As the elephant took a mouthful of food the hunter pulled the trigger exploding a bullet into the back of elephants head leaving this magnificent beast writhing on the ground in a pool of its own blood. What a cowardly bastard.
Why are we still hunting elephants for? This is a question I constantly ask oneself, why? What encourages a hunter to hunt Elephants for? Power, adrenalin, or the fear than an elephant could kill the hunter?.. Much research I undertook about hunters back in the 1990’s revealed that many hunters feel the need to hunt (dangerous game) due to the thrill and rapid adrenalin rush, the cardiac muscle beats faster and harder, surges of hormones are released and the “type” of sexual gratification which has been said to be addictive continues to push hunters to kill more and more.
Back in 1994 I researched a group of American game hunters from Dallas Safari Club. I found in my research that vast surges of adrenalin was mainly responsible for hunters hunting larger and more dangerous game [this of course is not uncommon to most people]. The “adrenalin rush” is in a sense though addictive especially when in the heat of the moment or leading up to a “fight or flight scenario”. In medical terminology we better describe this type of behavior as Impulse Control Disorder (ICD) which is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, urge or impulse that may harm oneself, others or in this case the “impulse to kill more dangerous and bigger” game.
These “type” of psychiatric disorders concern oneself more than say those whom have been abused. Furthermore are these type of psychiatric disorders the reason why so many more game hunters are entering Africa to kill. Lastly while the hunter is lavishing within the trills of killing does such killing displayed in videos such as YouTube encourage other people not within the hunting theater to become active in the killing fields? The answer to them two questions is yes, to what extent though I and Professor A. Ball are still investigating in great depth. I’ve included a YouTube video for you to better understand what I am explaining.
As one can clearly see within the video the hunt is very action packed, emotionally charged and driven, one can just feel the edge and thrill. This leads me to my next issue and question which is - why are online video sites such as YouTube allowing such imagery to be broadcast? Research has already proven as of 2010 that large and medium sized game from lions to elephants, antelope and giraffe for instance are not as densely populated within Africa as they were over two decades ago. Hunting activities have been noted to have dropped quite significantly.. Not because activism is stopping hunters or even restrictions but literally because there have been major reductions in wildlife populations over the course of the past twenty years..
Keeping to the main subject many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Please note that I nor my colleague are labeling any hunter or huntress with any form of mental illness, disorder or disease[s]. We are merely both stating that many hunters we have interviewed such behavioral characteristics have been noted. Hunters are not the only people that can suffer from adrenalin addiction or Impulse Control Disorder, everyone can at some stage in their life suffer from such neurological disturbances, disorders or addictions.
We can all relate to such hormonal and chemical discharges within the brain and body when we were children for example, many youths would feel such rushes of adrenalin within their childhood: Examples of this can be stealing money, their first kiss, sexual activity or as explained participating in an activity that is either immorally wrong or incredibly dangerous.
2004 I researched weather adrenalin was either “psychologically addictive or physically addictive” within youths and weather such addictiveness then spurned youths through their adulthood to then move onto more dangerous activities such as murder, rape, burglaries or in this case large game hunting. Our research thus far has proved such cases of early adrenalin addictiveness and Impulse Control Disorder does in deed in many cases if not monitored or treated later leads to more dangerous activities carried out simply for the sheer “rush or natural high”.
Research carried out by previous consultants and scientists had already proved adrenalin was in a way (psychologically addictive), however never did the research focus on weather such addictiveness spurned individuals in the trophy hunting industry say, to then move onto more dangerous game or even murder. Within this brief article the attention focuses on what drives a trophy hunter to kill more larger and dangerous game, the thrills they obtain and the after-effects of such behavior. The article is not focusing on mass murder, abuse, or anything other than what has been explained.
Myself Dr Jose Depre and Professor Adriana Ball consultant Forensic Psychiatrist have now completed our findings on [What spurs a hunter to kill].. This research document (to be released soon in the Online Scientific Studies of Neurological Disorders in Sweden) 1/6 was aimed at showing other examples as to why trophy hunters hunt. Article  details children that were abused that then become the abuser will hopefully be released this June. Please note this is not the title of the 4th article and should one wish to purchase that article in paper back you will need to contact myself nearer the time when I release this book in leading high-street stores..
So is it correct to say that adrenalin is an addictive chemical release that can lead an individual say a trophy hunter, in this case to turn into a dangerous game hunter? Furthermore like opiates or illicit narcotics when one becomes use to the highs of such neurological and/or synthetic pleasures will the individual turn to more dangerous and destructive activities, is adrenalin in its self additive too? Indeed it is of which can be quite difficult for a sufferer to overcome, furthermore failing to treat the sufferer that is clearly on a mission to kill more and more then its quite right to say that adrenalin can lead to more destructive activities being played out. Would this be then the main reason as to why hunters that start of killing small game then go on to killing larger and more dangerous game, in this instance elephants?
The answer to that question is yes. Its quite wrong though to state that “trophy” hunters whom kill animals kill because they were abused as children, or have small penises, lack femininity and masculinity, or need to prove oneself. While there is evidence relating to such human past and present behavior regarding abuse and lack of say (masculinity) there is by far more evidence within the scientific world that indicates and proves hunters can suffer from Impulse Control Disorder or are addicted to adrenaline and noradrenline which are two separate but related hormones and neurotransmitters.
I myself would be more concerned about an “unstable” hunter that is suffering from (ICD) and/or addiction to adrenaline and noradrenline than say, an unstable hunter that needs to prove oneself, or has been abused as a child. Child abuse indeed “may” lead to more sinister and violent activities carried out by the abused however counselling and cognitive therapy can in many cases solve these problems if caught in the early stages before onset of serious mental illness. Proving oneself or weather the individual feels they lack masculinity or femininity is easily treated again with therapy, of which is more a low key behavioral and complex problem treated by a Psychologist rather than a Psychiatrist. Medication is rarely required too.
While the elephant is indeed the prime catch for many experienced hunters and huntresses, the main reasons trophy hunters, say, will hunt is literally for this sheer addictive pleasure of knowing they’re pushing dangerous limits.. In a way one could say that hunting dangerous game is more identical to ones first time stealing from a sweet shop, or being dared by a mate to do something that is either dangerous or very wrong.. Like small game hunting the thrill and adrenalin is there and identical to that of stealing, both hunter and common thief feel the urge after their first mission to push for bigger and better trophies, the need to fulfill ones inner desires is a crave that in itself is very addictive.
Over the past fifteen years I have interviewed many hunters and poachers around the globe of which in my findings I have found that most hunters and illegal poachers that start of with say, small game suffer from as explained Impulse control disorder and adrenaline addictiveness behavioral problems. What I myself did note is that these “obsessive behaviors” seem more related to (trophy hunters) rather than (hunters for food). Trophy hunters are themselves hunting for the sheer thrill while (hunters for food) take only what they require. Furthermore there was quite a lack of “obsessive characteristics” in poachers - which is mainly because they themselves are either being given the order to kill say a Rhino or elephant.
This infant elephant was hunted for what reasons we’ll never fully understand. The elephant posed no threat, it wasn’t a problem animal, in pain nor suffering. There is no real trophy to take home, no tusks, Why?
Elephants are to myself a magnificent gentle giant that has roamed the plains of Africa for hundreds of years. Identified by Dr Blumenbach in 1797 the species listed below killed by Mr Jofie Lamprecht being the African Elephant scientifically identified as Loxodonta africana has been hunted now for hundreds of years. This particular hunter caught my eye, not because of the fact he slaughtered this colossally sized African elephant but more the speech he made after the killing aka [trophy] hunt.. That speech can be read below which is typical and classical behavior of an individual suffering from Impulse Control Disorder and adrenaline addictiveness behavioral problems.
The speech reads:
I honor you my friend. I will follow your round and oval until the end of my time. May your presence in the wilds of Africa continue so that generations from now my prodigy may view your glorious splendor and hunt you like I have had the privilege of doing. Thank you for walking the trails of Africa. Thank you that I can hunt you. Your protein now fills the bellies of many in the surrounding villages. The money you generated will in good faith preserve these wild lands there you walk for your prodigy to be safe and grow old.
Farewell my friend. I will join you when it is my time.
The speech is classical to that of the war with Veii and the Etruscans, under Servius Tullius of which the Rome’s sixth King Servius Tullius went to war with Veii (after the expiry of an earlier truce) and with the Etruscans. King Servius Tullius like many Roman warlords had to prove themselves -fight to the death, after fighting such a glorious and splendid battle did they then lay down their arms and celebrate with a triumph speech. Mr Jofie Lamprecht is in reality no different to King Servius Tullius - however King Servius Tullius was more gentleman like.
Many people have problems that occur repetitively, disrupt their lives and seem completely out of control. Sometimes we’re asked if these problems are examples of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). And indeed, there are some similarities to OCD. Nevertheless, these problems are not considered to be in the same category. So what are we talking about here? Specifically, we’re referring to the category of emotional disorders known as Impulse Control Disorders. The similarity to OCD is seen in the fact that impulse control disorders, like OCD, are repetitive and very difficult for the person to bring under control. Furthermore, like OCD, they greatly disrupt and impair the sufferers’ lives. However, Impulse Control Disorders also differ from OCD in important ways. Impulse Control Disorders, unlike OCD, often do not cause a great deal of distress to the person who has them—that is, unless or until legal authorities are called in. Furthermore, distress, anxiety and upset do not play a very large role in most Impulse Control Disorders. In fact, many of those with Impulse Control Disorders actually report feeling pleasure from their behaviors even though their lives are impaired by them.
When I myself and Professor Ball interviewed all hunters not one hunter showed any signs of distress, anxiety and upset, the last of the hunters whom we interviewed this past month hadn’t hunted elephants or dangerous game such as elephants or lions, rhinos or wildebeest.
No empathy or guilt was shown when they were shown images and videos of other hunters killing. However what was shown on the sudorometer and electrocardiograph was increased heart rate and perspiration which indicated to ourselves that the interviewees were feeling excited. When shown video imagery from YouTube levels of sweat and heart rate increased by 2.5% When asked if “If you had the chance to hunt an elephant now would you do it?” 19/27 hunters said yes. So in reality when we question ourselves why are we still killing elephants, or any dangerous game its quite right to say programs on television and YouTube really are not doing our wildlife any form of good. For example if your shown a video of a chocolate bar advertisement from which you’ve never indulged in that sweet the chances are “that advertisement” will encourage you to purchase that sweet.
The full results of the above examination and all test experiments will be released later this year.
Looking at our past we can also see that elephants were not just hunted for the sheer fun of it..The main reason that elephants were hunted was for their ivory. This is worth a ton of money and so huge numbers of elephants were slaughtered in order to be able to cash in on such a business. With each tusk weighing up to 200 pounds, this was amazing. Early attempts to remove the ivory tusks and to leave the elephants alive didn’t work. The elephants were simply too aggressive for this type of process and it was too dangerous for humans to take part in.
Elephants are taking quite a hit all over Africa and its quite evident from past research and present researching “why” elephants were and still are legally hunted. One cannot just point the blame at natural neurological issues though as I myself have explained, above I’ve clearly detailed why [we still are hunting] from past to present but more from a different perspective of things.
Moving back to just how big a problem adrenalin addictiveness and Impulse Control Disorder’s can be - curing such disorders that are quite natural is more easier said than done. At the end of the day its down the individual hunter and huntresses to come forward should they feel they have an “obsession” or (ICD). One cannot force a hunter to visit a therapist however what we can do is make aware the problems that some hunters if not all believe is quite actually typically normal behavior. One very good article that I do suggest people read is that of Serial Offenders which details much of the above in this book, however its very broken down. Read more here.
Excessive adrenaline build up changes a trophy hunters physiology. The trophy hunter becomes sensitized to the epinephrine and used to what it does to them. Initially it may be difficult to cope with, but after awhile, the individual becomes so accustomed to it that you can function. This is not always the case though as it has been noted adrenaline junkies feed of such fear which in turn provides a type of sexual gratification afterwards and relaxation. Adrenaline sends your brain into full throttle and your wit becomes majorly amplified. This is because your slower brainwaves in the alpha and theta ranges become severely diminished. Alpha rhythms are drowned out by high amounts of mid and high-range beta brainwaves. This leads to further production of dopamine, epinephrine, and cortisol. Trophy hunters have long stated that the majority of the time they hunt is not for the actual trophy but more the “adrenaline hit”.
Author Louis Schlesinger quoted as Professor Ball did “emotional, impulsive murderers are less able to regulate and control aggressive impulses”. If you’ve being paying attention and scroll back up to the very top of the article one will read very identical characteristics relating to narcissistic psychopathic murderers to that of those whom kill large game, dangerous game and small game…
Treatment of Impulse Control Disorders has lagged behind the treatment of many other emotional disorders such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder. There are some indications that treatments such as Habit Reversal Training may have value for Trichotillomania. However, most of the Impulse Control Disorders beg for more research on potential treatments. Of course, even if we had a plethora of effective treatments, there’s still the problem that most of those with Impulse Control Disorders aren’t all that interested in getting help. Sigh.
Why are we hunting Elephants again?
Thank you for reading - Stay tuned for my book on Impulse Control Disorders and Trophy Hunting.
Dr Jose C. Depre Md, VetMed, EnvStu, Phd
What’s wrong with this photograph taken from a Viet Nam road side dog market stall?
You may think that is somewhat of a rather stupid question, a photograph of a dog meat traders stall in Viet Nam, seems rather innocent looking doesn’t it. Look beyond the photograph though. What do you see, nothing? Good now we’re onto a winner as this article you need to take heed off, share, and use in your quest to halt the global unregulated pet meat trades. If you cannot see nothing other than two dogs on a filthy dirty market traders stall then its time I opened your eyes a little more.
My name is Dr Jose C. Depre Director one for Say No To Dog Meat and the Chief Environmental Officer and Executive for International Animal Rescue Foundation and the Environmental Protection and Animal Welfare Agency.
Okay, so, many people believe that dogs and cats should not be eaten in Africa or Asia simply because they are pets. While I and my founders agree with this statement [to a degree] we cannot just leave it at that. When we read, hear or witness the act of [unregulated food trades] it seriously does send shivers down our spine…. The THREAT of DISEASE is why we should not be consuming any form of pet meat or any meat that derives from an unregulated trading source.
The pet meat trade is no different to the bush meat trade that our environmental company is actively targeting in western Africa. Both trades are again unregulated and both trades have shown to harbor infectious diseases, contagious pathogens, and added pharmaceutical synthetic medications which has led to many deaths worldwide, poisonings and illness. So when we hear or read that one should not eat pets because they are simply friends it does concern us especially when we read such information published from allegedly reputable charities. These charities should be looking more further afield than merely seeing dogs and cats or bush meat animals as just pets and wildlife.
AFRICAN AND ASIAN FOOD: RUSSIAN ROULETTE
Trading and Slaughtering of Pets and Infectious Diseases
FACT: Seventy-five per cent of emerging diseases move to humans from wildlife or stray dogs and cats, either directly or via our livestock. The bushmeat and pet meat trade could provide a hidden conduit for disease transmission which has been concerning environmental teams and scientists for some years.
FACT: The legal trade in exotic pets and live dogs and cats is already known to pose a similar risk. In 2003, an outbreak of monkeypox infected dozens of people across several US states. It was traced to an animal dealer near Chicago, where an imported Gambian giant rat gave the virus to prairie dogs that were later sold as family pets.
Live dogs and cats that are abducted from the streets of Asia and Africa could/do potentially harbor human killing virus’s. The SARS coronavirus, sometimes shortened to SARS-CoV, is the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In April 16th of 2003, following the outbreak of SARS in Asia and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that the coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the official cause of SARS. Samples of the virus are being held in laboratories in New York, San Francisco, Manila, Hong Kong, and Toronto.
Below I have included reams of information that Say No To Dog Meat and International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa are currently utilizing at our disposal to end the barbaric and highly infectious pet meat trade. I please ask all Non-Profits to contact myself and team here at firstname.lastname@example.org to help us in our quest to now close down illegal and legal traders of pet meat.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Evidence is still somewhat sketchy regarding the transmission of SARS from dogs and cats to humans, however research has pinpointed the virus to have emerged from the markets that dogs, cats and other live stock are sold within.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a total of 8,098 people worldwide became sick with SARS during the 2003 outbreak. Of these, 774 died. In the United States, only eight people had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV infection. All of these people had traveled to other parts of the world with SARS. SARS did not spread more widely in the community in the United States.
The main way that SARS seems to spread is by close person-to-person contact. The virus that causes SARS is thought to be transmitted most readily by respiratory droplets (droplet spread) produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Droplet spread can happen when droplets from the cough or sneeze of an infected person are propelled a short distance (generally up to 3 feet) through the air and deposited on the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or eyes of persons who are nearby. The virus also can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eye(s). In addition, it is possible that the SARS virus might spread more broadly through the air (airborne spread) or by other ways that are “not now known”. [This area of research is still open].
The CDC and a Canadian laboratory identified the SARS genome in April, 2003. Scientists at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands demonstrated that the SARS coronavirus fulfilled Koch’s postulates thereby confirming it as the causative agent. In the experiments, macaques infected with the virus developed the same symptoms as human SARS victims.
In late May 2003, studies from samples of wild animals sold as food in the local market in Guangdong, China, found the SARS coronavirus could be isolated from masked palm civets (Paguma sp.), but the animals did not always show clinical signs. The preliminary conclusion was the SARS virus crossed the xenographic barrier from palm civet to humans, and more than 10,000 masked palm civets were killed in Guangdong Province.
Virus was also later found in raccoon dogs (Nyctereuteus sp.), ferret badgers (Melogale spp.), and domestic cats. In 2005, two studies identified a number of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese bats. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets.
The bats did not show any visible signs of disease, but are the likely natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. In late 2006, scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of Hong Kong University and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a genetic link between the SARS coronavirus appearing in civets and humans, bearing out claims that the disease had jumped across species.
SARS never did originate from canines however more from felines and other wild market animals. There is no evidence to date that proves SARS ever did infect people via the consumption of infected dogs however evidence is clear to day that SARS sufferers that consumed infected cat meat did later on become SARS positive. It must also be noted that investigations pinpointed a wide range of animals both domestic and wild that can host and pass the deadly SARS virus on.
Eating dog meat is common in many Asian, western and northern African countries, but research conducted as part of the South East Asian Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network has discovered a potentially lethal risk associated with preparing dog meat: rabies.
Rabies is a very serious – and in nearly all cases fatal – disease. It is estimated to kill over 30,000 people each year in Asia, and the number of cases in China and Viet Nam is increasing. Symptoms include agitation, severe spasms, fever, fear of water and inability to drink liquids, and eventually death. Humans are usually infected after being bitten by an infected animal such as a dog or bat.
Researchers investigated whether the patients had come into contact with infected animals in the preceding months, they found that both had been involved in preparing and eating animals which may have been infected. In the first patient’s case, he had prepared and eaten a dog that had been killed in a road traffic accident; rabid dogs were known to inhabit the neighbourhood. The second patient had butchered and eaten a cat that had been sick for a number of days.
In both cases seen by Dr Wertheim and colleagues, it is thought that infection occurred during the slaughtering, and not by eating the meat as the meal was shared by others who did not become infected. In Asia, it is believed that eating dog meat enhances health and longevity. It is eaten throughout the year in the second half of the lunar month, particularly in the winter months, when it is believed to increase body heat. In Viet Nam, dogs with rabies have been detected in dog slaughterhouses and workers at dog slaughterhouses are vaccinated against rabies as part of the national programme for rabies control and prevention. However, the private slaughter of dogs is relatively common in the country.
Moving over to Africa there slaughterhouses are very uncommon however still do exist. In Liberia and Nigeria for instance dogs and cats are either take from the streets dead or alive then transported for hundreds of miles within dirty unhygienic meat trucks. Dead dogs and cats are thrown into heaps ready to be butchered without a care in the world as to weather these dogs and cats have the deadly rabies virus. Meanwhile live dogs and cats that survive the long haul road trips from Niger or Southern Africa into Liberia and/or Nigeria are thrown into cages where their fate comes quickly. No thought nor care goes into weather these dogs and cats may harbor rabies virus.
Rabies occurrence in man and domestic animals is well known but the importance of wild animals in its spread has not been determined. To date, no effective medical therapy has been established for overt rabies. Preventive vaccination against rabies virus is a highly effective method for preventing rabies in humans and animals. The rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP), which is a serial vaccination against rabies starting as soon as possible after the patient was bitten by a suspected rabid animal, is the only way to prevent death. In Nigeria where dog bites continue to be the main mode of transmission of the disease to man, it remains a serious public health hazard. People that visit meat traders or actively kill dogs and cats are more at risk of contracting the deadly rabies virus that is estimated to kill over 35,000 alone in Africa and Asia every year.
Dr Chika Nnwosu has said that about 55,000 persons die of rabies disease every year in the world with 55 deaths recorded per hour. Of these deaths According to him, 30,000 of such death was from Asia, and 10,000 recorded in Nigeria alone, while the remaining 15,000 occur in other parts of the African continent. Say No To Dog Meat and International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa have shown that the majority of these deaths recorded are within “pet meat consumption zones” and “known stray dog and cats zones”. Records have also shown that about three million people mostly from Africa, Asia and other developing countries of the world are living in rabies endemic areas which is concerning.
Food-borne Viruses: Pet meat trade
KNOW THE FACTS - USE THE EVIDENCE - END THE TRADE
The information below is extracted from medical sources and my own medical education of which proves the following viruses can infect people via the consumption of pet meat. There is no reliable evidence to publish [as yet] into the public domain showing the number of people that have fallen ill or sadly died from consuming pet meat infected with food borne viruses.
Salmonellosis is the disease caused by one of the many serotypes of the bacterium, Salmonella enterica. It is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, second only to campylobacteriosis. All species, including humans, may be infected by Salmonella bacteria, which live in the intestine and may be shed in faeces. However, Salmonella can survive and multiply very well outside the intestinal tract, which makes eradication impossible. Moreover, fecal contamination of carcasses, milk and eggs cannot be completely prevented. Humans that are carriers may inadvertently spread infection if they handle food without washing their hands after using the toilet. Direct contact with infected animals, including pets, can also be a source of infection. Reptiles are particularly likely to harbor Salmonella and hands should always be washed after handling pets e.g. reptiles. Live dogs or cats that are infected with Salmonellosis can easily infect those killing the dogs and cats and those consuming. Furthermore the unhygienic practice of preparing pet meat and selling within an environment that is not temperature controlled will only see the bacteria multiply by the millions placing human life in danger.
Campylobacter jejuni was identified in the early 1980’s as an important enteric pathogen in humans. Prior to this, the organism was thought to be a minor animal pathogen, causing abortion and enteritis in cattle and sheep. Other Campylobacter species are occasionally involved in human disease, including Campylobacter coli. The organism is widespread in the intestines of most warm blooded animals, including cattle, sheep and poultry, and survives particularly well in birds. It rarely causes disease in livestock, although a significant number may be asymptomatic carriers.
Transmission of Campylobacter to humans can occur via contaminated raw or undercooked poultry and meat, unpasteurised milk and untreated water. The organism is particularly common on poultry carcasses, and poultry meat is thought to be an important vehicle for infection. Contact with infected pets can also be a source of infection. While there is little evidence that shows Campylobacter being present in dog or cat meat the dangers are still there and are documented. For instance if dogs and cats are slaughtered within an area where pigs and chickens are slaughtered that are host to the virus its quite easy for both dog and cat meat to become “cross contaminated” with other meats thus leading to secondary food infection and lastly - chronic food poisoning.
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by the various species of the bacterium Brucella. The organism affects cattle, sheep, goats, deer, elk, pigs, dogs and many other species, including humans. Brucella organisms persist within the host’s own cells, where they are protected from the animal’s immune response and can give rise to chronic, recurrent infections.
Humans may be infected through eating contaminated food or drink or through close contact with an infected animal when the organism may be inhaled or acquired via skin wounds. Most cases occur following consumption of contaminated raw milk or dairy products.
Areas of Europe that are currently listed as high risk for brucellosis include the ‘Mediterranean Basin’ (Portugal, Spain, Southern France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, North Africa) and Eastern Europe. It also occurs in South and Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Consumption of ‘village cheeses’ in these areas may pose a risk. Consumption of infected dog meat is known to also pose a significant risk to human health. While trade goes un-monitored we’ll never know the full health scares that surround all viruses listed hereto.
Pathogenic E. coli
Escherichia coli is a common bacterium that is found as part of the normal flora in the intestines of all warm-blooded animals, including humans. There are many strains of E. coli, and most do not cause disease. However, some strains can result in serious illness in both humans and animals. The presence of high numbers of E. coli in raw food or water may be a sign of faecal contamination by humans or animals, but does not cause illness in most cases. E. coli multiplies readily wherever the temperature, humidity and nutrients are favourable. As explained above there is very little “regulated documented evidence” carried out on meats such as dog and cat meat.
Its quite possible that deaths have occurred all over Africa and Asia from the consumption of Pathogenic E. coli pet meat. Say No To Dog Meat and International Animal Rescue Foundation Africa will begin taking samples of meats from the pet meaty traders in Africa and Asia sending them onto clinics for clinical studies to further evaluate weather such viruses can indeed be a “danger” to humans from [unregulated, unhygienic and open air traders]… By undertaking such scientific analysis it helps to not only put people off from consuming such potentially infectious foods but also helps in proving to the governments that no trade that is open, unregulated and unhygienic should be open to the public and thus closed down immediately to preserve human life and prevent any form of mutation of viruses. E. coli can be located in dogs and cats as they are both warm blooded animals. “Whats wrong with this photograph taken from a Viet Nam pet meat market stall” the heading of this article states. Well here is one prime example. While one cannot see E. coli E. coli could very well be present on this pet meat above that is neither in a controlled environment nor refrigerated to reduce bacteria from multiplying.
Every year without fail we see many tourists visiting Asia to try out the “local delicacies”. Yet these are not really local delicacies nor hygienic ones. In the modern western world such practices that see meats sold in this manner [pictured below] would see the traders closed down immediately and/or charged with violation of food safety laws. We’ll never know the true extent of how many people have fallen ill or even died from eating contaminated meats.
The picture above illustrates are concerns with regards to food pathogens and humans that place themselves are risk from consuming meats that are not stored in a controlled environment, temperature controlled environment that should be standing at [-0-5oc], vermin and pest controlled or within an unhygienic establishment. The average temperature within say Viet Nam here ranges from 25-29oc. Keeping cooked or even raw meats on display such as this is a recipe for disaster and a food virus perfect environment. How many people have fallen ill from such food borne viruses again we will never know. So for this reason the pet meat trade must be banned.
Trichinellosis, or trichinosis, is a parasitic disease of mammals caused by a nematode worm (roundworm) of the Trichinella genus, mainly Trichinella spiralis. The worm gains entry to the body when larval cysts are eaten in infected muscle meat. Gastric juices break down the tough cysts and release infective larvae, which then invade the small intestinal lining and mature to adults. Adult female worms subsequently release larvae that penetrate the intestinal wall and are distributed throughout the body via blood and lymphatic vessels. Only in skeletal muscles, they form cysts, which can remain viable for several years. The life cycle is perpetuated when the infected muscle is eaten by another host.
Although all mammals are probably susceptible, infection is usually confined to carnivorous species, mainly pigs, dogs, cats, carnivorous game, rodents and humans. Horses may occasionally be infected after eating fodder contaminated by decaying rodents. Most infections in domestic and wild animals go undiagnosed, but heavy infestations can give similar signs to those seen in humans.
Human infections are traditionally associated with eating raw or undercooked pork (such as ham or sausage) or wild carnivorous game (including wild boar, bear and seal), concerning we have seen and reported on many Asian citizens that have consumed under-cooked dog meat that have then come down with the Trichinella infection. However, recent outbreaks in Europe have been linked to eating undercooked horse meat. Current EU regulations dictate that all pig, horse and wild boar meat intended for Community trade must be inspected for the presence of Trichinella according to EU standards. There is no evidence to suggest that Trichinella is currently present in UK pigs or horses, and a recent survey found no evidence of infection in the UK fox population. However in Asia and Africa its quite possible there are hundreds if not thousands of cases of Trichinella infection every year - again we’ll never know the full extent as trade is not regulated. We are working though to prove to the governments in Africa and Asia that by allowing such a high risk meat trade to exists one is only placing human life in danger furthermore.
Trichinella is most commonly found in pork however can be located in all mammals including dogs and cats. If the dog or cat you have eaten is not cooked adequately and is infected with the virus you could end up like this rather sorry state of a hunter and his fiends that fell down with the virus. We have decided to show the video - not in support of hunting but to make aware how serious this virus is. Feeling squeamish, look no further.
Taeniasis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by the tapeworms Taenia saginata (from cattle) or Taenia solium (from pigs). The adult tapeworms are found only in humans, where they attach to the wall of the small intestine and can grow to several metres in length. Egg-containing segments, which are independently motile, are shed by the tapeworm and passed in faeces or migrate through the anus. Infection is usually asymptomatic, but may be associated with diarrhoea, flatulence, abdominal discomfort and weight loss.
Cysticercus cellulosae was found in the brain of three (2.5%) out of 120 rural dogs investigated. The cysts were located in the ventricle, cerebral cortex and subarachnoid spaces. Two (1.7%) of the 120 dogs had dumb rabies and this was confirmed by biological tests. One of these dogs had both cysticerci and Negri bodies in the brain. Apart from locomotor imbalance no other typical clinical signs of rabies were observed. Dumb rabies and cysticerci in dogs being sold to people in rural communities pose potential public health hazards. In areas where dog flesh is used as a source of food, human cysticercosis may occur, and the danger of human rabies must not be overlooked.
Out of a total of 150 carcases of rural dogs examined in Eastern Nigeria, 4 (2.7%) had Cysticercus cellulosae in the heart, tongue, thigh muscles and liver. Visual examination, palpation and multiple serial incision technique were used in locating the cysts. The cysts uncovered were collected in specimen bottles and transported in ice to the laboratory for morphologic assessment. The ages and sexes of the dogs were also recorded. Viable cysts were found only in young dogs. Environmental pollution with human excreta predisposes dogs to cysticercal infection. Thus environmental sanitation and health education should be an ongoing exercise for successful control of cysticercosis in dogs.
Environmental sanitation and public education are necessary in order to reduce the incidence of cysticercosis in rural dogs. Unfortunately in Ghana and some Asian countries such as Nagaland and China dog brains and flesh is consumed on a daily basis. We are still unsure as to how many deaths and infections have occurred from the consumption of Taeniasis infected meat. It could be hundreds or thousands. Again with no regulation people are placed in serious danger of death and ill-health of which the trade in pet dogs, cats even bush meat animals and wild game must be banned.
The video below depicts a serious case of hook worms. Cats that are infected with these parasitic worms in the pet meat trade place not only the trader at risk from infection but the general public that come into contact with “live” felines.
Canine Influenza (H3N8)
As yet there is no evidence that indicates Canine Influenza (H3N8) can be passed onto humans from dogs. There is quite a substantial amount of misinformation on the internet that has stated this disease can be passed on. This is not factual. However, just because [as yet] there are no known cases doesn’t mean that the virus can mutate and jump from infected canines onto humans thus causing a new influenza outbreak. The CDC stated - People cannot get infected by this virus. Influenza viruses are specific for their host species and require a dramatic mutation in order to jump species. You should not be concerned about getting an influenza infection from a dog, horse, or any other species other than a fellow human being. - Merck Animal Health has information on the canine influenza vaccine, H3N8. Dramatic mutations though can happen and have occurred in past history. Its only a matter of time before such virus do begin to turn ugly and mutate thus jumping host. Canine H3N8 may not be as yet a real cause for concern. Months, years even decades down the line this soon could change. Virus are becoming more intelligent. Governmental leaders must begin looking at “nipping potential problems” in the bud before any such “dramatic mutation” emerges.
I’ve included above a handful of known viruses, food pathogens and infectious diseases for your immediate information that are known to infect dogs and cats both live and dead that can/do infect humans too. We hope you can put this information above to some use as we are, lobbying governments around the world in pet meat consumption zones to now ban such trades before more people die or more deadlier diseases emerge placing human security in danger of death.
Recorded Deaths and Incidents from Pet Meat Consumption
Accidental deaths and virus/disease related
2014 - September - Nigeria.
Case - Accidental/Deliberate
FIVE persons, a man and two of his children and two others were confirmed dead on Friday in the village of Uchenyim , Wanikade, North Ukelle in northern Cross River State after eating the meat of a dog.
Reports from the area said the dog was fond of eating the eggs laid by native chicken in the Odareko-Uchenyim village and one of the villagers allegedly laced the eggs laid by his chicken with gamalin 20 insecticide and as expected, “the dog ate the eggs and fell ill and when it was about to die the owner quickly killed and prepared it into a delicacy which he, his family consumed and some neighbors consumed”
2007 - October - Namibia.
Case - Diseased dog meat
Sixty-eight people in Namibia found out the hard way that eating a dog that has died of disease is not a good idea. The people from two Namibian villages ended up in hospital after “eating a dog that had died of disease”.
Said mutt from Oikokola in the Omusati region was killed by its owner last Saturday after falling ill, and he duly ordered the carcass to be incinerated. However, the iron stomached people of Oikokola insisted there was nothing wrong with eating a diseased dog.
Throwing all caution to the wind they decided to invite the neighbouring village over to share the feast. After chowing down the health of 68 of them rapidly deteriorated forcing them to get medical treatment. The more serious cases required hospitalisation.
Happily, local councillor Bernadinus Shekutamba Shikongo said “many of the people have since recovered”, while the director of health of the Oshana Region, Dr Naftali Hamata, duly warned against “eating dog meat and the carcass of any sick animal”. Dog meat is considered a delicacy in Northern Namibia, and people continue to enjoy its delights, despite animal rights campaigners’ objections.
2008 - January - Madhya Pradesh - India.
Case - Contamination from dog with rabies left over 80 ill after consuming goat meat. Accidental
After the New Year, the villagers in Multai decided to eat a goat though it was bitten by a dog. Almost 80 persons became sick and many even showed signs of rabies. The story is quite intesting. One, Kundlik Rao owned the goat. But a mad dog bit this goat and a buffalo the same day. Three days after the buffalo died and later the condition of the goat also worsened.
But Rao sold the goat to some persons of the same village who slaughtered it for a grand bash. They ate the mutton curry. No less than 80 persons consumed the mutton. From January 3 onwards they started falling sick one after the other. From vomiting to fits, the victims’ condition began to deteriorate. But in remote village in Multai (Betul) in Madhya Pradesh, there was no doctor anywhere near their village. The closest town was also far away.
The 30 persons whose condition had worsened were taken to a place near the village where a witch-craft practitioner gave them ‘medicine’, which was nothing but bhabhut (holy ash). Villagers developed signs of rabies. Now when the condition of most these persons became critical, the district administration realised the gravity of situation. Their blood samples were sent for test though doctors admit that such delay can cost them dear and some of them may lose their life.
Case - Unsolved.
October - 2013 - China.
Case - Woman dies from eating infected cat meat
Last year a 32-year-old woman named Yang made headlines when she died in Wah Hospital, Guangzhou from eating cats. Her body was dark purple. Wah Hospital neurologist Dr. Kang told reporters that this is pneumonic plague and the death rate is very high. Yang’s family members said they had been eating cats with no plague symptoms, but Professor of Infectious Diseases, Chen Jumei confirmed that Yersinia Pestis (plague) can lie dormant in the cat’s body.
August - 2012 - India
Case - A potentially life threatening case of food poisoning from dog meat was uncovered.
Five people held with carcasses, comatose dogs;
When local residents near the Jakkur airfield stopped a man who had an unconscious dog slung over his shoulders on Saturday morning, they were hardly prepared for what was to follow. The moment he was questioned, the man dropped the animal and sprinted into a hut at the far end of an open field. When the residents who gave chase caught up with him, they were shocked to discover nine more dogs in a semi-conscious state tied to trees around the hut.
Inside the hut were three men and a woman. Asked what was going on, they explained in faltering Kannada that they were from Hindupur in Andhra Pradesh. Claiming to be pig farmers, they said they were taking the strays to guard the pigs.
Even as they were spinning this yarn, one of the residents discovered a pile of malodorous gunny bags in a nearby storm-water drain. He opened the bags and found putrefying carcasses of 10 dogs inside.
Convinced that this was part of some sinister plot, the residents called the Amruthahalli police. The police too were not sure how to handle the case and called in the Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike’s Animal Husbandry Department.
BLOOD, TISSUE SAMPLES
The department’s Joint Director Parvez Ahmed Piran reached the spot and took samples of blood and tissue from the dead dogs as well as from those tied to the trees. The Amruthahalli police said based on Dr. Piran’s advice, they registered a case against the five under various sections of the Indian Penal Code as well as the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
Dr. Piran told The Hindu, “There is a strong suspicion that these dogs were being killed for their meat.” There are several dhabas on Bellary Road and the gang might have been supplying the meat to some of these eateries, he added.
While dog meat is not harmful by itself and indeed is a delicacy in some cultures, Dr. Piran said: “These dogs appear to have been drugged. Tests will reveal what drugs were used. If people ate this meat, they could fall seriously ill.” He said the dead dogs must have been injected with an overdose. The other possibility, Dr. Piran said, was that the dog carcasses were being used as compost by nearby vineyard owners. “Dead dogs are said to be very good fertilizer for grapevines,” he pointed out.
The arrested persons have been identified as Narayanamma, Lakshmana, Madappa, Redappa and Anji.
In January 2005, MLCs cutting across party lines expressed concern after a discovery that several eateries in the city were passing off dog meat as mutton. The discussion was held during Zero Hour by the then Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Council D.H. Shankaramurthy. The issue had come to light after the arrest of one Anand from Andhra Pradesh, who was found stealing dogs from the city’s neighborhoods and selling them to eateries.
August - 2014 - China.
Case - Dog hunters with contaminated meat caught is just the tip of a very large iceberg
Chinese police have dismantled a gang that hunted down dogs with poisoned darts before selling their contaminated carcasses to restaurants. Seventeen men pleaded guilty to trading in “toxic dog meat” at a court in the eastern province of Zhejiang, state media reported on Wednesday. Seven of those men were allegedly members of an urban hunting team that prowled the streets of cities in east China in search of dog meat that eventually found its way onto restaurant tables. The group was responsible for slaughtering at least 95 dogs in Ningbo, a major port city, between 2012 and August last year, the court heard. The hunters confessed to using cyanide and tranquilizer darts they had purchased online to subdue or kill their prey. It is unclear if anyone had fallen ill after consuming such meat. Chinese state owned media are very reluctant to press on this issue in fear of losing finance of which the Chinese government have been noted as being involved in the pet meat industry.
September - 2005 - Philippines
Case - Nine people taken ill after eating rabid dog.
Nine people who ate a neighbor’s dog are being monitored in a hospital isolation ward in the southern Philippines after the canine’s owner died of rabies, a local official said. Farmer Teresita Estanol, 48, died Friday, said Mayor Efren Pinol of the town of Magpet. The dog bit Estanol in mid-August, and days later her angry neighbors, apparently unaware that it had rabies, killed the animal and ate it, the mayor said. Dog meat is a delicacy in some parts of the Philippines.
Un-regulated pet meat trade poses more of a danger to human and animal life than the regulated trade of say cattle. When humans embark on such trades they do so at their own risk and its these risks that must now be addressed with trades banned rather than regulated. Rabies will continue to be the worlds largest killing virus within the developing worlds such as Asia and Africa. The viruses listed above seem to have gone rather unnoticed by many conservation and animal welfare organisations. While I myself accept that rabies is a rather concerning virus that must be controlled within Africa and Asia so too must food hygiene and public health security.
We live within a world that see’s humans populating faster and faster by the day, space is running out, and while humans continue to over-populate, land decreasing in size it opens the doors up for an array of unhealthy and deadly virus to form. Its only a matter of time now before we see a super virus emerging from such unregulated trades. When that happens we are most certainly going to see a very large loss of human life.
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