now kill and consume dogs and cats. Famine is rife; agriculture has been greatly scaled back due to lack of rains. Soil stability and access to water has worsened of which any form of suitable crops simply cannot be grown. We have picked Turkana as an example here to show how climate change can push people into attacking our wildlife on a vast scale. No water or food will force you into consuming whatever is edible. In this case dogs and cats are now on the menu. A taboo food many people in within Turkana actually do not want to consume, they are left though with no choice.

Agricultural production and food security (including access to food) in many African countries and regions are likely to be severely compromised by climate change and climate variability (high confidence). A number of countries in Africa already face semi-arid conditions that make agriculture challenging, and climate change will be likely to reduce the length of growing season as well as force large regions of marginal agriculture out of production. Projected reductions in yield in some countries could be as much as 50% by 2020, and crop net revenues could fall by as much as 90% by 2100, with small-scale farmers being the most affected. This would adversely affect food security in the continent forcing many poor Africans to hunt for whatever is available. Decreasing human birth rates and introducing contraception is not the whole answer here to the problem. Even if human population was decreased it still does not answer the problems that climate change is actually causing. Aggravated by many countries that still use fossil fuels famine and poverty will only increase more.

Richard Leakey has spent a lifetime exploring Kenya’s Turkana Basin searching for the origins of man.

Each layer of sediment, says the paleoanthropologist and founder of the Turkana Basin Institute, helps to tell the narrative of human evolution. “You get the whole story of life represented going back from the present right back to the beginnings of an ape that has two legs as opposed to four,” Leakey said.

“So the whole story of humanity you can actually trace to the Turkana Basin.” But Leakey says these ancient hills tell another story, a history of climatic changes that gave rise to some species and led to the extinction of others.

With climate change, he says, this history could be repeated. “The future of humanity is not going to be in the sediments, it is going to be in our minds and our thinking and unfortunately what we find here is that evidence,” Leakey said.

“What we find here that is scientifically provable, immutable facts doesn’t necessarily get absorbed for the moment by the political class who simply don’t want to know the ugly truth that the world is a mess.” On the shores of Lake Turkana — the largest desert lake in the world — they don’t need to know the science of climate change.

For more than 1,000 years, fishermen have been bringing in their catch, but, in less than a generation, they have witnessed disturbing changes.

“When I was young this lake was full, says Lazarao Maraka, a local fisherman.

“The water just keeps going down. We used to get big fish every day, now they are tiny.”

Turkana’s climate catastrophe

Maraka has reason to worry. Sometimes it is hard to see the effects of climate change, but not at Lake Turkana.

Global human impact on Earth

Thirty years ago the area was covered with water. Now, it is just sand and gravel. And scientists believe that in just a few decades it will be reduced to a couple of puddles. Upriver dam projects could further hasten the retreat, a potential catastrophe for the entire region that depends on the lake for food and economic survival.

“I think the prospect of many of these half million people living around the lake today of having to relocate to cities and to slums and to abandon their culture, abandon their ancestral land, become paupers in their own land, I think it is very real,” Leakey says. “I think the way of life is gone…I have no doubt about that at all. I think if you came back here or my grandchildren came back in 50 years we wouldn’t recognize what we are talking about today.”

Leakey’s Turkana Basin Institute is trying to understand how climate change is affecting the Turkana.

Sometimes the best thing to do is listen. The Turkana say the rains are less frequent and the droughts come more often. The unpredictable weather and vanishing pasture has decimated their herds.

Climate change does affect the Turkana people, says Ikal Angelei from the Turkana Basin Institute “With the increase of drought it has made the communities unable to adapt to the changes, because it happens so often,” Angelei said. Leakey says that anyone sceptical about climate change should visit the Turkana Basin.

“Coming to a place like this, I think you actually show people what happens. These are real issues that you can see and feel and almost touch that may make people understand that we are on the edge of a precipice and we are going over,” he said. “We have accelerated a process and it is based on the belief that somehow we can maintain control. I think our carbon dioxide emissions are out of control.” Even with the changes around Lake Turkana, fishermen like Lazaro Maraka still try to eke out a living the only way they know how.

He worries what will be left for his son Eroo if the lake continues to recede. “If there is no lake or no fish, then the people will not survive around this lake. This lake is the Turkana’s life,” Maraka says. This place has helped unlock humanity’s past. Today, it could also be providing a window on its future.

View the video below on the devastating impact of climate change in Turkana that has now forced villagers to consume dog and cat meat.

Read more here; http://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/575/Turkana_discussionPaper_7.pdf?sequence=1

Climate change in Africa is fuelling poaching from locals at an unprecedented rate.

Travelling north in Uganda, the land flattens out and becomes drier, turning from tropical to semi-arid. Paved roads change to dirt and after a few hours you reach the most remote region of the country. Home to semi-nomadic cattle keeping people, the Karimojong, Karamoja is scarred by dry river beds and dotted with manyattas, small settlements made of sticks and ringed by fences of thorns.

About ten kilometres outside of Moroto, the largest town in the Karamoja, in one of these manyattas, lives Lowakabong Tapem. Crawling through a small opening in the fence, you’ll find him and his eight wives and 40 children. Tapem used to be a rich man. He carries a walking stick and wears a navy blue suit jacket over cargo shorts.  Around his wrist is an ivory bracelet that he bought for ten cows. But then last year, warriors from a neighbouring clan came and stole all his animals in a series of raids. He lost 70 cows, 30 camels and 40 goats.

‘I don’t have anything to give my wives; they are the ones who take care of me now, by going and looking for herbs,’ Tapem says. The elder blames the drought that has plagued the region of Karamoja in recent years for the theft of his livestock. ‘The hunger has increased the raids,’ he says. ‘Someone sits under the tree for a whole day. He doesn’t have anything to do; he doesn’t have anything to eat. “So he thinks, let me just go for a raid”‘.

The hardships of climate change that environmentalists warn of have already arrived in the poorest and least developed region of Uganda.  Three out of the past four years have seen poor or no harvests in Karamoja. But in addition to starving the region agriculturally, climate change is also exacerbating violence in the region. As UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon said in 2007, ‘changes in our environment and the resulting upheavals – from droughts to inundated coastal areas to loss of arable lands – are likely to become a major driver of war and conflict.’

The conflicts Moon spoke of might seem abstract and apocalyptic – too far in the future to worry about. But in Uganda, it seems climate change driven violence is already here. The cattle keepers of Karamoja have raided each other’s herds for generations: for prestige, to pay dowries and to increase their wealth. But today, many in the region say that warriors are increasingly driven by hunger.

Global warming reality

Sitting on a bench in the stark afternoon sunlight, the elders of Tapem’s manyatta agree the climate of Karamoja has undergone a transformation in recent years. ‘Previously during this season there was rain and it was green around. Now you look around . . . everything is different. It’s completely changed,’ says Apangamea Lobur.

Before, ‘we would expect that when you came around here you would find green grass and plants of medium size,’ Lokawa Pareo says. The government of Uganda estimates that the average temperature has increased between 0.2 and 1 degree C in the country since 1974. The semi-arid region of Karamoja, already susceptible to drought, has been particularly affected by this change.

Andrew Achila-Ododongo is the Production and Marketing Coordinator for the district of Moroto. In his office in Moroto town, he gets out a chart showing plunging rainfall patterns in the area.  ‘If you look at our crop calendar, by now we should be recording maximum amount of rainfall. This year, we only got three days of rain,’ he says. ‘It used to be every five years you would get a serious drought, but now, almost every year you get drought.’

lastplace (1)

It adds up to an undeniable change in Karamoja’s climate, says the official. ‘Climate change is aggravating the situation and the impacts are being seriously felt. [Global warming] is becoming a reality.’ And as the environment has worsened, the people`s hunger pangs have sharpened. A 2010 report by the Danish NGO DanChurchAid concluded that in Karamoja ‘climate change is worsening food insecurity dramatically.’ According to the report, 85 per cent of people surveyed in two districts of Karamoja have only one meal a day.

The change in the environment has meant that families that used to look to agriculture, as an alternative to livestock, to feed themselves are no longer able to rely on that either.  Achila-Ododongo says the drought has decimated harvests. ‘Production and productivity are going down every day. It’s been crop failure, crop failure, and crop failure for the last four years. There are no bumper harvests like we used to have. We have been relying on food aid for the past four years.’

Back inside the manyatta, one of Tapem’s wives shows off an empty garden. ‘If we plant anything, the sun will just come and burn up all the crops, so we don’t even think of planting”. If we last up until the following day, we thank God for that,’ says the patriarch.

These days, the people of the manyatta are largely dependent on NGO and government assistance for food. It’s a change from Tapem`s younger years, when the community was more self-reliant. ‘We were better off because we didn’t depend on the government so much.  It’s just these recent years and especially this one where we don’t have anything at all,’ Tapem says.

Raiding for food

Cattle raids are a tradition in Karamoja going back to before colonisation. When guns proliferated in the region in following the overthrow of Idi Amin, however, they became increasingly destructive. A decade ago, the government of Uganda launched a massive disarmament program designed to stamp out raiding in the area. But despite the army’s collection of over 30,000 guns, the effort hasn’t put a stop to raiding in Karamoja.

Rather, cattle raids have changed nature. A number of factors, including increased demand for land and high youth unemployment and, of course drought, have resulted in raids of a different type. Instead of the massive ritual raids of the past, today warriors who steal tend to steal only a few animals at a time.

‘Cattle wrestling has been transformed into organized crime,’ says the DanChurchAid study. That’s partly a function of a changing climate. Instead of raiding for prestige or to pay dowries, warriors now steal to feed their families, explains Simon Kiru, food security officer of the community based organization Action for Poverty Reduction and Livestock Modernization in Karamoja. ‘If the children have slept for two or three days without food, then a man is forced to go and raid because there is no other alternative.’

Raiding has become a commercial activity and a coping strategy more than a cultural practice, Kiru explains. ‘Now the cows they raid are just for survival. They bring them and sell them straight away so that they can buy food.’ Father Charles Omenya, the chairperson of the Catholic church’s Justice and Peace committee for Moroto Diocese, has lived in Karamoja since the 1970’s. ‘These people who used to have guns, now they have resorted to arrows and pangas,’ he says. ‘Now they can’t launch major attacks, so what they do is to go to vulnerable people and [even] take away the food stuffs that they have at home, chickens and utensils.’

And in spite of the government’s efforts to eliminate the violence in the region, Karimojong continue to die at the hands of their neighbours. At least two or three people die each month in raids in Moroto district, admits resident district chairman Norman Ojwe. And that’s in just one region of Karamoja’s seven.

Only hope

Outside of Tapem’s manyatta, several boys in their late teens are escaping the mid-afternoon sun under a lone tree. These boys used to be charged with keeping their families’ cattle.  But there’s little for them to do since their fathers’ herds were raided. ‘I knew all the colours of the animals and when one got lost and was missing, I could find it,’ says Lokwango Nachiro, whose father lost his cows in a raid last year.

‘[Usually] at this time in the afternoon I would be returning from the grazing area and I would be sharpening my knives to draw the animal’s blood. I don’t have anything to do these days. When we had cows, I would drink their milk and blood but now I have nothing to do but sit under this tree.’

In a society where cattle raids have become a strategy for coping with the changing climate, the future threatens to bring more violence. His friend Lobur Angella recalls the night his family’s cattle were taken. ‘We were sleeping and suddenly we heard gunshots. We took off without our shirts or shoes and ran to the bushes and hid. Some people were killed and some animals were injured. It’s only because of the rescue of the soldiers that we were saved.’

The drought means that these boys have given up on agriculture as a means of producing food. ‘The weather is not favouring us now.  The soil is not fertile; if it was we would try and grow sorghum,’ says Paul Louse. Though their community was devastated by raiding, they see the violent form of theft as the only way to obtain a good life for them and their families. ‘The only hope of getting rich would be to go and raid,’ Louse says.

Rhino and Elephant poaching we can rightfully state the major problem here is to fuel the Asian market with fake medicine and cultural gifts. However Asians are not poaching African wildlife. Africans are at the heart of all poaching within Africa.

Organised syndicate gangs prey on vulnerable African communities such as those situated in Kabok, Mozambique. Family head men and young boys risk their lives venturing over the border taking out our Rhino and Elephant. Ivory and Rhino horn is of no use to them. Money is though and if one Rhino horn can fetch a family a roof over their heads, farmland, food and security then poaching of this “level” will increase. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa is currently lobbying the government of Southern Africa, Mozambique, Botswana and Zimbabwe to now help poor communities situated next to the Kruger National Park in the hope that hunger and poverty can be addressed.

The Department of International Development (DID) based in the United Kingdom are also being lobbied and hopes for a secure future for these poverty stricken individuals International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa is working towards. There is of course sadly though no promise of which should these areas continually be ignored then poaching of our vulnerable wildlife will continue leading to extinction on both levels caused by humans. Greed and over-usage of carbon fossil fuels has had more of a devastating effect on Mama Africa than most civil wars.

Climate change – Africans Elephant populations;

By making new use of historical records, scientists have shown that climate change could have a greater impact on Myanmar’s elephants’ dwindling numbers than previously thought.

Hannah Mumby from the University of Sheffield, who led the study, found that the already endangered species faces further struggle as even the slightest temperature change can lower their chances of survival dramatically.


Climate change leaves the animals at risk of drought, disease and death as the heat causes freshwater supplies to dwindle, infectious diseases to spread faster and brings with it one of the biggest killers of elephants in Myanmar – heat stroke.  The study found that elephants thrive at an optimum temperature of 23oC, and deviations from this leave them more vulnerable. The Myanmar region is predicted to experience a rise of 0.1 to 3oC, over the next 30 to 40 years – a seemingly small change, but one that could wipe out the entire elephant population.

‘We think of elephants as very resilient animals, very robust, but then we see at the same time there is a very narrow range at which they are at their optimal survival. If the climate changes by even a few degrees it can substantially reduce survival,’ says Mumby. She continues: ‘We found that the youngest elephants, the calves, are quite susceptible to extremes. Once we move out of their optimal to their maximum temperature, it doubles their mortality risk’.

The discovery that calves are particularly threatened by rising temperatures is important, since these offspring are integral for the survival of the species. Elephants, like humans, reproduce later in life and if the calves die before they can mate then the species will be unable to survive.

The variations in temperature between seasons in Myanmar are already large, but the climate projections show that not only will temperatures rise but there will be fewer monsoon months. The higher the rainfall, the better the chance of survival is for the elephants; dryer hotter months could prove to be fatal.

There has been little previous research into how long-lived species will adapt to climate change, since the time required to study generations of these animals exceeds the lifespan of most scientists. Mumby was given access to a unique database which held information on the lives of around 800 Asian elephants from 1960 to 2000. ‘We have captured the whole lives of generations, their month to month survival, as well as the month to month climate, so we can look at small scale individual changes in a way we’d never be able to if we began collecting data now.’

Elephant life spans are similar to humans, but that is not the only similarity. Studying how climate change can affect elephant behaviour could provide an insight into how humans will react under changing environmental conditions. Mumby states that ‘any similarities or differences are enlightening for understanding both species and their responses, particularly since both are long-lived animals that have survived events that caused the extinction of several other species, such as the last ice age.’


International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa takes on board all scientific climatic data of which we will unfortunately view climate change destruction as the number one killer of human and animal life within Africa by the year 2100. We will see most certainly a significantly large depletion of wildlife pushed into extinction due to climate change and destruction aggravated by the over usage of fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Secondly but most importantly families that are/have been affected by climate change will endeavour to poach more animals just to stay alive or are forced to consume domesticated mammals. The animal rights community and anti-hunter brigade must now take it on board that hunting is the least of our worries. Climate change can in under ten years wipe out an entire species of mammal which then has a significant knock on effect to other ecosystems and species of animals least affected by climate change. Governments internationally that fail to take this climate change in Africa seriously will be the death of Africa’s economy, tourism, agriculture and wildlife. 

Please stay tuned to our upcoming documents on poaching, Lion bone wine trade, African Blue Swallow and much more by subscribing for free to our site at www.speakupforthevoiceless.org You can also view our Africans page on Facebook here

This article has used up to date sources and to date reliable scientific data. We believe that climate change is more than real and those who disbelieve are only damaging our African wildlife and human population furthermore.

If we fail Mama Africa – We fail 1.033 billion people living within Africa (2011 stats) and billions of species of African wildlife.

Jon Williamson Chief European Environmental Registrar.


Speak Up For the Voiceless is a separate non-affiliated organisation not directly connected to International Animal Rescue Foundation – Speak Up For the Voiceless.Org voices its concerns and speaks up for our wildlife that cannot do so.

Please donate to International Animal Rescue Foundation here Your donation is used exclusively to Fund African Wildlife Survival – F.A.W.S without your donation we cannot continue our work in ensuring mammal and flora preservation. When donating you will automatically be sent an electronic receipt of which we keep one too. You will be communicated too when all donations are used via each project. This years project is Project F.A.W.S. For every donation you place to us we will add a further $10.00 per donation.

We will email only via our main Africans email address;

- africanaffairs@international-animalrescue-foundation.org.uk When we communicate to you via our fundraising event this is the only email that we use, please do not be fooled by other communications of which if you have been contacted by others mimicking us please email our organisation immediately with email too that has been sent to you. 


Tourists contributing to the abuse of Asian Elephants.

Looks fun doesn’t it. Tourists happily larking about on the back of Elephants that have endured years of abuse of which you the tourist have provided funding for more Elephants to be ripped from their mothers and fathers then crushed, smuggled, beaten and shot dead. Fun isn’t it? If only you knew the real truth behind the ride.

International Animal Rescue Foundation.Org.Uk have become increasingly frustrated with American and European tourists that still fail to see that what they are participating in only fuels more abuse and deaths of many Elephants. A picture can tell a million stories. This picture hereto doesn’t just show happy tourists; unfortunately it depicts a very emotionally distressed Elephant that has suffered years of abuse so that tourists are able to clamber aboard the Elephant without this largest land mammal going berserk.

Dear tourists please stay alert and please read all the facts below.

Elephant crushing or a training crush is a supposed method by which wild elephants can be tamed for domestication, using restriction in a cage, sometimes with the use of corporal punishment or negative reinforcement. Used for centuries to domesticate wild elephants, this torture training method is still accepted as the only viable training method for elephant handlers and is used in almost every elephant attraction in Thailand. And, once they have their souls stomped out, they are simply vessels entertaining people. They are chained.

People who visit Thailand — and other countries with elephant tourism — don’t realise the damage they cause these elephants when they support trekking camps, go to circuses or buy the paintings done by these creatures. Without knowing, they send a clear message to the elephant tourism industry that shows they support the torture these animals go through early in their life, as well as the horrific conditions they live in as cogs in the tourism wheel.

The process used to tame wild Elephants is called the elephant phajaan process. Below are some of the abusive regimes Elephants are put through jut to satisfy tourist demand in Thailand.

  • Still-nursing calves are forcibly separated from their mothers and placed into a tightly constricted pen known as a “crush”.
  • There they are tied down in such a way that they can’t move or turn around, and are unable to sit or even lie down.
  • Over the next several days they are deprived of food and water, and they’re not allowed to sleep.
  • Hour after hour, day after day, they are repeatedly beaten, burned, and stabbed with an array of crude weapons. Hit again and again over the head, back, and legs with bamboo sticks that have nails pushed through the ends, stabbed over and over in their delicate inner ears, struck repeatedly on their sensitive trunks — tortured in an unending variety of unimaginable ways.
  • The abuse continues until the baby Elephant stops crying for its mother and its captive keepers are happy that the soul of the baby Elephant has been removed. Commonly known as (Broken or crushed” baby Elephant will be so terrorized and fearful of being hurt further, it will submit to being trained. Bloodied and broken, the baby elephant is now ready to learn how to perform tricks and tasks with little protest.


Half of the elephants put through phajaan will die. Of those that survive, “About half will go mad,” says Elephant Nature Park founder Lek Chailert. “This brutality can make them aggressive and dangerous.” Still thinking of riding an Elephant this summer in Thailand? Think again as you the tourist that pays to ride on these splendid land mammals are no better than the captive keepers that perform daily abusive acts towards their non-human inmates to satisfy your demands.

Thailand’s current population of domesticated Elephants is about 2,700. After a precipitous decline from about 100,000 domesticated Elephants in 1850, numbers are now stable. About 95% of Thai Elephants are in private ownership. Wild Elephants in Thailand are very difficult to count given their dense, forested habitat, but most experts would agree there are between 2,000 3,000 wild Elephants.

In 1989 the Thai government banned all logging in protected areas, effectively closing all remaining natural forests. While undoubtedly a very wise choice, one unfortunate side effect was that it threw many logging elephants out of work. Luckily, that loss coincided with a rapid rise in tourism, which was able to employ many elephants. Today, probably more than half of Thai elephants work in tourism.

Thailand pumps a lot of propaganda into the public domain from which it states Animal Rights and Conservation groups are barking up the wrong tree. Elephants are apparently cared for and not abused at all. The Thai government travel and tourism sector quote;

Disturbingly, some overseas animal rights groups have argued that tourists should not visit elephant camps, claiming it promotes cruelty. In fact, most Thai elephants are very well cared for, partly because most Thai people are intrinsically kind and humane but also because elephants are simply too valuable to abuse. (A beautiful calf or a healthy, young breeding female is worth as much as 700,000 baht or US$22,000.) Although the camp to be visited should be carefully selected, the kindest thing that ethical, elephant-loving tourists can do is to visit a camp and enjoy elephants. Without work in tourism, elephant owners will have no means to care for their animals.

Let’s take a more in-depth look into this propaganda from which it’s stated “In fact, most Thai elephants are very well cared for, partly because most Thai people are intrinsically kind and humane but also because elephants are simply too valuable to abuse.

The Thai Elephant Conservation Centre actively promotes the abuse of Thai Elephants as well as denouncing any conservation or activist group that dares speak out against them.

A tourist that recently visited Thailand wrote the following, it makes very uneasy reading and completely de-bunks the so called humane treatment of Thai Elephants.

The unnamed tourist writes the following; We have highlighted areas within this email for your information.

I have just returned to Canada from a 4 week backpacking trip in Thailand. As with most backpackers who visit Thailand, part of my trip entailed a 3-4 day trek in Chiang Mai through the Doi Inthanon National Park & entailed an elephant trek. I was extremely apprehensive about this portion of our trek, and asked our guide Nikon “Dragon” repeatedly if the elephants were well treated, and he repeatedly tried consoling me by saying that the elephants were in fact well treated.

Upon arriving at the elephant camp, and was immediately overwhelmed by the sheer number of elephants (approx. 15 in total). The first thing I saw was a VERY young baby elephant chained by her neck to her mother’s neck, with about 6 feet of chain separating them. I immediately noticed that the mother of the baby had enormous large purple marks on her skull, with a clear wound located in the middle of the purple. This purple mark looked like iodine and it surrounded almost the entire one side of her upper skull. I asked our guide what the purple mark was, and he said it was for insect bites.


We were quickly ushered up on a platform where we were to get on the back of the designated elephant. Our group had a total of 12 people, so we required 6 elephants. Once our procession of elephants began to walk, I was able to turn around and view the other 5 elephants, and noticed that almost every one of the other elephants had the same large purple markings, with what looked like a hole / wound in the middle of the purple. Some elephants had these holes on both sides of their skulls.

Within the first 2 minutes of the trek, the elephants had to make their way down a rather steep decline in the embankment, and understandably the mother with her baby chained to her, was apprehensive of the embankment….most likely for the safety of her still awkward baby, more so than for herself. All of a sudden I heard banging and turned around the witness the mahout of one of the other elephants violently hitting the apprehensive mother with his pointy hammer like instrument directly on the area where the hole and purple iodine markings were on her skull. I immediately yelled at the top of my lungs for the mahout to stop hitting her, and my co-travellers quickly supported me. The mahout stopped hitting her, but it was a little too late, as we saw puss & blood being dispelled from the already pre-existing wound on the elephants skull. It was now painfully clear what the “insect bites” really were.

Because of our anger at the treatment of the elephant, the mahouts didn’t beat the elephants again in our presence. I desperately wanted to get off the elephant, but the mahout insisted that there was no place that I could get off safely, and was therefore forced to continue on one of the single most horrifying experiences of my life. I was so upset; I literally threw up, through my tears. I was forced to continue to watch the baby elephant being forced to climb embankments that were 4 times her height, while her mother desperately tried to help her up the embankment. This scene continued for 50 minutes

The grounds and path of the elephant camp was repulsive. The entire grounds and path were covered in several layers of elephant faeces, including the part of the grounds were the elephants were to eat. There was a pregnant elephant that was chained to a stump with no more than 4 feet of chain to move, and she was eating a small pile of bamboo sticks that laid upon the faeces laden ground. My heart broke for this gentle giant and the life that her baby was unknowingly about to be born into.

All of the elephants on the camp were chained, and there was one elephant in particular that looked in dreadful health. This particular elephant had the same purple iodine markings as the others at the camp, but he had the markings over his entire back spine area. Once I was able to get a little closer, I could see that he also had holes from the mahouts hammer instrument covering his entire spine (which was protruding). It was clear to me that this elephant was in very ill health.

Unfortunately I do not know the name of this particular camp, only where it was. I made complaints to our tour guide as well as the owner of the BMP Residence, and pleaded that they demand that the owners of the elephant camp better treat the elephants, or else they will no longer be able to bring tourists to their camp because they have received numerous complaints from travellers. The owner of the BMP Residence said he had a meeting with the owner of the camp the following week and said he would bring up my concerns at that time. My gut feeling is that the owner of the BMP Residence is also the owner of the elephants, as they owned both the property as well as the lodges that we stayed in during our entire trek.

elephant (1)

I apologize for the long email, but felt it important to make other travellers aware of the dreadful mistreatment of the elephants at the camp used by the BMP (Backpackers Meeting Place) in Chiang Mai. I am sure that there are Thais that treat their elephants with the loyalty, respect, and love that you would expect for Thailand’s “most sacred animal”, however they seem to be few and far between……or at least NOT used for tourist enjoyment.

International Animal Rescue Foundation.Org.Uk has been monitoring the abusive elephant mistreatment in Asia now for several years. What we are seeing is that many tourists are feeding this abusive culture without knowing how these Elephants are tamed and beaten in the process.  The laws that surround the welfare of Elephants within Thailand (example) are quite shady too, to say the least. Ceasing this barbaric torturous tourism attraction is going to prove difficult (within Thailand) from which we have highlighted some points below for your information.

The Draught Animal Act of 1939

Under The Draught Animal Act of 1939 (phrarachbanyat sat phahana, B.E. 2482) the domesticated elephant was specifically classified as a draft animal (sat phahana in formal Thai) along with the cow, water buffalo, horse, donkey, and the mule. The Act of 1939 was written at a time when domesticated elephants were still found in great numbers, certainly several tens of thousands. Responsibility for enforcing the 1939 Act necessarily fell to the Ministry of Interior, the ministry that controls the police, because one of the prime motivations for creating the law was to suppress the rampant theft of cattle and water buffalo – and elephants. Registration thus became the duty of the LAD and its provincial offices.

The 1939 Act is still in effect today, although updated by over fifty years of instructions on implementation called kot krasuang or ‘ministerial regulations’. From its inception The 1939 Act made it mandatory for all owners of draft animals to register their animals with the LAD. Draft animals are required to be registered at different ages according to the animal’s species and sex; the age for registration of elephants is “going into the eighth year,” the oldest by far for any animal. This provision specifying the age of mandatory registration is the only section of the 1939 Act (other than fees, which are paltry) in which the elephant is treated any differently from the cow, the water buffalo, or any other draft animal. Like them, the domesticated elephant is clearly considered to be private property.

The sole intent of the 1939 Act is to define the rights and obligations of ownership. Five sections deal with subjects such as changing ownership, using elephants for security for loans, moving domicile, registration fees, etc.

The greatest shortcoming of the 1939 Act for modern management purposes (beyond the difficult question of jurisdiction) is that it imposes no obligations on owners to treat elephants properly. There are no provisions prohibiting cruelty, overwork, or unsuitable employment. As stated by Lair (1988), “Elephants in Thailand are basically private property to be treated howsoever the owner wishes.” This conception of the elephant as property is mirrored in other government realms; to this day, in inter-ministerial understandings between the Ministries of Interior and Agriculture regarding property confiscated from illegal loggers, elephants are classified as upakorn (‘equipment’) along with oxen, trucks, chainsaws, walkie-talkies, etc.

The Draught Animal Act of 1939 quietly held steady for over fifty years with nobody giving a thought to the legal status of domesticated elephants. In the interval, two bodies of law applying to wild elephants were passed by the Thai Parliament and signed by the King. The first law, the Wild Elephant Protection Act of 1960, had absolutely no impact on domesticated elephants except a slight increase in the fee to capture a wild elephant. Lekagul and McNeely (1977c) imply that the major force of law remained with the prior Law for the Conservation of Elephants of 1921, the so-called ‘special law’, but that, “Unfortunately, even the special law is not well enforced.”

Note; The greatest shortcoming of the 1939 Act for modern management purposes (beyond the difficult question of jurisdiction) is that it imposes no obligations on owners to treat elephants properly. There are no provisions prohibiting cruelty, overwork, or unsuitable employment. As stated by Lair (1988), “Elephants in Thailand are basically private property to be treated howsoever the owner wishes.” This conception of the elephant as property is mirrored in other government realms.

The Wildlife Reservation and Protection Act of 1992

The passage of The Wildlife Reservation and Protection Act of 1992, however, soon provoked conservationists to turn their eyes to the status of the domesticated elephant. (The Act is in Thai called phrarachbanyat sanguan lae khumkhrong sat paa B.E. 2535, and is henceforth called ‘The Wildlife Protection Act of 1992’ or ‘The WPA of 1992’.) In 1994 an informal coalition of “elephant-loving NGOs” and environmentalists suggested that the domesticated elephant should be excluded from The Draught Animal Act of 1939 and included in The Wildlife Protection Act of 1992. The concept of applying to elephants in captivity a law devoted to protecting wild animals is very pleasing to conservationists, seeming to promise absolute protection.

The legal obstacle to bringing the domesticated elephant under The WPA of 1992 Act is that in defining ‘wild animal’ (sat paa), the Act very specifically states that the term does not apply to species required by The Draught Animal Act of 1939 to register as draft animals, nor to their offspring born in captivity. This exclusion is phrased very oddly indeed because while the law does not once use the word ‘elephant’, the elephant is clearly the animal intended because none of the other draft animals, all genetically altered for millennia, has a wild relative with which it could ever be confused. (Except just perhaps for the few remaining wild water buffalo, but even there the wild and domesticated animals have a quite different appearance.)

A close reading of The WPA of 1992 leads to two prime conclusions. First, in many instances the law, by Western standards, is not particularly clear, probably because traditionally such a law is seen primarily as a master framework on which to attach the ministerial regulations (kot krasuang) which define the duties required of civil servants. The intent of The Act of 1992 is not to establish premises on which to steadily build case law, the intent of most Western law.


Second, the intent of the parts of The WPA of 1992 pertaining to captive animals is to control the trade in protected wild animals (and the products derived thereof), and to regulate the captive breeding of protected wild animals by commercial businesses. These provisions were never designed or intended to apply to domesticated elephants, which in practical terms are little different from other draft animals except that elephants must normally move around to find work.

The possibility of using The WPA of 1992 to protect domesticated elephants poses so many complex questions that rather than lengthily examining both sides of many separate issues side by side, it makes sense to, perhaps exaggerating a bit, succinctly make the strongest possible arguments both for and against inclusion.

Arguments against the inclusion of domesticated elephants

A strong case can be made for why the domesticated elephant should not be included in The Wildlife Reservation and Protection Act of 1992. The WPA of 1992, just like The Draught Animal Act of 1939, has absolutely no provisions for penalties or confiscation in cases of owners conducting unsuitable work or severe overwork, much less mechanisms for preventing subtler forms of abuse such as premature weaning, keeping infants as solitaries, chaining elephants for long times, etc. Stipulations in The WPA of 1992 for licensing, breeding, buying, selling, and moving protected species would, if strictly applied to elephants, be not only extremely restrictive but, worse, ultimately unenforceable. The law divides wild animals into two types, “reserved wild animals” (sat paa sanguan) and “protected wild animals” (sat paa khum khrong), and for the elephants the nuances of enforcement would depend on how they were classified; the inclusion of domesticated elephants in the law might force Elephas maximus to be moved from “protected” to “reserved,” which is even more restrictive. Probably only wealthy entrepreneurs could meet many of The WPA of 1992’s requirements, and many conservationists and NGOs have questioned the domesticated elephant’s possible inclusion, fearing that some provisions could greatly impair the owners’ and mahouts’ ability to make a living. The provisions on travel, for example, could be interpreted to require owners to seek the written permission of the Director General of the RFD for any “transitory movement,” which makes good sense for rare animals or animals destined for international trade but would clearly be ludicrous every time a domesticated elephant left home. Even more unreasonable, strict enforcement would subject thousands of elephant owners to a lengthy licensing procedure before they could breed their elephants. Most absurd, if applied to the letter of the law, the 1992 Act would seem to require owners, mostly poor villagers, to surrender their elephants to the RFD; owners who refused would be committing a crime. Such an extreme will never happen, both because the RFD could not provide for over 3,000 elephants and also because such a mass confiscation is the goal of neither the law, nor the RFD, nor of society at large. Nonetheless, if, as many people wish, domesticated elephants were included and the law strictly applied, The Wildlife Protection Act of 1992 would be a nightmare not just for thousands of owners of domesticated elephants in Thailand, but also for the RFD.

Arguments for the inclusion of domesticated elephants

An equally good case can be made to explain why the domesticated elephant should be included in The Wildlife Reservation and Protection Act of 1992. Placement alongside wild elephants feels conceptually and morally right. One very useful aspect of The WPA of 1992 is that it requires licences and the RFD would thus be empowered to scrutinize owners for suitability, a screening procedure impossible under The Draught Animal Act of 1939, where anybody who comes along must be registered. One RFD official {Tunhikorn, 1996} pointed out that bringing all elephants under the 1992 law would close the loophole of easily absorbing illegally captured wild elephants, calves in particular, into the domesticated population; he added that another loophole closed would be the ability of people with fresh ivory to protest that it came from a domesticated elephant, a problem that has left Thailand open to criticism on CITES grounds. As for strictness of application, it can be argued that The WPA of 1992 need not be so restrictive as described in the section above because several provisions give the Director General great leeway in determining policy {Srikrajang, 1996}. Section 26 in particular allows the DG to waive some of the most restrictive aspects if the intent for keeping a wild animal is to survey, conduct research, protect, or breed wild animals. Another beneficial effect of inclusion of domesticated elephants would be greater involvement by NGOs, given the RFD’s long and productive history of working with private organizations. The empowerment of the RFD would also facilitate a seamless interface between the management of the wild and domesticated elephant subpopulations.

An elephant is being transported in a truck from Taungoo towards Bago

Objective analysis of the opposing arguments above shows that neither law is appropriate. Clearly, to adapt either The Wildlife Protection Act of 1992 or The Draught Animal Act of 1939 to protect and manage domesticated elephants would not only be incredibly complicated but would also violate the spirit of either law. The Draught Animal Act of 1939 could more easily be amended, but only by lengthily giving special privileges to one eccentric and aristocratic species amongst a barnyard of more plebeian animals. It would be much more appropriate and efficient to write a special law devoted solely to the domesticated elephant’s unique needs.

One class of domesticated elephants does indisputably deserve full legal protection by the RFD under both The Wildlife Protection Act of 1992 and CITES: elephants smuggled illegally into Thailand. Wildlife law for these elephants takes clear precedence over the law on draft animals. But in any case the RFD lacks the vast resources needed to police this shadowy trade, and very few elephants smuggled in from Myanmar, Cambodia, or the Lao PDR have been confiscated by the RFD. Outside of its own prescribed areas, the RFD is poorly equipped to do law enforcement.

Tourism contributions / Elephants in entertainment and tourism

In 1994 Thailand was visited by 6,166,496 tourists who brought 127.8 billion baht (just over five billion US dollars) of foreign exchange into the Thai economy (Muqbil, 1995). Not surprisingly, tourism has put many elephants to work, mostly working in shows or giving rides to tourists, both foreigners and middle-class Thais.

Three areas each have several entertainment venues offering shows: Bangkok, Pattaya, and the north, cantered around Chiang Mai. Thailand never having had a circus tradition, all performances fall far below the standards of a circus in Europe, North America, or India. Shows performed in the Bangkok area are fairly polished, shows in Pattaya often a bit rough, and the shows in the north are always downright rudimentary except for a polished demonstration of traditional logging at the FIO’s Thai Elephant Conservation Centre. Many of the elephants at show venues, especially in the north, do not perform at all but rather give rides or simply stand around as set-dressing.

Approximately 300 elephants are employed at fixed show venues, about 85 in Bangkok and Pattaya and at least 220 in the north. This is approaching 10% of Thailand’s total population, indicating both the importance and the limits of tourism and entertainment as elephant work. (As for wandering shows in rural regions, their numbers are anybody’s guess.)

In the north there are three large venues with about 40 to 50 elephants each and many smaller ones. The largest venues in the Bangkok-Pattaya area have only about 20 elephants, and an educated guess would say that about half the elephants are owned by the proprietor of the venue while the other half are owned by mahouts working under contract. Generally speaking, elephants working at central region show venues are well cared for and the mahouts receive reasonable pay, the contracted elephants with the most behaviors or ‘tricks’ pulling in as much as 30,000 baht (US$1,200) a month.

In the north, the situation is not nearly so happy. At the larger show venues, most proprietors are purely businessmen out to cash in on the tourist dollar. Two or three places would seem to have the big money cornered, being swarmed everyday by tour buses and minivans; smaller venues depend on a drop-in clientele consisting of budget travellers and people with their own transportation. Many proprietors decide it makes more business sense to buy elephants than to endlessly waste good money paying mahout-owners, and one proprietor now owns about 90 elephants. Ownership by businessmen is generally bad for elephants since businessmen will rarely have either the ability or the conscience to hire good mahouts, pay them well, and then supervise them carefully.

Sadly, there are relatively few traditional northern Thai mahouts still working, most of them having graduated to better jobs. Many show venue owners hire tribal, often illegal immigrants, some with prior elephant experience and some without. Most often Karen but occasionally Shan, illegal-immigrant mahouts from Myanmar are particularly desperate and will work very cheaply, as low as meals and 500 baht (US$20) a month. Proprietors can easily squeeze illegals, being able to provide protection from the police. Even mahout-owners under contract are easily squeezed because of fierce competition for work; very few mahout-owners make more than 10,000 baht (US$400) a month out of an elephant in northern Thailand. Mahout-owners working on contract must pay for all supplementary food and veterinary care.

There is no insurance, whether for visitors, mahouts, or elephants. In one tragic instance known to the author, a mahout-owner and his family brought their elephant to give rides under contract at a barely developed performance venue at Mae Sa valley, near Chiang Mai. In the very first week, the elephant slipped off a dangerously steep walking path and fell to its death. The proprietor, although quite wealthy, gave the family 500 baht (US$20), just enough for bus fare home, and sent them packing.

View more here http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac774e/ac774e0h.htm#bm17..15.5.1

Elephants are seen as sacred within Thailand. Elephants were not only used in war and transportation, but are also worshipped as sacred animals in Thailand according to beliefs transferred from India. In sacred Buddhist texts, it is said that elephants are important, powerful, very patient, intelligent, and good at remembering and familiar with people.  Tourists visiting Thailand and other countries in Asia need to understand that their money directly supports and legitimizes these abuses. If you visit a trekking camp and ride Elephants, if you give money to an Elephant begging on the street, if you buy a picture painted by an Elephant, you are directly contributing to a cycle of violence and terror.

Things to remember when thinking of riding Elephants or contributing to Elephant amusement in Thailand;

  1. Visiting trekking camps and rising Elephants – contributes to more Elephants being abused.
  2. Donating money to tenders/Elephants begging on the streets – contributes to increased fear and violence within the entertainment business.
  3. Purchasing pictures painted by Elephants – contributes to more Elephants beaten/crushed/broken for your entertainment.
  4. Tipping Elephant mahouts – directly contributes to purchasing of torture equipment used to crush Elephants.  

Camps that actively abuse Elephants within Thailand;

  • Elephant camp at Chiang Rai 
  • Elephant camp at Ruammit village

International Animal Rescue Foundation.Org.Uk has begun targeting its awareness campaign at specific international citizens known to be frequenting Thailand the most based on travel and tourism investigations from 2012-2013. On investigating the tourism market and the animal rights community it was seen that most awareness campaigns seem to be aimed at the wrong people or awareness is published in mostly English. Below are some facts for your information that may help you too in creating a more direct awareness campaign aimed at those that are frequenting Thailand aiding Elephant abuse more.

Most recent up to date tourism statistics from 2012-2013 and who to target awareness at;

  • Chinese tourists from 2012-2013 – 2.7 million
  • Malaysian tourists from 2012-2013 – 2.5 million
  • Russian tourists from 2012-2013 – 1.3 million
  • Japanese tourists from 2012-2013 – 1.3 million
  • Korean tourists from 2012-2103 – 1.1 million
  • British tourists from 2012-2013 – 870,164 thousand
  • German tourists from 2012-2103 – 681,566 thousand
  • America and Canada was below  – 100,000 thousand
  • Some 22 million tourists visited Thailand from 2012-2103

Whist the “some” Elephant camps located all over Asia and within Africa are actually non-abusive regrettably the majority of them are. While some are doing good work, the vast majority of Elephant camps are commercial enterprises, making money from tourists keen to have their photos taken with the young ones, bathing with the Elephants or riding them, or watching them paint.

Some camps even dress up their Elephants and have them perform unnatural and demeaning tricks, all in the name of entertainment. But beyond the happy smiles of tourists posing with Elephants, there is a hidden dark reality, of murder, smuggling and torture for the calves on show.  The booming Thai tourist industry is fuelling a huge illegal trade in baby Elephants that are taken from the wild in Burma, beaten, starved and tortured to break their spirit before being paraded in front of fee-paying holidaymakers. WHY tourists still ignore the basic and in-depth evidence of abuse, smuggling, and torture is beyond us.

What the TOURIST needs to remember before parting with hard earned cash to elephant ringers.

~Mail investigations –

  • Fact – It is estimated that for every calf smuggled across Burma’s 1,200-mile border with Thailand, up to five adult female and adolescent elephants from the calf’s immediate family group are gunned down in cold blood. Your money funds this. 
  • Fact – The forests of Burma are one of the last strongholds for Asian elephants and second only to India. But such is the scale of the trade, it is thought that the endangered wild elephant population there – estimated at up to 5,000 individuals – could be wiped out or damaged beyond repair within ten years or so. Your money is funding this trade.
  • Fact – While African elephants and ivory have dominated discussions on conservation, very little attention has been given to the Asian elephant.  Why, because your money goes directly into funding an abusive regime that you believe is “sweet and cuddly”.
  • Fact – Baby calves undergo a cruel, spirit-breaking ritual where the baby calves will be tied up, with no food and water, and beaten relentlessly for days on end. Your money funds this and purchases more Elephants to be beaten and crushed.Fact – very often the calves will die from their injuries or from stress, starvation or the sheer heartbreak of seeing their family killed in front of their eyes. After they have been taught to be afraid of humans, the calves that do survive are smuggled across Thailand. When they reach the tourist elephant parks, many of them will be chained to a surrogate mother in an attempt to suggest they have been bred in captivity. Your money funds this.
  • Fact – The current market price for a healthy broken-in baby elephant is £14,000 to £20,000 and with the rapid growth of tourism and demand for elephants in entertainment – we calculate the tourism industry in Thailand employs up to 2,000 elephants – there are strong incentives for the trade. Your money is funding the purchase of more Elephants.
  • Fact – If Thailand’s brutal baby elephant trade is not ended soon, Asia’s last remaining populations of wild elephants in Burma may be lost for ever. Your money and YOU will if this occurs contribute to the extinction of the Asian Elephant.

Still want to ride an Elephant?

Sign the petitions below and please report all acts of Elephant cruelty in Thailand to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (Cites), the Environmental Investigations Agency (EIA) and local and international Conservation NGO’s (Non-Governmental Organisations).

Petitions to sign please share this document and sign all petitions SHOUT the word out to your friends and family that are visiting Thailand this year to not participate or contribute to Elephant cruelty.









Contact the Prime Minister of Thailand here via Twitter and Facebook. Politely ask Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra https://twitter.com/PouYingluck to take action to cease illegal smuggling of Elephants from Burma into Thailand and to cease all Elephant crushing and tourist activities that see many Elephants brutalised.

Contact the Prime Minister via Facebook too – https://www.facebook.com/Y.Shinawatra

International Animal Rescue Foundation’s publication team takes great care and pride to proof read all documents before publication. Should you notice an error please be most kind to inform us via the address below. Thank you.


Hunting is not conservation.


Within the past few years International Animal Rescue Foundation America and Africa has noticed the increasing trend of feminine hunters from which take their pseudo conservation to an all-out extremity than that of the male hunter angering activists and conservationists furthermore.

Within this brief article we look at hunting in general, whether hunters are psychotic or not, and dispelling some of the myths that many hunters state the reason why they have to hunt. Providing factual insights that hunters men and women fail to recognise. 

We can just about get our heads around hunting, but when one poses with the mammal they have just shot dead whether it is in a bikini, stilettoes, or just bare naked then hunting becomes more an “antisocial personality disorder” or “sociopathology.” Whatever the feminine or male hunter wishes to reveal their hunt as, it most certainly is not conservation. More concerning is that female and male hunters are becoming more younger.

Keeping on track and not swaying into the unknown we have to understand that both male and female hunters are not criminally insane unless they have been labelled by a clinical psychiatrist with a psychiatric illness that would then progress onto further anti-social behaviours or even killing. Psychopaths often make successful businessmen or world leaders. Not all psychopaths are motivated to kill. But when it is easy to devalue others, and you have had a lifetime of perceived injustices and rejection, murder might seem like a natural choice.


The following are environmental factors, psychiatrists say, which create a sociopath:

  1. Studies show that 60% of psychopathic individuals had lost a parent;
  2. Child is deprived of love or nurturing; parents are detached or absent;
  3. Inconsistent discipline: if father is stern and mother is soft, child learns to hate authority and manipulate mother;
  4. Hypocritical parents who privately belittle the child while publicly presenting the image of a “happy family”.

Hunting is a very basic instinct programmed into the master computer of our species for survival purposes that has been elevated by ethics to become a “sport,” which enables us to express our basic biological identity, “The Id,” guided social ethics, religious teachings and laws. Erich Fromm, one of the most widely-respected behavioural scientists of the 20th century, summed up these opinions in his widely-acclaimed study of the causes and prevention of violence, “The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness”.

To date there has been no proven field evidence that supports what many activists quote “hunting is a form of mental illness”. We have researched into this area in great depth but have located very little evidence to prove this theory. The main concern here though is that of female hunters and how their children now want to do what mommy does best – kill for the thrill of it. Hunting is not conservation unless we are killing the human population that increases habitat fragmentation, increased urbanization and industrialization that decreases habitat loss thus forcing animals out of their natural environment encroaching onto humans.

In recent years, American women are spending more time in tree stands and deer blinds—and putting fresh meat on the table. Although men still account for the majority of the 13.7 million U.S. hunters, the number of women actively hunting is on the rise. The total number of women hunters surged by 25 percent between 2006 and 2011, after holding steady for a decade, according to Census Bureau statistics. At last count, 11 percent of all U.S. hunters were women, compared to 9 percent in 2006.

Many state departments of natural resources have begun hosting Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) workshops that offer instruction in skills such as archery, shotgun, and rifle shooting. “There is definitely a high demand. We have over 3,000 women on our mailing list, and workshops fill up quickly,” says Patricia Handy, Information & Education Program Manager at the Department of Natural Resources in Maryland. Retailers have taken notice, too. Companies like SHE Outdoor Apparel, Cabela’s, and Próis are outfitting women hunters with clothing and accessories created for the female body, and archery manufacturers like Mathews Inc. are designing lighter bows scaled for shorter arm spans.


“Across the board, women are more independent than they’ve ever been, and they realize they are capable of hunting,” says Brenda Valentine, national spokesperson for the National Wild Turkey Federation and the self-proclaimed “First Lady of Hunting.”

The Next Food Frontier?

Gender roles in America have changed in many ways through time, but women still dominate household food and nutrition decisions. The Bureau of Labour Statistics’ 2012 American Time Use survey found that nearly two-thirds of women are involved in daily household food preparation and clean-up, compared to 39 percent of men—and women spend triple the amount of time on such tasks in an average day.

Women are also leading a surge of support for sustainable food and agriculture initiatives like CSAs and farmers markets. One of the main ideas of such initiatives is eating locally, generally meaning foods produced within your state or about 100 miles of your home. This not only supports the local economy and environment, it also means the food often tastes better because it can be harvested and sold at its peak rather than spending days in transport.

But in many parts of the country, local meat can be difficult to find. Most of the available meat at U.S. grocery stores comes from one of the large-scale commercial farms, often called factory farms, concentrated in a few regions. Hunting offers an alternative to the grocery store that lets women provide truly free-range and organic meat for their families while also helping create a more sustainable food system, says Lily Raff McCaulou, author of Call of the Mild: Learning to Hunt My Own Dinner. “Hunting may be the next frontier for local food,” says McCaulou, who lives in Oregon. She regularly hunts deer and elk, and recently added grouse and duck to her repertoire.

“I was pretty detached from what I ate before I started hunting. Since I’ve started hunting, I’ve changed my relationship with the meat that I eat, and I eat a lot less meat than I did before. Hunting’s a way to reclaim some closeness to the food chain.” It can make chefs more thoughtful, too, says Georgia Pellegrini, author of the book Girl Hunter. “Hunting made me realize that there’s a lot that has to happen before that piece of meat gets to your plate,” says Pellegrini. “As a chef, I wanted to participate in that process because it makes the experience more meaningful. You think about the ingredients differently, you think about the experience of eating it differently, and you have more control over how the animal was treated.”

Making Connections

Many hunters—both men and women—say their hobby is not just about food. It also creates a sense of intimacy and respect for both the animals and their habitats. Writer Tovar Cerulli was a longtime vegetarian when he took up hunting, deciding that eating “the ultimate free-range meat” was an ethical and sustainable choice. “Hunting also allowed me to gain a deeper understanding of the place I lived,” says Cerulli, author of the book A Mindful Carnivore. He argues that in a regulated, well-managed system, “there is nothing inherently ecologically damaging about hunting.” It can actually benefit the animals by preventing overpopulation, which can lead to starvation during winter months.


Hunters are also quick to note that funds from purchases of licenses, equipment, and ammunition go to support conservation efforts for a variety of species. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, every year nearly $200 million is distributed from the federal taxes associated with hunting to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands for habitat conservation, and hunter education and safety classes. There’s another factor, too: fun. Hunting is a way for women to be outdoors and enjoy nature while spending time with husbands and children who hunt.

“Women are realizing how much fun hunting is and how close it can actually bring them in their relationships with their families,” says Tiffany Lakosky, co-host of the Outdoor Channel hunting show Crush with Lee and Tiffany and a top bowhunter. “The whole concept is that I am shooting my family’s dinner tonight and we’re eating something I shot. I would say probably 90 percent of the meat we eat, we hunted.” While shooting the family dinner isn’t a realistic option for everyone, especially in urban areas, Lakosky says she hopes even non-hunters will start giving more thought to where their food comes from. “We are all part of the food chain. There is a balance in nature,” she says. “People go to the supermarket and they think that somebody’s growing a TV dinner somewhere to feed them. They are just not connected to it like people were 100 years ago.”


Hunters will speak the same lame excuses that their food is not free range, there is a lack of hypermarkets within their area or farmer markets thus forcing them to hunt for their dinner. They have to keep animal overpopulation controlled to thwart human species attacks and farmland-ranch attacks from predatory big cats and so on.

Hunters quote they have to hunt for their dinner because there are vast “food deserts” within the United States. Basically meaning that there are a lack of if any food outlets within their state or country; Below are some of the key points that hunters need to take on board before accusing conservationists and animal rights activists of attacking them. From which we/they are trying to educate them of their own wrongdoings.

  • There are approximately 131000 people employed as a butchers and meat cutters within the United States of America. There are over 100 grocery stores in the USA. There are over 75 large well-known grocery retailers and 50 small chain grocery stores located all through the United States.
  • Approximately 23.5 million Americans live in a food desert, says the USDA, including vast, rural swaths of West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, as well as urban areas like Detroit, Chicago, and New York City. The government believes food deserts are contributing to the obesity epidemic in the U.S., by forcing the rural and urban poor to rely on processed foods and fast food, instead of fresh meat, vegetables, and fruit. Today, more than one third of adult Americans are obese.
  • Will people choose healthy food? Not necessarily. Many Americans have little experience eating or preparing broccoli, asparagus, and other produce; in fact, only 26 percent of the nation’s adults now eat three servings of vegetables a day. The poor, in particular, have become so accustomed to salty packaged foods and sugary beverages that they find fresh food bland, strange, and off-putting. “It’s simplistic thinking that if you put fruits and vegetables there, they’ll buy it,” said Barry Popkin, author of the UNC study. “You have to encourage it, you need advertising, you need support.” Changing Americans’ diets, in other words, won’t be as simple as telling them to eat their peas.

One female hunter Linda Hall Houle that wishes to argue facts with us states  “Wow you all are something else.. Why don’t you take care of people in your own country … God Bless America and our right to hunt…If a wolf ever came to my property dam right I will shoot it.. I am thrilled to see more women hunting putting meat on the table is #1 

What is a ‘food desert’?

A community in which residents must travel at least a mile to buy fresh meat, dairy products, and vegetables. More precisely, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines a food desert as any census district where at least 20 percent of the inhabitants are below the poverty line and 33 percent live over a mile from the nearest supermarket (or in rural areas, more than 10 miles). Approximately 23.5 million Americans live in a food desert, says the USDA, including vast, rural swaths of West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, as well as urban areas like Detroit, Chicago, and New York City. The government believes food deserts are contributing to the obesity epidemic in the U.S., by forcing the rural and urban poor to rely on processed foods and fast food, instead of fresh meat, vegetables, and fruit. Today, more than one third of adult Americans are obese.

How can Americans solve this problem that sees some 13.5 million hunters actively taking out many species of mammals just within the United States for example? Simple they start taking a leaf out of the Europeans book of how to provide for the community. Take a look at the UK Cooperative Society for example and how well they have progressed from a simple “community based food shop” to now a thriving international food and beverage seller. If it can be achieved here it can also be accomplished within the United States from which hunters would not need to hunt. However we then have the other quote that hunters constantly chirp on about. “We have to hunt to keep overpopulation of species controlled”.

http://www.co-operative.coop/corporate/aboutus/ourhistory/  History of the Cooperative Food Society

The average female and male hunter seem to disagree with us that overpopulation of humans is not a problem but more overpopulation of animals. This is completely absurd and something many hunters now need to wake up too. The more we argue that hunting has to be practiced because of species human and species-species conflict the more we will continue to eradicate many countless number of animals globally. Taking the United States for example again the hunter wishes to quote overpopulation is not a primary concern.

“There’s a cost that comes with having 7-9 billion people on our planet, especially when it comes to species already on the brink of extinction,” said Amy Harwood, the Center’s 7 Billion and Counting campaign coordinator. “The polar bear, Florida panther and bluefin tuna are just a few of the species being pushed toward extinction by the world’s rapidly growing population. People have taken away habitat for plants and animals, sucked up their water, and surrounded them with pollution, causing a global mass extinction crisis.” As the human population grows and rich countries continue to consume resources at voracious rates, we are crowding out, poisoning and eating all other species into extinction. With the world population hitting 7-9 billion, the Center is marking this milestone by releasing a list of species in the United States facing extinction caused by the growing human population.

The 10 species represent a range of geography, as well as species diversity — but all are critically threatened by the effects of overpopulation. Some, like the Florida panther and Mississippi gopher frog, are rapidly losing habitat as the human population expands. Others are seeing their habitat dangerously altered — like the small flowering sandplain gerardia in New England — or, like the bluefin tuna, are buckling under the weight of massive overfishing. Still others, like the polar bear, are facing extinction because of fossil fuels driving catastrophic global warming. “Human overpopulation and overconsumption are simply taking away the land, air and water other creatures need to survive,” Harwood said. “The world population is expected to hit 10 billion by the end of this century. Left unchecked, this massive population growth will have a disastrous effect on biodiversity around the globe — biodiversity we need to maintain the web of life we’ve always depended on.”

Top 10 U.S. Species Being Driven Extinct by Overpopulation

Florida panther: The Florida panther once ranged throughout the southeastern United States, but now survives in a tiny area of South Florida representing just 5 percent of its former range. It was listed as an endangered species in 1967 because of habitat destruction and fragmentation through urban sprawl. Large numbers of panthers died as the expanding network of roads connecting Florida’s rapidly growing human population spread throughout its range. As of 2011, there are only 100 to 120 panthers left.

As Florida’s panther numbers plummeted, the state’s human population nearly doubled over the past 30 years. Recent development patterns pose extreme threats to panthers. As the Florida coasts approach full buildout and have become unaffordable to most people, development has moved inland to the same places panthers retreated to as safe havens decades ago.

A recent study concluded that current conditions “provide just enough space to support a [panther] population that is barely viable demographically as long as the habitat base remains stable.” Unfortunately, the habitat is anything but stable: The five counties containing the last remaining panther population are projected to grow 55 percent in the next 30 years. A single proposed development among many, Big Cypress, would destroy 2,800 acres to make way for 9,000 new homes.

Atlantic bluefin tuna: Marine fish provide 15 percent of all animal protein consumed by human beings. Fisheries management, however, has been outpaced by our population growth, causing global fisheries to collapse under the unsustainable pressure. A 2009 assessment found that 80 percent of global fish stocks are either overly and fully exploited or have collapsed. Though a catch reduction of 20-50 percent is needed to make global fisheries sustainable, the demand for fish is expected to increase by 35 million tons by 2030.

Of greatest concern is the western Atlantic bluefin tuna that spawns in the Gulf of Mexico and has declined by more than 80 percent since 1970 due to overharvesting. Prized as a sushi fish around the world, it has become more valuable as it has become rare. One fish in 2011 sold for $396,000. The large, warm-blooded bluefin tuna is a common, upscale sushi menu item and has been severely overfished. The Atlantic bluefin, like so many other ocean species, is threatened by humans’ ravenous appetites: Demand far exceeds sustainable fishing levels.

Loggerhead sea turtles:  More than half the world’s 7 billion people live within 150 miles of the coast, putting tremendous pressure on species trying to find space to live and reproduce among the crowds. Among them is the loggerhead sea turtle, which was listed as a federally threatened species in 1978 owing to destruction of its beach nesting habitat, harassment while nesting, overharvesting of its eggs, and bycatch death via commercial fishing gear.

Ninety-five percent of the U.S. breeding population of loggerheads nests in Florida, whose human population has doubled in the past 30 years. Thanks to careful management, the species’ population increased 24 percent from 1989 to 1998, but under intense pressure from development and recreational beach use, it declined dramatically thereafter, raising concerns it should be uplisted to “endangered” status. The population has increased in recent years, but is still highly vulnerable to nesting habitat destruction and disruption. Just 42,000 nesting attempts were made on Florida beaches in 2011.

Sandplain gerardia: As the human population has increased, it has consumed remote landscapes with houses and other structures. The natural disturbances caused by fire, flood, drought and storm patterns, are suppressed despite playing essential roles in ecosystem health. In conflict with the permanence of human development, these disturbances create an ever-changing blend of meadow and forest, young and mature vegetation patterns. By controlling, limiting and often stopping these essential natural processes, we have changed ecosystems across America, eliminating habitat for rare and endangered species that depend on open habitats.

In New England and the Atlantic coast, brush fires once thinned out dense pine forests and created a constantly moving mosaic of grasslands and prairies. The fires have been suppressed to protect human structures, causing open habitats to be permanently replaced by forest and brush. This nearly caused the extinction of the sandplain gerardia, a coastal plant in the snapdragon family.

The sandplain gerardia was listed as an endangered species in 1998 when just 12 populations remained. Several were in historic cemeteries on Cape Cod as these made up some of the only open areas not covered by roads or development. Twenty-two populations exist today throughout the species’ range from Massachusetts to Maryland. Many are threatened by development and fire suppression, needing constant, active habitat maintenance.

Lange’s metalmark butterfly: Many endangered species are endemics, meaning they naturally have very small ranges and populations sizes, and usually require very particular soil, vegetation or climate conditions to survive. These species are especially vulnerable to human encroachment. Among them is Lange’s metalmark butterfly, protected as endangered in 1976.

Lange’s metalmark lives only in the Antioch Dunes at the southern end of San Francisco Bay. This unique ecosystem harbored many unique species, and many species have gone extinct as its dunes were hauled away in massive increments. After the 1906 fires, the city of San Francisco was rebuilt using brick-building material removed from the dunes.

Lange’s metalmark is one of the most endangered species in the United States. It declined from some 250,000 in historic times to just 154 in 1986. It improved a bit, but then declined to just 45 butterflies in 2006. Today the species is still on the knife edge of extinction, with about 150 individuals remaining.

To save Lange’s metalmark and two other endemic dune species, 55 of the remaining 60 acres of its habitat were purchased and turned into a national wildlife refuge — the first of its kind devoted entirely to endangered species. Under siege in one of the most densely populated regions in the country, however, the tiny refuge is surrounded by mining, oil and gas facilities. Recreationists have also taken a toll, causing several devastating fires; they trampled much of the butterfly’s habitat in 1986. Such is the fate of an extremely rare, highly endemic species trying to eke out an existence in a highly urbanized landscape.

Mississippi gopher frogThe Mississippi gopher frog lives in stump holes and burrows dug by other animals, laying its eggs in ponds so shallow they dry up for several months of the year, keeping them free of fish that would eat frog eggs. It was placed on the endangered species list in 2001.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to designate 7,015 acres as protected critical habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog in Mississippi and Louisiana in 2011.

Reduced to approximately 100 individuals in the wild, the Mississippi gopher frog exists in just three small ponds just outside the proposed “town” of Tradition, Mississippi. Planned development would have a devastating effect on this rare frog.


White River spinedaceThe human population of Nevada grew by 35 percent between 2000 and 2010, nearly four times faster than the national average. Las Vegas was one of the fastest-growing areas of the state. But the city is in the middle of a desert, so accommodating that explosive growth requires securing more water from nonlocal supplies.

The Southern Nevada Water Authority has proposed a massive project to pump billions of gallons of groundwater a year from eastern Nevada and western Utah through a 300-mile pipeline to supply rapidly growing urban areas like Las Vegas. The project will have a disastrous effect on dozens of imperiled species, including the White River spinedace, which was protected as an endangered species in 1985. One population of this rare fish was extirpated in 1991 because of irrigation diversion, and fewer than 50 fish remained in a single population in northeast Nevada.

The White River spinedace’s population at the Wayne E. Kirch Wildlife Management Area is directly threatened by the proposed pipeline, which will cut through the management area, draining and destroying critical habitat for the remaining populations. A recent environmental impact statement for the proposed pipeline project disclosed that major vegetation and ecosystem changes would occur on more than 200,000 acres, including wetlands that will dry up and wildlife shrubland habitat converted to dryland grasses and noxious weeds. More than 300 springs would also be hurt, along with more than 120 miles of streams.

Polar bear: A polar bear is fit to swim 100 miles for food, in search of mates or, more recently, just some ice to stand on. With five inches of blubber keeping this enormous bear prepared for subzero temperatures, the largest member of the bear family has adapted to remarkable Arctic conditions. The fat stored in a polar bear carcass becomes essential food for other Arctic species, like the Arctic fox. However, the extreme impacts that human-caused climate change has had on the Arctic is pushing the polar bear closer to extinction.

The rapid growth of the global human population — which has doubled since 1970 — has fed a massive push for more and more polluting fossil fuels and dramatically altered the planet’s atmosphere. A 2009 study on the relationship between population growth and global warming found that the “carbon legacy” of just one person can produce 20 times more greenhouse gases than one person saves by carbon-reducing steps such as driving high-mileage, using energy-efficient applicants and light bulbs. Few animals are bearing more of the brunt of the global climate crisis than the polar bear.

Listed as a “threatened” species in 2008, polar bears are rapidly losing the sea ice they use to hunt, mate and raise their young. Polar bear numbers increased following the establishment of hunting regulations in the 1970s and today stand at 20,000 to 25,000. However, the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice because of global warming has reversed this trend, and currently at least five of the 19 polar bear populations are declining. The U.S. Geological Survey predicts that under current greenhouse gas emission trends, two-thirds of the world’s polar bears, including all those in Alaska, will likely disappear by 2050.

Gulf sturgeonLake Lanier, a manmade reservoir in Georgia, feeds several important river systems in the southeastern United States and has been the site of a longstanding conflict between Georgia, Florida and Alabama over water-use rights.

The gulf sturgeon, an anadromous fish, was placed on the threatened species list in 1991. Its most imperiled populations occur in the Apalachicola River, fed by rivers from Lake Lanier. Gulf sturgeon lay eggs on the waterlines along the banks of rivers, and maintaining the right level of water is critical to their breeding success.

Population growth has strained the capacity of Lake Lanier to supply water to Atlanta and other urban areas. A 2009 study explicitly identified explosive population growth as the cause of the ensuing water war between Georgia, Alabama and Florida following a regionwide drought: “…Nineteenth-century droughts, which are perhaps better thought of as a single multi-decadal dry period, are well within the range of historical records and could potentially have had an agricultural effect but probably would not have had an effect on water availability for people given the generally wet climate of the Southwest and the much smaller population then as opposed to now.”

Gulf sturgeon numbers initially declined due to overfishing throughout most of the 20th century. Habitat loss was exacerbated by the construction of water control structures, such as dams, mostly after 1950. Other habitat disturbances such as dredging, groundwater extraction, irrigation and flow alterations also threaten the Gulf sturgeon. Poor water quality and contaminants, primarily from industrial sources, also contribute to population declines. Today the gulf sturgeon remains threatened as the tug-of-war continues over the supplies that feed the river where it lives and the region’s ever-expanding human population.

San Joaquin kit fox: The San Joaquin kit fox was relatively common until the 1930s, when people began to convert grasslands to farms, orchards and cities. By 1958, 50 percent of its habitat in California’s Central Valley had been lost, due to extensive land conversions for agriculture, intensive land uses and pesticides. By 1979, less than 7 percent of the San Joaquin Valley’s original wildlands south of Stanislaus County remained untilled and undeveloped.

The kit fox was listed as endangered in 1967. Today there are fewer than 7,000 scattered among fragmented populations. The four counties with known San Joaquin kit foxes have grown by 60 percent — by another 1.5 million people — since 1983.

Besides habitat loss, the San Joaquin kit fox is threatened by pesticides and rodenticides associated with intensive agricultural use, industrial activities and residential areas in the Central Valley. Kit foxes’ small-mammal prey base has been significantly reduced by rodenticides, which not only kill life-sustaining prey but can also kill kit foxes when they build up in the foxes’ bodies. Kit foxes have adapted to get their water from the prey they eat making them even more dependent on their food source. They also often burrow in other animals’ dens, leaving them vulnerable to other human activities such as fumigants used to kill coyotes.

In addition to impacts from farmland conversion, the San Joaquin kit fox is severely stressed by the changes to annual rainfall caused by climate change. Hunters that wish to argue with us stating animals are indeed the moral problem now need to evaluate their original status. Ignoring the increasing human overpopulation problem will see countless more species pushed from extant into extinction.

Feminine intimacy and respect for both the animals and their habitats.

Intimacy and respect for both animals and the habitat we see little of within the hunter world especially within the United States of America and Australia from which we see as second to that of America with regards to their sick predatory hunting lifestyle and complete disregard for animals and their natural environment.

Respect for animals within the environment?

respect for wildlife



Respect for both animals and their environment practicing intimacy and love?


Female hunters have taken hunting to new levels, they pose scantily clad with with many different species of animals in the belief that it makes them feel somewhat more superior than that of others? This behaviour is typical of many serial killers that feel they need to prove themselves to their family or victims. It gives them a form of sexual gratification, a feeling of power and lust. Three female Michigan State University professors studied the magazine “Traditional Bowhunter,” and concluded that hunting is a form of sexual violence with animals substituted for women. They describe hunting as, “erotic heterosexual predation, sadomasochism, restraint for aggressive sexual energy, and allied with the abuse of women.” I think I need to take up bowhunting.

The article entitled, “Animals, Women and Weapons: Blurred Sexual Boundaries in the Discourse of Sport Hunting” was published by the Society & Animals Forum. The genesis of the article was the 2003 video “Hunting for Bambi,” which reached national attention that year when many news-outlets reported a group in Nevada was selling “hunts” which men paid thousands of dollars to shoot naked women with paintball guns. The producers of the DVD later admitted the hunters and women involved were actors. Like in high-budget porn, the star is only an “actor” and really cannot fix the cable. Hunting for Bambi was indeed somewhat of a hoax however please read the hoax article in full here at Snopes.com

Concluding that men turn bows and firearms into phallic symbols, the researchers point to terms and jargon found in the magazine in order to reaffirm their belief of displaced sexual drive. “Climax,” “big’uns,” and “homely cow” are but a few of the many terms with which they took issue. Two things, first, using terms out of context allows anyone to make them sexual. Second, we are talking about hunting, not sex. The study fails to see the subject matter as merely hunting. The outrageous links between sexual violence and hunting would cause sensible readers to scoff, but remember, the authors are members of MSU faculty, which makes this paper all the more scary.

Apparently, the woman-is-an-animal argument is only valid until the kill. “When alive and being chased in a sport of hunting, animals are given human characteristics…but when dead and displayed as a trophy, anthropomorphism is no longer necessary…and the animal is simply dead.” Why anthropomorphism would be necessary in the first place is not explored. Furthermore, why is it not necessary in the second place? Indeed, their argument is that men are violent creeps who beat up on poor, cuddly animals because there are no women running around the woods. “Violence against animals and women is linked by a theory of ‘overlapping but absent referents’ that institutionalizes patriarchal values…animals often are the absent referents in actions and phrases that actually are about women-and women often are the absent referents for animals.” Therefore, when men are hunting they do so because there are no women present, conversely, when men are with women they are doing so because there are no animals present.

Absent from this study is where the millions of female hunters fit For that is the only logical conclusion of the animal-is-a-woman and woman-is-an-animal thesis. Not far removed from their illation would be to say women obtain sexual gratification from hunting but actually wish they were sexually abusing women, or maybe themselves. What would an academic study be these days without a conclusion that points to racism? The study encapsulated that hunting is “cultural messages that validate and exacerbate white male dominance and power.” The argument of racial oppression and hunting goes out the window because one can only shoot one Black Duck a day as apposed to five of another species.

When read in its entirety, the syllogistic argument takes on the seriousness of a Mad TV skit.

Maybe it is “Traditional Bowhunter” that is laying the groundwork for world takeover. Once again, the paper’s authors come through and leave the reader not disappointed. They warn that, “[T]he underlying messages of the sexualizing of women, animals, and weapons in Traditional Bowhunter cannot be dismissed simply as a hoax. They are resilient popular culture images that celebrate and glorify weapons, killing, and violence, laying the groundwork for the perpetuation of attitudes of domination, power, and control

Some wolf killers have admitted that they hunt because they only wish to obtain the sexual thrill of hunting a defenceless animal then subjecting it to torture to aid their sexual desires furthermore.


International Animal Rescue Foundation was outright accused along with  its vast network of supporters, subscribers and fundraisers that we do not provide a single buck for conservation efforts or welfare. International Animal Rescue Foundation in year 1 raised over £12,955 year 2 we raised exactly £26,000 year three we raised £45,000 and in year five we raised the some £47,000 from which did not come from the public purse  - all monetary funding came directly from our own pockets. International Animal Rescue Foundation has only ever had two public fundraisers from which in year 6 we are now hoping to raise a substantial amount more via the public and again from our own pockets providing monetary funding back into conservation. We are proud that not one single animal perished/or/ was barbarically abused through the monies raised yearly. Thats surely conservation isn’t it?

Female hunters are also quick to note that funds from purchases of licenses, equipment, and ammunition go to support conservation efforts for a variety of species. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, every year nearly $200 million is distributed from the federal taxes associated with hunting to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands for habitat conservation, and hunter education and safety classes.

Hunters claim to push that $200 million into conservation though from which I have highlighted below for your information;

  • ** $746 million — Annual amount of money spent by hunters in the United States on licenses and public land access fees alone. Sportsmen’s licensing revenues account for more than half of all funding for state natural resource agencies
  • $300 million — Additional monies contributed to wildlife conservation every year by the more than 10,000 private hunting-advocate organizations, like the National Wild Turkey Federation, Ducks Unlimited, and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation
  • ** $4.2 billion — Amount of money sportsmen have contributed to conservation through a 10% federal excise taxes on firearms, ammunition, and gear since the 1937 Pittman-Robertson Act established the tax. Millions of acres of public-use land has been purchased, preserved, and maintained with this money.

$ 4.2 billion is quite a hefty amount of money allegedly raised from the 13.5 million United States hunters, yet they still cannot;

The Daily Reckoning quotes;

In case you’re wondering how much money animal rights groups devote to habitat preservation and the welfare of wild species, take a gander at PETA’s 2004 financials. Straight from its Web site, I discovered that PETA’s prodigious revenue of over $29 million bought:

** 2,700 media interviews

** 703 organized demonstrations

** Nearly 11,000 mentions in print

** Coverage on at least seven major TV networks

** 150,000 “vegetarian starter kits” disseminated to the public

** Enough “educational materials” for 235,000 teachers and 11,000,000 students…

But not a single acre of land for wildlife preservation — not even for endangered species!

What Mr Propaganda forgot to show was PETA’s success victories too. http://www.peta.org/about-peta/victories/

Now where were the hunters here from which “billions” of animals were saved using public donations, people power, undercover investigations and engaging red carpet celebrities. Hunters will only show one side to every story in the hope that they will make many people believe that animal and environmental activists do little if anything. Linda Houle quotes “If it wasn’t for the hunters in the United States all of the national forests and blm lands would be in disrepair the hunting fees pays for all of the roads access and repairs and planting of trees…hunters are the biggest conservationists in the world” … If this was actually remotely factual we would not now be fighting to preserve so many species of animal and plant life that US hunters are pushing to extinction.

Linda quotes from her ranch – “We also support our local farmers market here in the Upper Arkansas Valley in Salida CO” but wait! Colorado is apparently in a food desert and they need to hunt to live? Linda supports the avid hunter photographed at the top of our page and is regular visitor spouting such utter drivel. Feel free to leave her a comment - Buena Vista Colorado at 8500 feet above sea level, approximately 3 1/2 hrs west of Denver on Hwy 285, or 2 hrs west of Colorado Springs on Hwy 24.  Please feel free to call us at any time at (719)395-9448.  We love to talk goat..Or hunting or anything else. 

Animal Rights in Asia? Meet Vivian – Japan.


An Interview with Vivian – A Japanese influential activist and demonstrator Vivian and her fellow friends have demonstrated outstanding commitment and compassion to many abusive animal regimes.  Those whom believe all Asians are cruel and barbaric to animals should read this touching interview that we hope opens the eyes to many.

Animal and environmental abuse can provoke such anger and emotion worldwide causing many people to lose control and voice more than their basic opinion or thoughts. Racism, death threats, to those speaking such hatred acting out their threats has left us feeling somewhat concerned that the animal and environmental community is being blackened by such derogatory and unsavoury comments and acts of abuse.

Since the beginning of 2011 we International Animal Rescue Foundation.Org and Speak Up For the Voiceless.Org have noticed many derogatory and racial comments on our posts with regards to posts on the dog and cat meat trade, dolphin and whale slaughter and fur trade being the most controversial. There seems to be more hatred directed at the entire population of Asia for instance than that of the individual abuser, user or producer.

We do not support such hatred I.e. racism or derogatory comments whether it is at the “abuser” or the “countries community” as a whole.  Should such comments not cease immediately we will no longer post such stories and investigations which will only decrease awareness and monetary funding to those within Asia that requires funding daily for an array of animal and environmental issues and projects.

Racism and hatred towards a community or country will no longer be tolerated!

I wish an atom bomb would drop onto Asia, Asian chinks should all be slaughtered, burn all Asians, to the most upsetting all Asian children should be burned at birth, are just a few of the most disgusting and revolting comments that we have read upon our posts all spoken by a minority of animal lovers. Why blame the entire community for when animal and environmental abuse is only committed by a majority of people? Furthermore why speak such racial comments at an abuser? It has nothing to do with race – its abuse that we must all focus on not hatred.

This month we focus on Animal Rights within Japan. A country known for its abuse of whales in the Australian owned Arctic territory, illegal animal parts trade, fur trade but most importantly animal rights activism that is now taking Japan by storm. 12th December 2013 we ran a brief interview via email with an activist from Japan, in her own words and that of our own meet one of Japan’s many influential animal rights activists.

Meet Vivian a Japanese animal rights activist that has been working to eradicate abuse and highlight such atrocities on a grand scale with comrades and in the face of governmental suppression and public hatred. Vivian is one of many activists that we admire that shows courage and determination even from such a young age. Harvey Allmendinger our Environmental Protection Team Leader interviewed via email Vivian from which paints a more positive light on animal love and care within Asia that many people fail to recognise globally.

Animal Rights Japan – What the World Needs to Know..

Harvey – How would you best describe yourself Vivian as an Asian activist for the voiceless?

Vivian – An Activist who raise Animal rights activists and lead them to Vegan / Vegetarian by providing a lot of information and creating awareness.

Harvey – Vivian what inspired you or led you to becoming a voice for the many thousands of innocent animals within Japan and how long have you been demonstrating?

Vivian – I love animals from my childhood and have wanted to do something for animals. In 2007, I saw the documentary TV show featuring a woman who manage the shelter to protect animals, who are abused or poached by people in Colombia.  The abusing to those animals was terrible and hard to believe, but they are the fact and I cry out. I had been sick and crying for about 1 week, and I unable to contain myself. I thought that I have to go to the shelter in Colombia, but I don’t know how to go and do. I looked for the information by internet and found that there is lots of abusing to animals in our ordinary life, and in Japan too such as Animal testing, Fur and skin trade. Animals exist as economical animals for human sake. After that I become a member of NPO JAVA (Japan Anti-Vivisection Association) in Japan, and started my activity for animals in earnest around 2009, so it’s about for 4 years.

vegan japan

Harvey – Vivian what was the most successful part within your role as a Japanese animal activist. For E.g. Have you managed to change laws, have you changed the way a dog breeding farm works or stopped abuse in some way or the other?

Vivian – Shiseido, the largest cosmetic company in Japan stopped their Animal Testing (except for China). JAVA started a negative & boycott campaign to stop Shiseido’s Animal Testing in 2009. What we do are such as the demonstration marches in Tokyo and Osaka, a demonstration in front of Shiseido stockholders’ meeting and ask stockholders to send an opinion to stop animal testing to Shiseido as a stockholder. Also, JAVA collected signatures to stop Shiseido’s animal testing through internet and a newspaper advertisement, and handed over about 46,000 signatures to Shiseido. These activities are featured by some Medias and animal testing for cosmetics attracted people’s attention as a social problem in Japan. After about 1 year from starting campaign, in March. 2010, Shiseido announced their effort for abolishing animal testing, and in Feb. 2013 they decided officially to abolish animal testing for cosmetics (including materials and commissioning manufacturer ) which they started to produce from 1st Apr. 2013 (except for China).

This is a huge victory for animals and us. Many people’s voices moved the big mountain, Shiseido and It prove that our movement and activities surely bear fruit.

Harvey – Vivian that is absolutely amazing what you and JAVA have accomplished which we thank you for so much. Dedication and hard work has paid off and people like you and those at JAVA really do show the world that the Asian community care.

Harvey – What’s been your largest demonstration, why did you demonstrate and did it make a difference? I have asked why because it shows the community outside of Japan how large and well prepared Asian activists and professional activities can be in making change.

Vivian – First demonstration against eating meat in Japan was July 18th 2010 Sunday. Why? Because this is was the first demonstration to say “No against Eating Meat” for the first time in Japan, and it played an important role to raise the awareness of Japanese people.


Harvey – Vivian what are your thoughts on the fur and meat trade of dogs and cats?

Vivian – Absolutely against fur and meat trade in dogs and cats Japanese people love dogs and cats, and most Japanese don’t know that dogs and cats are killed for fur and meat. Therefore, I want them to know the truth. I think if Japanese people know the truth, they would be shocked and it will be an opportunity to think about those whole animals issues, and to stop fur or meat.

Harvey – When Speak Up For the Voiceless.Org and many other animal and environmental organisations create awareness about the dog and cat meat trade and fur trade within Asia we receive such harsh racial slurs against Asians that is uncalled for. The general public do not see that those whom abuse are only a “minority” from which they hit out at all Asian citizens. What’s your thoughts on this and do you have a message to those people that brand all Asians as cruel because of a minority that abuse animals?


Vivian – I think “the culture” to eat dogs and cat’s meat as well as dolphin and whale has to be criticized. However, in Asian countries, I guess many people think “the culture” is for elder people and out of date, also don’t even know “the culture”. Many people don’t know the fact so well, but I think most people will feel “the culture” is not good, not humane when they know the fact well. I want those people who think all Asian people are cruel to know these things and many people are grieved for such cruel culture. Also, people within Asia are blamed yet not the producer or consumer.

“To our readers Vivian has stated that she wishes for the people to know more about the “culture” before speaking such hatred however she is not against the “cruelty” being criticised however dislikes racism and those that comment should also remember that blame should be put on the producer and consumer not the “Asian community” that do not consume”…

Harvey – When we document on the cruel abuse that animals suffer within Asia we are met with comments such as “Please boycott Asian products”, what are your thoughts on this and do you think it is fair for people to do this knowing that it again affects innocent Asian citizens that could potentially put them out of work, or make them homeless?

Vivian – When we want to solve these problems, we have to do more effective, productive, meaningful things upon considering and organize a plan. The products are produced because the consumer wants to buy. I think if the consumer stops buying products made using abused animals, the products will not be produced, so it is effective, however, to boycott Asian or some country’s products indiscriminately is not good or effective.

Harvey – Thank you for explaining that Vivian, I do believe to that if people boycotted products that are made from abused animals then this would benefit wholly. To boycott an entire country though you are again very correct, it’s not good or very effective and can have such huge disastrous effects to many, even those that are actively fighting to stop abuse.

Harvey – I see that you have been working on many issues such as anti-fur, anti-vivisection, no kill / adopting, vegetarian / anti-eating meat, animal welfare. Please describe what you role is within these projects and how influential you have been, have you made change happen, and if so how did this make you and others feel?


Vivian – I did to spread awareness many actions to many people through demo march, panel exhibition, leafleting, SNS, Blog, BBS and so on, and to ask or appeal to many companies, administration and governments etc. to save animals such as to stop animal testing, to stop killing dogs and cat, to make effective law to protect animals and so on via telephone, fax, e-mail and mail, as well as offer cruel-free lifestyle by becoming Vegan/Vegetarian, boycott the animal testing products and promoting Vegan products. One of most successful action is Shiseido’s Stop Animal Testing Campaign through boycott campaign. I think it is most important to spread not only the fact and awareness but also what/how to do, each activity by each activist even if small it is. Activists of my friends have been spread the fact & awareness and what/how to do for several years, and I received so many reactions such as “I was shocked so turned to be Vegan/Vegetarian.” “I didn’t know these facts so thank you for the notice.” “I will start doing something to help animals like you” “I want to join your activities because I want to be voice of animals”. All of these encourage me and serve as a stimulus to feel I ‘m glad I have been doing these actions. We have to continue widening the circle of these interactions and the awareness.

Harvey – Vivian vivisection is an appalling act of animal abuse, what’s your message to the European and American vivisectionists that take animals from Asia to then barbarically torture?


Vivian – Honestly I want them to stop every vivisection now since all of them are meaningless and wrong from the point of view of ethics and science for people and animals. Also, the transportation of animals gives large stress to animals by placing them in the severe condition for many hours, therefore, I can’t accept.

Harvey – You’re demonstrations in Japan look very effective and colourful. However we cannot help noticing that the Asian police like the US and EU police try to suppress us and you. What’s your thoughts on this and have you experienced yourself or a friend police brutality?

Vivian – In my experience, in my area, most policemen are polite and good to us, and cooperative, and the same we are, so I have never feel bad with them. Part of them also praise our activities / demo itself.

Harvey – Vivian are you a vegetarian or vegan? What made you turn to (either) and why?

Vivian – I’m a strict vegan because I don’t want to eat animals and want to help animals. Many animals will not be “produced” and killed if I stop eating or using animals. I stop eating meat and become a vegan once I noticed these problems for animals abusing and know many animal rights activists are vegan / vegetarian. I think “vegan” is non-violence lifestyle, and to become vegan is just a starting point for me. For animals, environments, people and our earth, we can do many more acts and also we have to make our life simple to put a brake on mass production / consumption / destruction economy. We need to popularize vegan.

Harvey – The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society have been actively making great progress with regards to the whaling business by lowering kill rates and highlighting abuse. SSCS have though come under great fire from the Japanese and other governments for its effective non-violent campaign. What’s your say on the whaling business and do you believe that Japan must now stop whaling to protect future marine conservation sites and mammals? In your own words what’s you’re thoughts on the consumption of whale meat and why should the Japanese culture now end it?


Vivian – I think Japan have to stop whaling now for conservation environments and animals. Whaling is continued with our taxes for political concessions and just for copious profits for only few people. Many whale meats are surplus cause low demand, so it is unnecessary.

Harvey – International Animal Rescue Foundation have been actively fighting against the use of Rhinoceros horn medicine and poaching within the Traditional Chinese Medicine trade as a status symbol and pseudo medicine. Rhinoceros are brutally slain from which their horns are hacked off within Asia and India to feed this repulsive trade in Asia. What are your thoughts on this and do you have a message to say to the Asian and non-Asian Rhino horn medicine using community?

Vivian – Hunting Rhinoceros is so cruel and should never be accepted such abusing. We must stop it soon. Please stop making use of animals for human desires.

Harvey – Every 15 minutes an Elephant is barbarically killed within Africa just to provide ivory better known as white gold. We are losing a staggering 35,000+ Elephants a year from which many Asian individuals believe that the Elephants tusk can be removed without the Elephant dying. What’s you’re thoughts on this and have you demonstrated against the use of Rhino and Ivory parts as well as poaching of the two mammals?

Vivian – This is also horrible as well as hunting Rhinoceros and must stop now. A lot of substitutes already exist there are no reason to use real ivory with paying sacrifice of them. I just signed the petitions and spread these facts through internet to help stop this abuse.

Harvey – Millions of dogs and cats are left homeless every year internationally and locally within Japan because of animal neglect, and abuse. What work have you done to promote a no kill policy and adopt don’t shop?

Vivian – It’s so shameful that we have not stopped this slaughter in our country. The number of animals carried to administrative facilities is still big. Most of them are owner-less kitten so we have also sterilization http://ejje.weblio.jp/content/sterilization and castration operation to owner-less cats. Also, to stop killing animals, we have to abolish selling animals industry. I have been many educational actions such as the demonstration march, leafleting, panel exhibition and internet spreading as well as posting our demand to reduce killing animals. Additionally, I visit administrative facilities to that have many animals and kill animals and made a conference with person in charge. Law of Humane Treatment and Management of Animals of Japan were revised slightly in 2013, but it is never enough and have not been used efficiently yet. We have to continue our educational activities, and make many more people know and choose to adopt not shop.

Harvey – That’s uniquely amazing Vivian and your contributions and hard work are breath-taking. You really do show such love and compassion and possess such a strong voice for stray animals within your country and others. Well done.

I would like to take this opportunity in thanking you Vivian for answering my questions with your own words and thanking your fellow activists at the Non-Profit Organisation JAVA for such outstanding work and achievements. It really goes to show that the Asian community do care, hate animal abuse and that there are only a “minority of people” that actually do kill and abuse. On knowing though that few people within Japan for instance are actually unaware of such catastrophic abusive regimes then one can only help in promoting and supporting all Asian activists as well as creating more awareness.

Vivian best describes herself as an individual that gives the awareness to people who never thought these issues happened. Vivian quotes “I want to challenge many things that I never done before from now and my aim is not only to stop animal abusing but also to change current mass production, consumption, destruction economy”. On concluding this interview Vivian a Japanese animal activist quotes “I will fight until my life is end for reducing sacrifices”.

Now who said that Asian citizens are all animal abusers and will kill anything? International Animal Rescue Foundation and Speak Up For the Voiceless actively supports many Asian activists from which we will continue to highlight the positive work they undertake to reduce such cruelty and fight to change laws to better welfare. Vivian is a young pretty activist that has committed her life to animal welfare and we can’t thank Vivian and comrades enough for such outstanding achievements within her country.


Big LION Debate – African Hunters & Farmers Feeding Animal Parts Trade.



Tiger populations have plummeted since the 1940’s worrying conservationists and wildlife organisations around the world. The main threat to Tigers are humans but more importantly the trade in Tiger bone wine. 3,200 Tigers remain in the wild although this number could be significantly lower than previously thought. There are 9 subspecies of tiger, three of which are extinct. Habitat degradation/ fragmentation caused by human over population, mining, and increased palm oil deforestation could soon spell extinction for all remaining Tigers in the next 10-20 years. Should all last remaining Tigers vanish, bringing them back from extinction will be impossible spelling a new trend of poaching and illegal hunting. The Lion is next on the Traditional Medicine mans agenda.

For millennia, medicine men across Asia have ascribed magical powers and healing properties to the tiger, and, somehow, the cat became a universal apothecary. Nearly every part, from nose to tail—eyes, whiskers, brains, flesh, blood, genitals, organs —is used to treat a lengthy list of maladies. Tiger parts are believed to heal the liver and kidneys and are used to treat epilepsy, baldness, inflammation, possession by evil demons, toothaches, malaria, hydrophobia, skin diseases, nightmares, laziness, fevers, and headaches. The bones are considered powerful medicine. Newborn babies are bathed in bone broth so they will grow up disease-free.

There is a growing, demand for Tiger bone wine, a tonic made by soaking a Tiger carcass in rice wine. It is thought to cure arthritis and muscle pain, to stimulate blood flow and qi (the life force the Chinese believe inherent in all things), and to impart the animal’s great strength. Since 1994, a few Chinese practitioners have repudiated the efficacy of Tiger remedies, with little result. It wasn’t until three decades ago that scientists realized that TCM was responsible for a precipitous decline in Tiger numbers.

As Tiger populations in China plummeted, professional poachers fanned out, snaring, trapping, and shooting their way across Asia, targeting locations where corruption was rife, enforcement weak — and where there were few other economic opportunities. Lion breeding then became the new hobby that now sees more Lions on farms than there is within the wild. Poachers hire mostly local tribal people to hunt the cats or act as guides. Then they ran prize parts over borders to Chinese TCM manufacturers. Tigers were classified as globally endangered in 1986. The next year, an international treaty banned cross-border trade in Tiger parts, driving the market underground. China banned domestic Tiger bone trade in 1993, though shadowy networks remain.

Although Tiger hunting is illegal everywhere, the killing has accelerated. Prices for Tigers, dead or alive, continue to soar as populations collapse. Poaching for TCM (and to a lesser degree, for their skins) has become a primary threat to their survival. INTERPOL agents informed Congress in 2008 that the same sophisticated underworld crime networks that run illicit gun, drug, and human trafficking operations also mastermind the wildlife trade. With high profits and low risks, it has become one of the fastest growing and most profitable types of international organized crime, growing into an estimated $20 billion a year business that helps purchase weapons, fund civil wars, and finance terrorist activities. Still, most governments view wildlife crime as an “environmental” issue, keeping it low on the priority list.

China still farms captive bred Tigers depriving them of food at a mature age from which death is slow and painful. Activists and conservationists have called on China and Indonesian Tiger captive zoos to be closed down immediately. Unfortunately money is the main player here and whilst there is good fortune and happiness, Tiger populations will most certainly diminish unless international governments now recognize poaching as a domestic terrorist threat and not just a “conservation issue”. LION POACHING in South Africa has since increased due to Tiger populations decreasing.

In the South African National Parks (SANparks). Poachers from North Africa and even Europe are hitting the parks at an unprecedented rate worrying many. Increasingly people are appearing in court on charges of stealing white Rhino, Buffalo, and Lions worth thousands of US dollars.

Even Giraffe have been stolen – (stolen not poached). According to SA National Parks CEO, Mavuso Msimang, poachers and thieves are stealing millions of South African rands in animal, plant and marine life from our “national treasury” of reserves. “These unscrupulous people are attacking the economic fabric of our national tourism industry,” he maintains. Msimang says most of the poaching inside Kruger is under control but that there are problems just outside its border with Limpopo, where “highly organised syndicates” are operating. Illegal immigrants from Mozambique, rip huge holes in the park’s western fences, he says, adding that he has seen evidence that many Lions have been lured through these holes by foreign hunters.

South Africa has its fair share of poachers and poaching incidents, but worryingly its own citizens are cashing in on the Traditional Chinese Medicine market that is now threatening to wipe out Lion species for ever. Hunters mainly American pay in the region of $10,000 (USD) to hunt a Lion in South Africa. Big bucks for the breeder and farmers. Concerning; the breeder can then make a further $5000 selling the bones to Chinese dealers based in Africa that subsequently ship the bones out to Asia – sold as pseudo Tiger bone wine. Business is big and whilst American AND African hunters continue to feed this trade there also pushing our Lion species ever closer to the brink of extinction.

Hartzview Hunting

Lion murdered Janury 2014

BACK in 2011 Phichet Thongphai, 31, and Punpitak Chunchom, 44 were apprehended by South African Revenue Service (SARS) and South African Police (SAPS) for peddling Lion bones to overseas dealers. Sentenced, their punishment was a mere slap on the wrist – kicked out of the country on the next available flight. A punch in the face to many conservationists and Anti Poaching Units that unselfishly work to combat illegal animal parts trade and poaching.

The two Thai men pleaded guilty to being in possession of 59 Lion bones without a permit. The bones, which were primarily claws and parts of the paws, were found rolled up in plastic and hidden in a sock inside a piece of luggage at a house in Edenvale, east of Johannesburg. The house was raided by SA Revenue Service officials and the police, after they questioned the accused at the OR Tambo International airport. The men, Phichet Thongphai, 31, and Punpitak Chunchom, 44, were sentenced in the Germiston Magistrate’s Court to a fine of R10000 or six months’ imprisonment. A further R100000 fine or five years’ imprisonment was suspended on condition that both men take pre-booked flights out of the country that following Saturday. Phichet Thongphai claimed he worked for a Laos-based company, “Vichai company”, the “main business” of which is to trade in Lion bones. It is understood that this company’s real name is Xaysavang Export Import. Thongphai said he and the other accused “were sent to South Africa by the company to view and approve Lion bones to be bought and shipped to the company in [Laos, Thailand]“.


He further said that the “company for which I worked is usually contacted by farm owners in South Africa and advised that they have Lion bones for sale”. Magistrate Hasani Mashimbye stressed how serious the crimes were: “Future generations of this country will not know what a Lion is by the acts of people coming from outside the Republic.” Lion breeding and trophy hunting is on the increase in South Africa and yet the Department of Environmental Affairs seems non-to-interested in dealing with this major conservation problem. Hunters are contributing more to Lion populations decreasing than that of any African poacher supplying the medicine market in Asia. Hunters who do not want to keep the Lion’s head as a trophy pockets the South African farmer and breeder more rand – the skull will fetch another $1,100.

If you put your money in the bank you get 8% interest. But at present Lions show a 30% return. According to several specialists the new market is soaring. “In the past three months we have issued as many export licences as in a whole year,” says an official in Free State, home to most of South Africa’s 200 Lion breeders.


  In 2012 more than 600 lions were killed by trophy hunters. The most recent official figures date from 2009, certifying export of 92 carcasses to Laos and Vietnam. At about that time breeders started DIGGING up the Lion bones they had buried here and there, for lack of an outlet. Asian traders started taking an interest in South African Lions in 2008, when the decline in tiger numbers – now in danger of extinction – became acute.

Are we being to harsh though – blaming American hunters that seem to be contributing to the trade in fake Tiger bone wine? International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa says no.

On questioning the Environmental External Affairs Department – Africa they quoted;

“Whilst there is a trade in fake Tiger bone wine and demand for Lion bones that fetches many thousands there will be a constant threat from man to line his pockets from the money made peddling in animal parts locally and across the seas especially in America”. “In 2011 five US citizens were apprehended by the state police force for digging up a Lion carcass, this poses the question again of just how big the now Lion / Tiger bone wine trade is, whilst this trade grows it will most likely meet that of the illegal Rhino horn and blood ivory trade”. “Lion farming and hunting must be banned now, sooner rather than later”. “We will make it our duty to ensure that Lion bone trade, hunting and farming of Lions is banned as with the proposed still illegal Rhino horn trade stays banned indefinitely - regardless of who and what, our wildlife must be protected for eternity”

How big is Lion bone trade in the United States?

Five people were charged with trying to steal the carcass of a Lion that was among dozens of exotic animals released from a private compound by their suicidal owner and later shot dead by sheriff’s deputies in a bizarre game hunt. Deputies said they stopped four men and a teenage boy who had loaded the Lion into a Jeep several hours after the animals ran from their cages at the Muskingum County Animal Farm near Zanesville, in eastern Ohio. Officers were forced to kill 48 wild animals including Bears, Lions and endangered Bengal Tigers during an all-night hunt after their owner, Terry Thompson, threw open their cages in the afternoon on October 18 2011 before committing suicide.

Deputies discovered the Lion after they stopped a vehicle with its headlights on near the farm just hours after the animals had been let loose. Inside the Jeep, they found the carcass of a male Lion – one of nine Lions that had been housed at the compound. It was/is (thought) the Lion was to be used for the lucrative Lion bone wine trade. Prosecutors did not say what they believed the suspects planned to do with the animal’s body although suspicions were high.

No other animal body was found to be in possession of the five men aged from 19-21 years of age. Those charged were; Cody Wilson, 21, from Byesville, Brian Matthews, 21, from Kimbolton, Richard Weidlich, 19, and Joseph Jakubisin, 21, both from Cambridge. Fake Lion bone trade is extremely rife America and Africa.

We have even located European sellers trading in Lion bones, skulls, and claws. Mountain Lion bones and carcasses typically from the United States are traded in many forums to Asian and American dealers looking for only “bones” and nothing else, the bones are then collected in large piles then shipped out to Laos, China, and Vietnam. Prices can fetch from $150 to a staggering $3000 being the highest we’ve seen from just one carcass. African and American taxidermists would normally sell the bones at a knock of price from the dead animal they are stuffing or just dispose of them. Regrettably though Tiger populations are plummeting, trade in pseudo Lion bone wine is increasing.

American hunters and taxidermists seem to be second of the largest traders worldwide. As secretive as it may be to some – International Animal Rescue Foundations External Affairs Department located on-line and in free adverts posted all over the United States and Africa many a trader. One taxidermist from Oregon, USA, quoted

“I’ve got a large lioness dew claw, some knuckle bones, and a few toes minus the claw, with the fur still attached. Wanting $150.00 for the dewclaw, am open to negotiation on the others”

A further hunter from Maryland looking only for African Lion bones quotes

“Searching for some legal exotic game bones, in particular African lion.  I live in MD. PM me or send an email to ******@****** and we’ll talk. Thanks in advance!

A third hunter out of over 44 individuals trading in bones from Houston, Texas quotes, “ Looking to buy African Lion products. Looking for claws, teeth, skin scraps, mainly bones, etc. Let me know what you have and price ($300 limit) with shipping to 77459 Shoot me a message”

Exotic game farming is also on the increase in Southern Africa too. Least forgetting sales of Lion, Cheetah, Leopard, and even Tiger cubs mainly from Botswana. International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa knows to well where these animals are ending up, as well as their parts. The breeding of exotic species has become increasingly popular in recent years and, given the impressive return on investment, it is not hard to see why.

An investment of R25-million in a cattle farm in Bela-Bela would produce earnings of less than R1-million each year — a 4% return. Measured in terms of turnover, the wildlife industry has grown at an average rate of 20.3% a year over the past 15 years, although the recession is said to have stunted growth since 2008. South Africa has more than 10 000 commercial wildlife ranches occupying 16.8% of the country’s land. Half are located in Limpopo, a further 20% in the Northern Cape and 12% in the Eastern Cape.

Profits generated from the ranches vary, depending on rainfall and land prices, but research indicates that a typical commercial game ranch generates about R220 a hectare of economic output, compared with an average R80 a hectare for conventional livestock farming. Unsurprisingly, rare-game breeding — of Sable and Roan Antelope, Buffalo, Rhino and Lion — is rapidly growing as an investment choice and attracting savvy businesspeople such as Cyril Ramaphosa and Norman Adami, managing director of South African Breweries. Jacques Malan, president of Wildlife Ranching South Africa, said rare-game breeding was so lucrative that successful business-people with experience in the stock market have realized game farming could give them the dividends they want.

The Department of Environmental Affairs Hon Edna Molewa refused to comment on our findings and hard hitting evidence of over a dozen ranchers in Durban and Free State selling to our Environmental Investigators Lion bones. As rare game breeding increases – so will the trade in animal parts from Africa to Asia. Until the Department of Environmental Affairs gets to grips with this problem we have nil hope in preserving our dwindling Lion species. Officials in South Africa though seem non-to-bothered about the diminishing Lion populations as well as big cats being sold from Botswana to South Africa. The Mail quoted South African farmers are using cattle-rustling routes in the Northern Cape to smuggle wild Lions and other predators out of Botswana to supply a growing demand for Lion-bone potions in the Far East.

Conservationists said the illicit trade by organised cartels was adding to the pressures that could see the extinction of big cats in the wild within 10 to 12 years. They denounced Environment Minister Edna Molewa’s recent response to parliamentary questions that a moratorium on Lion-bone exports from South Africa was unnecessary because they do not pose a threat to the survival of the species in the wild. This is a typical response from Edna Molewa that states she is just as concerned about Rhino poaching than that of South African citizens. She most certainly has a funny way of showing it. That’s for sure. An investigator on the South African side of the border said the cartels were supplying breeders of big cats in North West, Limpopo and the Free State, where most of South Africa’s 200 lion breeders are based.

More on this story will follow soon in February 2014 PART III – External Affairs investigates and exposes just how easy it is to purchase Lion bones from Africa – transporting to Asia onto the TCM medicine market.


Please visit the site of BESUREIS Anti hunting – Vocal activists against ANIMAL ABUSE.

BESUREIS – Published on 13 Sep 2013


Here is an adapted version of “Say No”, which we wrote about trophy hunting. “Say No” appears on our debut album “Strawberry” and is available to download from www.besureis.com

Featuring the fabulous Caroline Luxton-White, Mattia & Maethew.
Big thanks to Youtube, The Mountain, Karolina Viciute, Ida-Sofie Picard and Austeja Jokubauskyte. Please share if you are against trophy hunting and animal cruelty….
Duke, Rubin & Jule – BESUREIS

Written by Duke Ingram
Co-written by Duncan McDowall

All BESUREIS work is copyrighted
All animal images are courtesy of google and are listed as “free to use or share, even commercially”

Lion Hunting – The BIG Debate.

Lion populations are diminishing and still hunting organisations are taking no responsibility for such vast decreasing trends that have pushed many conservation organisations to now take direct action into preserving the last of the Panthera species.

The west African Lion is virtually extinct with only a mere thirty five left roaming the wild grasses and savanna’s. Will we see them pushed into extinction by the middle of next year. Regrettably more than likely.

Lion populations have decreased in the last century from a staggering 400,000 individuals to only 40,000 left within the African wild. Demand for hunting trophies, such as Lion skin rugs, and a thriving trade in animal parts in the US and across the globe have raised the threat levels for African Lions, which are already under assault because of conflicts with local villagers and shrinking habitat. Hunters deny this though still quoting and documenting outdated facts and information to confuse many Animal Rights Activists and general concerned public gauged from their subscription to hunting units – they actually believe the woven propaganda that hunting big guns preach – of course we know why such preaching is big on the agenda – money and lots of it.

The king of the jungle is heading toward extinction, and yet Americans continue to kill Lions for sport. Americans being the largest players in this game that have swamped my African land by the bloody plane loads just to slaughter, very little conserving. Canned hunting or wild hunting if its a Lion the American hunting citizen will net it at any cost. Detailing their nauseating “sport” online and within hunting porn magazines.


Picture above – Adele Jansen van Rensberg – Lion and big game hunter.

Adele Jansen van Rensberg’s hunting fiend (one of many) quoted the following to our main environmental unit

“I totally support you, Adele van Rensberg, and congratulate you on this beautiful male lion. It’s such a shame that the haters don’t take the trouble to learn the facts, and merely allow themselves to be controlled by their ill-informed emotions. They select what they want to believe and refuse to listen to the truth … which is that it is only thanks to the animal management that is paid for by hunting, that any of these animals survive in the wild. Were it not for the millions of dollars poured into conservation by hunting, these animals would be extinct through illegal poaching and removal for human safety reasons. Hunting pays for fences to protect cattle, for relocation to protect humans, for wardens and rangers to fight poaching, for equipment and staffing, and for special reserves for breeding and reintroduction. So, no matter how ironical the antis may think this picture, we know that for every one [old, nuisance or condemned] lion that is legally shot, multiple lions are saved. Well done, lady, keep up the good work

The number of wild African Lions has fallen sharply in the last 100 years. A century ago, as many as 200,000 roamed across Africa. Now, by some estimates, fewer than 40,000 remain in the wild; other organisations put the figure for survivors at 23,000, and they have vanished from 80% of the areas where they once roamed. Lions have become extinct in 26 countries. Only seven countries – Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe – are believed to contain more than 1,000 Lions each. One thousand Lions in each habituating nation (not exactly over populated is it?) and when one views hunters both men and women – even children taking such large quotas it worries myself more now than it did today when another thousand suddenly disappear.

The single biggest threat by far to the animals’ survival is humans, though not necessarily western hunters. It is just the very, very widespread killing of Lions, mostly in a conflict situation, by anyone who is trying to farm livestock in Africa and finds it very difficult to co-exist with Lions. There is also a lot of pressure on lion habitats with wilderness areas shrinking to build roads – such as the controversial highway across the Serengeti – or to make room for agriculture.

But the report by the wildlife coalition, filed with the White House said western hunters were a growing danger to the Lions’ survival. Between 1999 and 2008, 64% of the 5,663 Lions that were killed in the African wild for sport ended up being shipped to America, it said. It also said the numbers had risen sharply in those 10 years, with more than twice as many Lions taken as trophies by US hunters in 2008 than in 1999. In addition to personal trophies, Americans are also the world’s biggest buyers of lion carcasses and body parts, including claws, skulls, bones and penises. In the same years, the US imported 63% of the 2,715 Lion specimens put up for sale. American hunters are fueling the trade in pseudo Tiger bone wine too – selling Lion bones and carcasses to Asia to produce fake Tiger bone wine thus continuing the trade in endangered species, and illegal poaching of Lions and Tigers, for the want of more.

For some countries, including Tanzania, Zambia, Namibia and Mozambique, hunting for sport was the main threat to the Lions’ existence. But even in countries which did not attract large numbers of tourists on hunting trips, the practice was taking a growing toll. Conservationists noted that hunters’ penchant for bagging a male lion risked wiping out entire prides. The loss of the alpha male could set off a struggle for supremacy among the survivors that could lead to further deaths of adult male Lions, or male cubs seen as potential threats.

International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa and other conservationists are calling time now on this trade and want a hunting moratorium implemented sooner rather than later that would reduce that threat by taking Americans out of the game. It’s one of a range of threats to the survival of the species. But what is most certainly true is that of all the threats to the African lion, the one we can best address here in this country is their import.”

It was noted that all of the other big cats are protected – Jaguars, Leopards and Tigers. African Lions are the only ones left out there. However, other wildlife experts argued that a total hunting ban was a “nuclear option”. They said responsible hunting could in some cases help conserve populations by maintaining wilderness areas. Existing US and international regulations, such as the Cites conventions against trafficking in endangered species, could also be reinforced to protect Lions, they said. If you remove hunting, the very real risk is that you force African governments to generate revenue from that land and the obvious thing is cattle and crops which just wipe out habitats said one Hunter. We cannot just sit back though and do nothing. We have to try and preserve our species and if we fail we try and retry again.

We define African savannahs as being those areas that receive between 300 and 1,500 mm of rain annually. This broad definition encompasses a variety of habitats. Thus defined, savannahs comprise 13.5 million km2 and encompass most of the present range of the African Lion (Panthera leo). Dense human populations and extensive conversion of land to human use preclude use by Lions. Using high-resolution satellite imagery and human population density data we define lion areas, places that likely have resident Lion populations. In 1960, 11.9 million km2 of these savannahs had fewer than 25 people per km2. The comparable area shrank to 9.7 million km2 by 2000.

Areas of savannah Africa with few people have shrunk considerably in the last 50 years and human population projections suggest they will likely shrink significantly in the next 40. The current extent of free-ranging Lion populations is 3.4 million km2 or about 25 % of savannah area. Habitats across this area are fragmented; all available data indicate that between 32,000 and 35,000 free-ranging Lions live in 67 Lion areas. Although these numbers are similar to previous estimates, they are geographically more comprehensive. There is abundant evidence of widespread declines and local extinctions. Under the criteria we outline, ten Lion areas qualify as lion strongholds: four in East Africa and six in Southern Africa. Approximately 24,000 Lions are in strongholds, with an additional 4,000 in potential ones. However, over 6,000 Lions are in populations of doubtful long-term viability. Lion populations in West and Central Africa are acutely threatened with many recent, local extinctions even in nominally protected areas.

In Africa, Lion populations once lived outside this strict savannah zone. For example, until recently a Lion population was present in forest-savannah mosaics in Gabon and the Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) (Henschel 2009), and there are other remnant populations in forests in Ethiopia and other non-savannah environments. However, the association between Lions and savannahs is generally now quite a close one. How much of the African savannah still supports Lions—and is likely to do so in the future—are the more difficult questions we are addressing.

We evaluate the state of the African savannah with two objectives, namely estimating the areas of savannah still suitable for Lion populations and estimating the Lion populations themselves within these areas. If areas retain Lions, the continent’s top predator, they are likely to be reasonably intact ecosystems. By considering the size of savannah Africa from the Lion’s perspective, we can assess how much of it remains in large, relatively intact areas, not yet heavily modified by human influence. Clearly, smaller areas will still support less complete sets of species.

Current Lion populations based on many assessments are as follows for the continent of Mama Africa;

The assessments are based on Chardonnet, Bauer and Van Der Merwe, IUCN, and present review and source reports

  • West - Chardonnet – 1,213 - Bauer and Van Der Merwe -701 – IUCN – 1,640 – Present -480 
  • Central - Chardonnet – 2,765 - Bauer and Van Der Merwe – 860 – IUCN – 2,410 – Present – 2,419 
  • East - Chardonnet – 20,485 - Bauer and Van Der Merwe – 11,167 – IUCN – 17,290 – Present – 19,972
  • South – Chardonnet – 13,482 – Bauer and Van Der Merwe – 9,415 – IUCN – 11,820 – Present – 12,036


  • Chardonnet = 37,945 
  • Bauer and Van Der Merwe  = 22,143 
  • IUCN = 33,160 
  • Present = 34,970 
  • Present review but no SCI or IGF funded reports = 32,260 

The Biodiversity and Conservation Report in brief estimate the following Lion populations as shown below;

Lion population estimates of 32,000 lions is higher than the population estimate by Bauer and Van Der Merwe (2004), but lower than the estimate by Chardonnet (2002).
The differences between these estimates do not represent an increase in lion populations in Africa, but are a direct result of different methods. There is evidence of strong declines and even extirpation of lions in some range countries. Especially in West and Central Africa, declines have been dramatic and conservation measures are urgent. While lions are protected in some of the lion areas, in many they are not, and in others they are hunted. While user-communities express the desire to manage lions sustainably, achieving that for any long-lived species is problematic. Several studies raise concerns about the impact of trophy hunting on lion densities and demographics (Yamazaki 1996; Loveridge et al. 2007; Davidson et al. 2011, Becker et al.2012.).
As noted above, the area devoted to lion hunting is large and Lindsey et al. (2006) emphasise the importance of hunting zones for protection of lions and their habitat. Will hunting zones actually work though? No they will not. Decreasing habitual fragmentation/degradation / human conflict and increasing reserves will have a vast impact on increasing Lion populations as a whole. Awareness and education, agricultural protection schemes will also improve Lion species populations contrary.
Figure 4 maps the 67 lion areas for four overlapping sub-regions and Table S1 in the supplemental materials provides their details. Our definition sometimes restricted LCUs and sometimes split them into more than one area Conversely, the maps sometimes suggest areas with low human impact that connect existing protected areas—as do the LCUs. In some cases, lion areas extended beyond the LCUs.  Lion areas across Africa. Lion areas (light or dark green, outlined in purple), LCUs (orange outline), lion areas with boundaries identical to LCUs (light or dark green outlined in brown) and protected areas with lions (dark green). (Color figure online) We calculate the total, current potential range of free-ranging lion populations to be, at best, 3,390,821 km2or about 25 % of the original savannah area. Removing the poorest quality data from Chad, Sudan, the western half of South Sudan, Somalia, and Angola provided an estimate of 2,466,452 km2 (18 % of the original savannah area). This compares with the IUCN’s total area of LCUs, 3,163,260 km2 (calculated in our analysis), and the estimate of 2,950,367 km2 from Chardonnet (2002). Bauer (2006) states that the range-wide priority setting exercise (IUCN 2006ab) calculated a total current lion range of 4,612,231 km2, but this number includes areas described as containing both occasional and probable lion populations.
Threats to Lions that are being overlooked by many Animal Activists and general members of the public is that of the new trend that African Lion breeders have embraced on – Lion bone wine. Little do breeders and hunters care and know that not only are they fueling the trade in Tiger poaching – but aiding the poaching of Lions in Mama Africa for pseudo Tiger bone wine. Hunters will disagree with this though such as Madame Adele Jansen van Rensburg that quotes “We are sick in the head and provide misguided facts and evidence – even from 3rd parties. Madame Adele Jansen van Rensburg and her team of fiends believe that hunting and trading is ethically correct and inline with “conservation practice” in increasing the populations of Lions and other mega fauna. Her posy of hunting fiends regularly describe how hunting and peddling many trophies and carcasses is in fact “morally ethical”.  If it was then we wouldn’t be here now and in Mama Africa fighting to preserve the many species of wild cat and large mammalians.

Lion bones are a sought-after ingredient used to make lion bone wine, a substitute for the traditional Asian cure-all,tiger bone wine, which fetches up to R250 000 a case at illicit auctions.

Conservationists have warned that captive breeding and canned hunting programmes in South Africa are providing a source for the lion bone trade. Canned lion hunting is legal in South Africa, as is the exporting of lion carcasses. Lion populations across Africa have been reduced by 90% over the past 50 years, but lion breeders say their operations have nothing to do with the continent’s wild populations.


Typically Hon Edna Molewa didn’t respond to any of the information listed hereto – but then does she ever respond to issues such as Rhino conservation? No- she sides with hunters and pro-trade lobbyists instead.

Breeders can benefit financially a number of times from the same lion. Cubs are often rented as tourist attractions and visitors pay to pet and interact with them. The fee paid by visitors is then fed back into captive breeding programmes. As adults, the lions are sold to hunters in canned hunting arrangements.

Farmers and hunting operators charge in the region of about $20 000 (R160 000) as a “trophy price” and hunters can expect to pay around $18 000 (R145 000) for other services, excluding taxidermy. But the hunters are only interested in the head and skin of the lion, and often leave the bones with the breeder, who can then sell the bones, with a government permit, to Asian buyers for use in making lion bone wine.

It’s estimated that a complete lion skeleton can sell for as much as R80 000. Last year it emerged that over 1 400 lion and leopard trophies were exported from the country in 2009 and 2010.  According to the environmental affairs minister, in 2010, 153 live lions were exported as well as 46 lion skins, 235 carcasses, 592 trophies, 43 bodies and 41 skulls. It was noted that these figures were incomplete as the provinces had not yet captured all their data. Yet there was a 150% growth in exports of lion products from 2009 and 2010.

Amplifying an illegal industry

Chris Mercer, director of the Campaign Against Canned Hunting, said hunting captive-bred lions was “hideously damaging” to conservation. “It’s farming with alternative livestock. They’re only doing it because they make more money farming lions than they do sheep or cattle. But they don’t realise they’re harming the wild populations by creating and amplifying an illegal industry and allowing it to prosper,” he said.

Mercer said he believes the export of lion bones and in fact the entire canned hunting industry should be banned. He pointed out that there was a huge overlap between the rhino horn and lion bone trade. “Many of the Asiatic groups dealing with lion bones are the same people dealing with rhino horn,” he said. He criticised government for taking a simplistic view of the matter and overlooking the dangers the lion bone trade poses. “The very people who are doing our rhino horn [poaching] are making money out of this. You can just imagine how the illegal trade is going to piggy-back itself onto this legal trade,” he warned.

Banning the entire trade will be difficult. There are almost 200 lion breeders in the country, many of whom are part of the powerful Predator Breeders’ lobby group. The breeding of lions for trophy hunting is a lucrative business. In 2009, the economic value of trophy hunting was estimated to be between R153-million and R832-million.

Rapidly going extinct

But Pieter Kat, director of the UK-based conservation organisation LionAid, said a lot could be achieved simply by placing a ban on the export of lion bones. Lions are listed on appendix two of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, which means that a government permit is needed to export any lion products. “It will take a position of responsibility by South Africa to say, ‘No more, we will not allow this,’” he said.

“South Africa is within its rights [to] say no more export permits,” said Kat.

Kat said that while one could argue about the ethics of breeding lions just to be shot, it was important to bear in mind that whatever South Africa did in terms of its legal trade in lion bones would affect wild lion populations all over the continent. Kat pointed out that there are only about 20 000 lions left on the entire continent – down from about 200 000 in the 1970s. In the past few years Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and the Republic of Congo-Brazzaville have lost all their lions, while countries like Nigeria, Malawi and Senegal have only a few dozen lions left.

“We’re dealing with a species that is rapidly going extinct but because we are not really focused on lions – we’re talking about elephants and rhinos – it’s a silent extinction,” he said. He warned that allowing the trade in lion bones to proliferate would stimulate a demand for the product. “Soon someone will [realise] it’s cheaper for to poach than to pay the owner of a captive animal to get the bones,” he said.

Breeding for exploitation is only human

But Professor Pieter Potgieter, chairperson of the South African Predator Breeders’ Association, defended the industry saying there is little difference between breeding lions and any other mammal. “Chickens are killed by humans. How are lions different from them?” he asked. “In principle a lion is not more or less than a crocodile, an ostrich or a butterfly. It’s a form of life. Breeding animals for human exploitation is a natural human process,” he said.

Potgieter said that breeding and hunting lions was only deplorable in the eyes of the public because a “sympathetic myth has been created about the lion as the king of the animals”. He justified the practice, saying the export of lion bones is a legal trade authorised by the department of environmental affairs and denied that South Africa’s approach to captive breeding and canned lion hunting was feeding into the Asian demand for lion bones. “I don’t think that market is being created by the South African situation. That would happen anyhow and the more the Asian tiger gets extinct, the more people will try to get hold of lion bones as a substitute,” he said.

In 2007 former environmental affairs minister Marthinus van Schalkwyk attempted to put the brakes on canned lion hunting. It was widely reported that the activity had been banned in the country but this is not the case. Some changes to legislation were made but the Supreme Court of Appeal ruled in favour of the Predator Breeders’ Association and overturned an attempt to enforce a two-year waiting period during which a captive-bred lion would be allowed to roam freely in an extensive wildlife system before being hunted, which conservationists had labeled an attempt to “pretend that the lion is wild”.

Kenya alone loses approximately 100 of its 2,000 wild lions every year due to killing by people. At this rate, lion experts believe there will be no more wild lions left in Kenya by the year 2030. Dramatic loss and fragmentation of habitat due to an ever-expanding agriculture frontier. This is confining lions to isolated islands of habitat, increasing their risk of extinction. Scarcity of wild prey due to overhunting by hu­mans. When wild prey are over-hunted by people, lions are forced to feed on livestock, especially when cattle are poorly managed and not actively herded. This establishes a vicious cycle in which lions are forced to prey on livestock, driving further conflict with humans in which the lion ultimately loses.

All information is up to date on going to press -

Lion hunting the BIG DEBATE – Part I of IIII

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Stay tuned for part II you’ll not want to miss it.





Emperor Penguin – The Big Huddle

1828R-82531HUDDLING together in the white icy blustery winds of an Arctic storm and in temperatures of -50 its hard to fathom that any living creature would be able to survive for any length of time imaginable. HOWEVER – Warm and cuddled together the Aptenodytes forsteri makes a case of happy feet and Arctic traffic jams just to keep warm look like a breeze in the northern winds. Welcome to the Arctic Emperor Penguin a mysterious but cute and cuddly penguin.

FOR most, the start stop motion of a traffic-jam is about as infuriating as it can get., but if you are a group of emperor penguins, its just what you need to stay together.

Emperor penguins huddle together in large groups to survive the Antarctic winter. Researchers interested in how these groups remain closely knit have attached temperature and light sensors to individual birds, but no one had looked at the dynamics of a huddle as a whole.

To see what was gong on Dr Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, filmed huddles and analysed each penguins movements. They found that when one bird steps, it triggers the coordinated movement of its neighbors in a wave-like motion, similar to the ways cars inch forward in a congestion jam.

To find out what triggers these waves, the team applied a mathematical model often used to study and analyse road traffic congestion. It showed rather than simply being caused by cold penguins pushing in, waves can originate from birds at many different spots in the huddle., as long as their steps exceed a 2 centimeter threshold distance, about twice the thickness of their feather layer.

Waves that started in two different groups can merge, helping smaller huddles grow into large throngs that can withstand a shockingly low temperature of up to -50 oc.

Now that’s amazing.

Emperor Penguins are the largest species of Penguin listed as least concern on the IUCN red list of threatened species. They measure up to 1.1 m (3.5 ft) in height and they weigh up to 37 kgs (82 lbs). Their head and wings are black in colour, their back is blue-black and they are coloured white on their front. They have yellow patches on the side of their neck and their bill is purplish-pink.

The feathers of Emperor Penguins are thick, and provide insulation and a waterproof layer over their whole body, except their feet and undersides of their wings. Male Emperor Penguins have an abdominal fold between their legs and lower abdomen that is known as their “brood pouch”. This protects their egg and chick during the breeding season.

Emperor Penguins swim at speeds of 6 – 9 Km/hr (4 – 6 mph) but they can reach speeds of 19 km/hr (12 mph) in short bursts. The call of each Emperor Penguin is distinct and males and females can be identified by their differing calls. On land they alternate between walking and “tobogganing” along on their stomachs, propelling themselves with their feet and wings.

DSC_5229To protect themselves against the cold, severe weather Emperor Penguins huddle together in what is known as the “turtle formation”. The huddles can consist of 10 or hundreds of birds and each bird leans forward on a neighbour. Those on the outside shuffle slowly around the edge producing a churning action that gives each bird a turn in the middle.


Emperor Penguins are found circumpolar around Antarctica. They are social birds and they feed, travel and nest in groups. They are active during the day or night and from January to March they disperse into the ocean.


Emperor Penguins feed on small fish, squid and crustaceans. They mainly dive to around 50 m (164 ft) to forage for food and one of their feeding strategies is to blow bubbles into cracks in the ice to flush out any fish that may be hiding.


Emperor Penguins breed in winter and will travel approximately 90 km (56 miles) inland to their breeding site. In May or June the female will lay 1 egg that weighs approximately 450g (1 lb) then she leaves it with the male while she goes out to sea to feed and build up her nutritional reserves.

The male carries the egg on his feet and protects it with a pouch of feathery skin. He incubates it for approximately 65 days and during this time he will not feed, surviving on the fat reserves he has built up. All the males huddle together to keep warm while they wait for their egg to hatch and the female to return.

In spring the female returns and the chick emerges from its egg. If the chick hatches before the female has returned with food, the male will produce a milky substance from a gland in his digestive system to feed the chick. After the female has returned the males then leave to go out to sea to feed, later returning to help rear the chick.

When the chicks are approximately 2 months old they will join other young penguins in a creche, but they are still fed by their parents. After approximately 5 months the young birds and their parents will return to the sea to feed for the rest of the summer.

Emperor Penguins become sexually mature at around 5 years of age. Those that are not of breeding age remain at the edge of the sea during the winter months, while the breeding adults make the trek inland.


The main predators of Emperor Penguins are leopard seals, killer whales, sharks, skua and antarctic giant petrels.


There are no subspecies of the Emperor Penguin.

Interesting Facts

Emperor Penguins can dive up to 530 m (1,750 ft) for as long as 20 minutes – they hold the record for the deepest and longest dive from a bird. It was believed that the endangered Spheniscus demersus – African penguin held this record however this is false, they are though one of the fastest penguin swimmers in the oceans to date.

Emperor Penguins are the 5th heaviest bird currently in existence and are the only penguins to breed during the winter months and they endure very severe breeding conditions. In the 2006 film Happy Feet, the main character was an Emperor Penguin called Mumble and he befriended a group of cuban-accented Adelie Penguins.

Emperor Penguins belong to the genus Aptenodytes, which also includes: – King Penguin – Aptenodytes patagonicus.

For more information on marine and Arctic environmentalism contact us at externalaffairs@international-animalrescue-foundation.org.uk

Alternatively visit our Marine Conservation Society Organisation here.


Rhino Wars – Update 2013.


THE MOON is high on the Savannah tonight, humid, a deep distance roar of a Lion and cubs can be heard in the distance possibly feeding on their latest catch of impala or onyx. Then out of nowhere a glistening silvery giant appears with something small and pudgy tagging along. A Rhinoceros cow and it’s calf – a stunning sight in the moonlight high grasses  - silent and airy the two pass without noticing I am only a few meters away. The feeling of excitement passes through me with a mad rush of adrenalin – then out of nowhere loud gun shots crackle in the distance – my brief moment of joy and happiness at seeing Mother Nature’s 50 million year old species is shattered – brought to my senses once again knowing that I’m embedded and armed in poacher land. WELCOME to SOUTH AFRICA – Home to 90% of the worlds largest dwindling Rhinoceros population..

Several months have passed since I have documented on the African Rhino poaching – months that I and countless others have seen endless poached Rhino’s increasing to double that of last years number – a total of 928 Rhinoceros have been barbarically poached for their horns that are sold on the Asian black market for some $40,000 – $80,000 a Kilogram. 928 and still we have until the new year before the full years tally of dead Rhinos can be officially worked and documented on. Will we see the big 1,000 this year? Unlikely but then only last year one Rhino was poached every 11-15 hours. Now we are losing them faster than they can reproduce one to three a week and in some cases up to 15. We are no longer fighting a war on poaching – we are battling to keep Mother Natures species alive and secure. THE Battle is being lost.

Back in March at the Conference of Parties held in Bangkok -Thailand there was talk on legalizing the still banned Rhino horn trade or at least releasing some of the stock piled Rhino horns that are held in secure vaults in South Africa. Talk was cheap though. However since March Hon Edna Molewa has decided to buddie up with the hunter fraternity that compromises rangers, veterinary staff, and agriculturists many pro-trade lobbyists from which she will asking Cites signatories to allow the trade ban to be lifted in the hope this will generate income, flooding funds into conservation to preserve our ionic species. Hon Edna Molewa quoted that all efforts to preserve the Rhino have failed and that the banned horn trade must no longer be a hushed subject. Little does she care though of the last mistakes on the partial legalization of the ivory trade that resulted in much income yet lack of Elephant preservation.

Back in 2008 the first officially sanctioned ivory auction in nearly a decade happened in Namibia, with opinion split on whether the sale will help or hurt efforts to stop elephant poaching.

The Namibian government sold almost eight tons of ivory for $1.2 million. Further to this China being the main buyer with Japan last then sold on that ivory to Asian buyers for ten times the price they purchased disgruntling buyers thus increasing poaching. South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe followed suite and sold on their non-poached ivory again all sold on to mainly Chinese citizens at ten times the price via the Chinese government.

The sales supposedly helped in Namibia, for example, some of the money was spent in communities that have problems with elephants destroying crops or killing people. Did it actually stop poaching though and kill trade within Asia? No it did not. Did ANY funding actually go into Anti Poaching that year from which, yes, there was a slight decrease in Elephant poaching – this question seems to keep popping up now frequently due to the high amount of poached mega fauna and low conviction rates. However, no sooner after the sales of white gold –  Elephant poaching skyrocketed. Are we really prepared to make the same mistake again? and if we do will poaching really rage out of control killing all Rhino – then seeing poachers turn on the last of the mega beasts – Elephants and Lions.

Over 35,000 Elephants have been lost since this second one of trade with the first in 1999 approved by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. The African government seem to be forgetting exactly what “one of” truly means -

Dictionary entry overview: What does one-off mean? 
• ONE-OFF (noun)
The noun ONE-OFF has 1 sense:
1. a happening that occurs only once and is not repeated
Familiarity information: ONE-OFF used as a noun is very rare. Are these “one off sales rare” no they are not, are they a one off? 

Since 2000 we have lost a nauseating 2,704 Rhinoceros all to poaching. The highest peaks that we have seen were back in 2002 – 2003 – 2005 – 2006 – then came the real increase that saw some 83 poached for 2008, 122 poached 2009, 2010 skyrocketed to 333, with 448 for 2011 and over 445 just for the month of October in 2012. 2012 we lost over 668 Rhinoceros. December 18th 2013 and we are sat at 930 poached. The humble Rhinoceros cannot keep up with reproducing with this mass surge in poaching and at every angle.

Arrests have shot up all being mainly African poachers from the nations of Zimbabwe and Mozambique however we see little convictions and mainly bailed not jailed poachers that are free to roam back over the border in to their native lands. 2010 saw 140 arrested – 2011 saw 267 arrested – 2012 saw 232 arrested and for the year of 2013 we have a non-concluded arrest rate of just over 190 arrested.  Roughly 829 poachers have been captured – 90% of them have not even been prosecuted or even seen a jail house. Yet Hon Edna Molewa and the DEA Deputy Minister brags this is good news. Whats good news about poachers roaming back over the border just to take out another Rhino one dares ask?


Edna Molewa and I quote stated “All avenues must be exhausted before we even go down the route of de-horning our Rhinos”. The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) has though forgotten what she stated (2013) and as explained will be approaching the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna in 2016 to call for the ban on Rhino horn trade to be lifted.

All avenues have not been explored nor even “exhausted” as one such method of preserving our humble species is that of the Rhino Rescue Projects – horn treatment program that has seen outstanding results with only one Rhino dying. That single male bull sadly died from complications caused by sedating and old age. Fortunately the RRP has progressed from this, learnt and have successfully with no Rhinos dying treated the horns of many farmed and wild Rhinoceros. Whereas those that have been de-horned – have sadly still be poached.

On 20 December 2012, AFB Hoedspruit conducted the DNA sampling and Chemical Treatment of Rhinoceros Horns. AFB Hoedspruit was assisted by Lt Col Phillip Oosthuizen who initiated the project, Protract, Rhino Rescue Project who sponsored the treatment, the Green Kids, the Department of Environmental Affairs, the Veterinary Doctor Dr Van Niekerk and the Directorate Animal Health SAMHS.

During the last two months Five Rhinos have been poached and killed at Umhlametsi Private Nature Reserve on the farm Boston (North) adjacent to AFB Hoedspruit. In addition, prior to this there were recently three incidents of the breaching of security and an attempt to track and kill rhinos on Suikerkop (AFB Hoedspruit Buffer zone). This obviously calls for desperate measures to proactively implement strategies in order to safeguard the rhino population at AFB Hoedspruit.

TOPS Regulation Section 27 dd refers. The mentioned legislation necessitates that all rhinos in South Africa be micro chipped and included into a National database. Currently there are only two units within the SANDF that possesses white rhino populations.

AFB Hoedspruit also investigated the various options of safeguarding the rhinos and acknowledges the responsibility with regards to the sound management of this species. Various security aspects were addressed and frequent patrols and informal exercises are carried out on an adhoc basis to discourage and prevent potential killing or poaching of these animals. As there are very little additional options, AFB Hoedspruit proposed that the horns of all the SA Air Force (SAAF) rhinos be treated rather than dehorned in order to endeavor and stop any further attempts to kill these magnificent animals.

The horn treatment strategy as opposed to the dehorning of the rhino has the following advantages:

  • Durability
  • Longer lasting (3-4 years as opposed to 1 year when dehorned)
  • Visible internally when used with dye
  • Horn becomes redundant and unusable when treated
  • Proactive if made well known (signs, publicity etc)
  • To date – no killing/poaching of rhinos with treated horns

When the rhino is temporarily immobilized for treatment DNA sampling is conducted to ensure sound management of this precious species in the SAAF. Although there are normally significant costs involved in such project, AFB Hoedspruit liaised with other researchers working on different challenges affecting rhino population and engaged with Dr Lorinda Hern from the Rhino Rescue Project who approved and supported this project and gave their consent to conduct such program free of charge on both the SA Air Force (SAAF) units who owns rhino’s.

The idea of poisoning the horns was circumvented by the need to treat the horn. The treatment of the horns with a mixture of ectoparasitacides coupled with an indelible dye would go a long way to helping achieve the goal of protecting rhinos from poaching. It is also believed that the treatment could potentially neutralize a dual threat of rampant poaching and reduce the cruel reality of poaching.

In the ongoing war against rhino poaching, a holistic and multi-pronged approach is necessary to contribute significantly to reducing the poaching scourge and deter the poachers. 19 Squadron supplied a helicopter to spot the rhinos, then the veterinarian darted the rhinos. The ground crew and veterinary team of experts stabilized the rhinos after the treatment.

The Green Kids Initiative (GKI) consisting of school children from rural areas assist to raise awareness about rhino poaching provides environmental education for schools, encourage sustainable environmental living practices and help to create environmental consciousness in communities.

Why does International Animal Rescue Africa support this approach for ? We support it because it works and has stopped any such poaching incident occurring. de-horned Rhino though are still being poached even for a six inch stub. The problems that we are seeing now with de-horned Rhinos are that poachers will not just take the one Rhino down – but two or even three as this way they can abscond with at least an entire horn although not intact.

Rhino Rescue Project’s horn treatment program can be viewed here – What do you support – De-horning that will only see more Rhino poached – or horn treatment that has not seen (any Rhinoceros poached) since it began?.

Click to view RRP

SO do we support de-horning and give it a try knowing that the Rhino population is now in serious status decline? International Animal Rescue Foundation.org.uk and Speak Up For The Voiceless.org does not under any circumstance support de-horning nor do we acknowledge any so called benefits from the de-horning process. Why though? Whats the big issue and why do we not support the lifting of the still banned trade?

  • Legalized trade control of narcotics has proven countless times to be a complete failure – Marijuana for example when legalized saw sellers taking control of the market. Trade spiraled out of control on two separate occasions from which the trade was made “illegal again” as the market could not be controlled.
  • The sales of ivory tusk from Botswana, Mozambique and South Africa to Asia was a complete disaster. Asian governments sold the ivory on at ten times the price they paid – thus disgruntling buyers pushing them to purchase off black market traders = more Elephants poached.
  • De-horning the Rhino can/will have devastating impacts on photography tourism and tourism as a whole. Who wants to visit the BIG 5 and a 1/2? Tourism is the bread winner of South Africa making some $1.79 billion in 2010 alone.
  • De-horned Rhinos have been poached from 2010-2013 and as they still contain a six inch stub the likely chance that poachers will kill more Rhino in one go is incredibly high.
  • Vietnam – China and Mozambique have FAILED to curb poaching, illegal trade, and do not take poaching/ animal abuse seriously.
  • The illegal trade cannot be controlled – How is one even going to control a legal trade?

23rd May 2013 Mr John and Albina Hume’s farm of “de-horned” Rhinos was tragically hit for a third time by poachers. Poachers again struck Mr Hume’s farm and hunting ranch that contain more de-horned Rhino than any other farm in South Africa and a staggering high number of black Rhino.

Three rhino bulls were poached on John Hume’s ranch in the North West Province. A fourth bull was wounded and is still being treated for a gunshot wound to the knee.

Madame Albina Hume quoted the following;

“Yesterday we woke up to a nightmare! For the first time in 5 years four of our rhino bulls were shot by poachers. Three of them were killed and butchered for their stumps of horns; one has survived with his injuries. The poachers escaped and will probably never be found.

Heartbreak! The same question keeps playing in my mind – how many more rhinos have to die for their horns before we realize that there is a demand for rhino horn but NOT for rhino life!??

We know that the demand for rhino horn is there and it will not go away. We also know that it can be met without killing rhinos, because rhino horn is a sustainable renewable product (like vicuna wool).
If we don’t address this century-old demand we have to face the fact that rhinos will become extinct, because we are losing the war against poachers who are an invisible enemy!”

Albina Hume stated that Rhino horn is sustainable, this is factual to a degree. Rhinos can only be de-horned 4-5 times though within their lifetime, so in reality it is not a sustainable source and with 90% of Rhino horn actually “fake” in using countries such as Laos and Vietnam feeding the demand is simply not going to happen. 40% of people within Vietnam for example actually use Rhino horn as a medicinal fake medicine and status symbol. To-date there is a total (unsupported by census) 18,800 Rhino within South Africa being the largest holding country.  6,834,942+ people live within Laos (2009 survey) half of which use Rhino horn. The problems though within Laos, Hanoi – Vietnam is 90% of horn is fake. Please view the video below;

SO whilst we know that 90% of horn is fake, Rhinos can only be de-horned on average 4-5 times in a lifetime, with a total of only 18,000+ Rhinos within South Africa then how on earth is Rhino horn even going to sustain the using population of Laos for instance? We would need millions of Rhino to even sustain the trade in Vietnam, China and Thailand and whilst poaching is rampant with no end in sight and Rhinos now on the near decline – chances of this happening is slim. Further to this China and Vietnam have signed the MOU – Memorandum of Understanding there still has been no decline in illegal trade. China-Vietnam and Mozambique have done little to quell the illegal trade in their countries from which make Hon Edna Molewa approach to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna a complete waste of time. What the DEA should be supporting and funding now – Rhino horn treatment program. Lastly but not least International Animal Rescue Foundation has been lobbying for the Trans-frontier fence to be re-erected that would preserve many Rhino within the (KNP) – Kruger National Park.

The Trans-frontier fence was cut back in 2002 – Since then from 2002- 2006-2007- and 2008 poaching skyrocketed as the fence that kept the KNP (Kruger National Park) secure at a whopping 219 miles was cut in three sections opening the doors for poachers to roam in freely- Rhino horn village has since been born. Lets not forget too that the Vietnam Education Minister stated to his citizens that he had been cured of bowel cancer from the usage of Rhino horn. (No evidence has proven this to ever be factual and medical studies have shown countless times that Rhino horn does not have any form of medical properties). Evidence and investigations past and present have proved countless times that since the trans-frontier fence was taken down in three sections – Rhino poaching increased from 2002 – 2013, with criminals knowing too that the horn is a valuable commodity and can purchase more sinister items such as illegal arms – this illegal trade has been openly exploited.

Please sign the petition listed hereto that is addressed to the DEA Minister, Cites CEO, and Mozambique Trade and Tourism Minister –  Please continue to sign the petitions listed below too.

Sign here;

1. http://www.change.org/petitions/stop-rhino-poaching-in-south-african-now
2. http://www.change.org/petitions/rhinoceros-in-south-africa-need-your-help-before-their-extinction
3. http://www.change.org/en-GB/petitions/south-african-government-put-a-stop-to-the-poaching-of-rhino-s-in-south-africa
4. http://www.change.org/petitions/support-anti-poaching-efforts-for-rhinos
5. http://www.change.org/petitions/south-african-minister-of-water-and-environmental-affairs-bomo-edna-molewa-create-laws-againt-poaching-to-protect-wildlife
6. http://www.change.org/en-GB/petitions/president-jacob-zuma-re-erect-the-fence-along-the-border-of-the-kruger-park-and-mozambique [Scroll up to view#internationalanimalrescuefoundation petition on this area too] – view here https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=493424754070767&set=a.204117543001491.53024.199685603444685&type=1&theater
7. 100,000 IS NEEDED AND FAST – HURRY -http://www.change.org/petitions/say-no-to-c-i-t-e-s-lifting-the-ban-on-rhino-horn-trade
8. http://www.change.org/petitions/president-zuma-of-south
9. http://www.change.org/petitions/president-of-kenya-please-declare-poaching-a-national-disaster
10. http://forcechange.com/72737/stop-african-poachers-from-slaughtering-wildlife/
11. http://forcechange.com/69254/make-rhino-poaching-a-felony-in-mozambique/
12. http://forcechange.com/39768/stop-the-poaching-of-south-african-rhinos/
13. http://forcechange.com/31636/end-misconception-of-rhino-horn-benefits-in-vietnam/
14. http://forcechange.com/15195/end-the-poaching-and-smuggling-of-rhino-horns/
15. http://forcechange.com/14676/help-end-rhino-poaching-in-south-africa/
16. http://forcechange.com/8848/invest-more-resources-towards-rhinoceros-conservation/
17. http://forcechange.com/6041/stop-south-africa-from-legalizing-rhino-horn-trade/
18. http://www.avaaz.org/en/petition/SAY_NO_TO_LEGALIZING_TRADE_IN_RHINO_HORN/

General media information;



The demand for rhino horn comes predominantly from Asia where it is used as a traditional Chinese medicine that supposedly cures cancer, hangovers, and is used as an aphrodisiac

93% of the world’s rhino population is in South Africa

2 ½ rhinos are killed every day

In 2008 83 rhinos were killed. This year in 2013 an estimated 1000 rhinos will be killed.

There were 20,160 wild white rhino and 4,880 wild black rhino at the start of 2011

Despite the good intentions of saving a rhino from being poached by removing its horn, the rhino is often killed anyway. Poachers do this to prevent having to track the rhino again in the future.

Many poachers have bad shots and use old ammunition, which means that the rhinos do not die right away and are alive when their horns are brutally hacked off with pangas and axes.

People on the demand-side believe that the serum secreted from the base of the horn has increased potency and powers. Therefore, many poachers will hack the the entire face off of the rhino while the animal is still alive to ensure that they get the entire horn as well as this serum as it is worth more.

Many farms are removing their rhinos horns as a safety precaution. While this does help a bit, the chunk of horn left in the rhinos head is still valuable and poachers will kill the rhino even for this small amount.

Poaching takes place across boundaries.

No organization or governmental body keeps a central database of statistics relevant to the region.

Flourishing illegal wild animals markets in SA is compounded by geographical location and relatively sophisticated infrastructure.

Poaching is taking place in an increasingly organized scale. Money is the driving force behind the trade; motivated by greed and aided by corruption, also inadequate ranger staffing, public and state attitudes to wildlife, lack of public awareness, lack of data, and lack of adequate law enforcement.

The media only reports rhino deaths from poaching, but many rhinos are killed and injured due to collateral damage over and above this. Fore example fatal aggression is increasing in male rhinos due to stress.

Read more here




Updates will follow

Chameleon war paint.


Order: Squamata
Family: Chamaeleonidae
Genus/species: Chamaeleo calyptratus

FOR chameleons,war paint isn’t just an accessory, it is a battle flag. The brightness of colors these lizards display and how rapidly they change are good indicators of which animal will win in a fight.

Chameleons are famous for changing color to hide from predators by blending into their surroundings, but they also use color for social communication. To see how this applies to combat, Russel Ligon, a behavioral ecologist at Arizona State University in Temple, pitted 10 adult male veiled chameleons. One of the most diverse colored species, against each other.

He used a high speed camera to capture the color changes from 28 points on each animal, taking into account how the colors would look to a chameleons eye – they can see in ultra violet.

Males with the brightest side stripes were more likely to instigate a fight, whereas those with brighter heads that changed color most rapidly were more likely to win.

This suggests that different colors and patterns may signal different aspects of competitive behavior – how motivated the chameleon is verses its strength.

Early in an aggressive interaction, signaling a willingness to fight by showing bright side stripes could stop a less motivated lizard from approaching, says Ligon.

If both want to continue, however, the last chance to size up an adversary would be to look at the pattern on its head.


Veiled chameleons are one of about 80 species of Old World chameleons, also called true chameleons. They are aggressive and brightly colored. They have a casque, a helmet-like ridge, on top of their heads, which is a tiny swelling as a hatchling, but grows to two inches (5 cm) in height as the animal matures. As hatchlings, they are usually a pastel green, but as they mature they acquire bold bands of bright gold, green, and blue, mixed with yellow, orange, or black, that circle their body. The males are usually more strikingly colored than the females, which are usually shades of green mottled with shades of tan, orange, white, and sometimes yellow.

There is marked sexual dimorphism. Males have a larger body and casque when mature than females. Male body length can reach between 17 and 24 inches (43 to 61 cm) from head to the tip of the tail and they are usually thin in appearance. Females reach between 10 and 14 inches (25 to 35.5 cm) in length. The female’s casque is smaller than the males, and they are more heavy-bodied.


Chameleons are specialized tree-living lizards that catching insect prey. Their bodies are flattened from side to side, and more or less leaf-shaped. They remain still and concealed for long periods of time and wait for their prey to come near. When they move, they do so slowly, and rock their bodies from side to side like a leaf in the wind.


They have eyes that can move independently and look in two directions at once, as well as swivel nearly 180 degrees. They are therefore able to look in any direction, and even follow moving objects, without turning their heads or shifting body position. When a prey animal is spotted, both eyes will focus on the insect in order to perceive depth.


Chameleons are highly arboreal (tree-living). They have grasping hands that work much like human hands. Three fingers are fused together and face toward the inside. They also have a prehensile tail that they use as a fifth appendage.


Chameleons are famous for their ability to change color. The color change serves only partly for camouflage. Although chameleons at rest tend to assume colors similar to their surroundings, color change is most often used to signify emotional state. Many chameleons are some shade of green or brown at rest, but can become far more brightly colored when frightened, courting, or defending a territory against another chameleon. Veiled chameleons when startled or threatened may darken in color and “play possum.”


They are primarily solitary and males are very territorial. Males and females tolerate each other only during breeding.


Veiled chameleons are native to Yemen and southern Saudi Arabia, and reside in an amazing variety of different habitats. They can be found in the dry plateaus, mountains, and river valleys. They are arboreal, preferring to live in trees, bushes, or shrubs. They prefer temperatures of 75° to 95°F (24° to 35°C) and can be found in elevations up to 3,000 feet (914 m).


The veiled chameleon is an insectivore. It may also eat leaves as a source of water during the dry seasons.



They reach sexual maturity within four to five months, at 8 to 12 inches long. Breeding may occur up to three times a year. Females change colors within 18 hours of a successful mating. Egg laying occurs between 20 and 30 days after mating, with clutch sizes ranging from 35 to 85 eggs. The white, oval, tough-skinned eggs are buried in warm sand.


The lifespan of a veiled chameleon may be up to five years for females and up to eight years for males.


They are not listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The veiled chameleon is the most commonly bred and available species of its genus in the pet trade. The popularity of the veiled chameleon is due to a number of factors. Veiled chameleons are relatively hardy, large, beautiful, and prolific. Because they are found in a variety of habitats naturally, this species is tolerant of temperature and humidity extremes, which contributes to its hardiness in captivity.

However, wild chameleons are sold for rituals and souvenirs. For example, some believe that throwing a live chameleon into a fire will bring good luck. The growing demand by tourists for chameleon “souvenirs” puts pressure on chameleon populations.
Like those of many other animals, wild chameleon populations are experiencing pressures from commercial exploitation and extensive habitat loss. Chameleon populations are particularly sensitive to the problems associated with habitat loss because many chameleon populations have evolved in small, often isolated pockets and are unable to relocate.


They are probably best known for their long, sticky tongues that they use to catch prey. The tongue can be more than 1.5 times the length of their body. They “shoot” their prey with a tongue that can be projected in the blink of an eye.

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